office of Stuttgart (''Stapoleitstelle Stuttgart''). Over the next year, Kappler began to be noticed by his superiors and at this time was first introduced to Reinhard Heydrich (although some sources state Kappler knew Heydrich for some time before). In 1937, Kappler (now an SS-Oberscharführer (Staff Sergeant)) was sent by his Gestapo superiors to attend the ''Führerschule der Sicherheitspolzei'' (Leadership School of the Secret Police) in Berlin from which he graduated in the summer of 1937 as a certified ''Kriminalkommissar'' (Criminal Commissioner). This set the stage for further advancement and Kappler was commissioned a Gestapo officer, with the rank of SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant), on November 9, 1938 (the traditional anniversary of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch). * Nazi Party number: 594,899 * Primary positions: Gestapo, Sicherheitspolizei, RSHA * Waffen-SS service: None Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were arrested and jailed at the penal camp for enemies of the regime at Amersfoort. Kleiman was released after seven weeks, but Kugler was held in various work camps (Durchgangslager) until the war's end. On April 7, 1945, the Soviet press published the "Declaration of the Special Government Commission charged with the inquiry into the crimes committed by the German-Fascist aggressors during their occupation of the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic". This document devotes a chapter to the persecution and murder of Jews. The declaration lists Nazis held responsible for the crimes committed in Latvia under German occupation. They include Lohse, the Reich Commissioner for Ostland; Friedrich Jeckeln, chief of police (HSSPF) for Ostland; Drechsler, Commissioner General for Latvia; Rudolf Lange, chief of the security police (Sicherheitspolizei); Krause, chief of the Riga ghetto and commandant of the Salaspils concentration camp; Sauer, commandant of the Kaiserwald concentration camp; and several dozen other Nazi criminals involved in the destruction of Latvian Jewry. On January 26, 1946, the military tribunal of the Baltic Military District began a trial of a group of Nazi war criminals, among them Jeckeln, one of the men responsible for the Rumbula massacre at the end of 1941. He and six others were sentenced to death by hanging; the sentence was carried out in Riga on February 3, 1946. Other trials were held in the postwar Latvian SSR, but altogether only a small number of Germans and Latvians who had taken part in the murder of Latvian Jewry were brought to justice.
), completed in 1966 67 Following the end of the war, Stahleck Castle was first used to billet French soldiers, before returning to use as a youth hostel in November 1947. The Health and Welfare Ministry of Rhineland-Palatinate opened a youth leadership school at the castle in January 1948 to train prospective hostel managers and staff, but was forced to close it at the end of the same year because of the state's poor financial situation. The hostel itself, however, was unaffected. In 1957 the castle offered 270 beds and 60 emergency spaces and was thus the third largest youth hostel in Rhineland-Palatinate, after those in Koblenz and Mainz. In terms of overnight stays, it was in second place with 32,276. * 2000-08-10 to 2000-08-13 : Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany (Eurofurence 6) * 2001-07-22 to 2001-07-25 : Kirchen (Sieg), Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany (Eurofurence 7) * 2002-08-15 to 2002-08-18 : Oberbernhards, Hesse, Germany (Eurofurence 8) The '''Diocese of Mainz''' is a diocese of the Catholic church in Germany. It was created in 1802 with the abolition of the old Archbishopric of Mainz. The diocese is suffragan to the Archdiocese of Freiburg; its district is located in the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The seat of the diocese is in Mainz at the Cathedral (Mainz Cathedral) dedicated to Saints Martin (Saint Martin of Tours) and Stephen (Saint Stephen). '''Daubach''' lies in the southern Hunsrück north of Bad Sobernheim and is part of in the district of Bad Kreuznach in the Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. The '''Saar''' ( commons:Rheinland-Pfalz
Sergeant)) was sent by his Gestapo superiors to attend the ''Führerschule der Sicherheitspolzei'' (Leadership School of the Secret Police) in Berlin from which he graduated in the summer of 1937 as a certified ''Kriminalkommissar'' (Criminal Commissioner). This set the stage for further advancement and Kappler was commissioned a Gestapo officer, with the rank of SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant), on November 9, 1938 (the traditional anniversary of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch). * Nazi Party number: 594,899 * Primary positions: Gestapo, Sicherheitspolizei, RSHA * Waffen-SS service: None Family József Antall was born to an ancient Hungarian family from the lower nobility. His father, József Antall Sr. jurist and civil servant, worked for the government in several ministries. Antall, Sr. coordinated the first living wage calculations in Hungary, and he was a founding member of the Independent Smallholders' Party (1931)). During World War II, he presided the government committee for refugees. After the German occupation of Hungary he resigned; later he was arrested by the Gestapo. After the war, he became Minister of Reconstruction in the government of Zoltán Tildy. Later, he became president of the Hungarian Red Cross, but after the communist coup he resigned and retired to his family estate. In 1991, he was posthumously honoured by Yad Vashem. Arrested by the Gestapo in November 1942, Borotra was deported to a concentration camp in Germany and then Itter Castle in North Tyrol until May 1945. thumb right Christian X of Denmark Christian X (File:Christian X.jpg) riding through Copenhagen on his birthday in 26 September 1940, during World War II. During World War II Copenhagen was occupied by German troops (Occupation of Denmark) along with the rest of the country from April 9, 1940, until May 4, 1945. In August 1943, when the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were sunk in Copenhagen Harbour by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent them being used by the Germans. Operation Carthage (the bombardment of the Shellhouse, the headquarters of the Gestapo) took place on March 21, 1945, by British de Havilland Mosquito bombers. During this attack the French School at Frederiksberg was also mistakenly bombed resulting in the death of many children. On 8 May 1945 Copenhagen was officially liberated by British airborne troops who supervised the surrender of 250,000 German armed forces across Denmark of which near on 30,000 were situated around the capital. Kitty Schmidt had been sending money to British banks with fleeing refugees ever since the Nazis (Nazism) took over. When she eventually decided to leave the country on June 28, 1939, SD agents arrested her at the Dutch border and took her to Gestapo HQ. There Schellenberg made her an offer: either cooperate with the Nazis or be sent to a concentration camp. Also, the concept of the Gestapo using a brothel full of spies to find traitors within the Nazi regime has been recycled numerous times in various European nazi exploitation films. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).
'' (Leadership School of the Secret Police) in Berlin from which he graduated in the summer of 1937 as a certified ''Kriminalkommissar'' (Criminal Commissioner). This set the stage for further advancement and Kappler was commissioned a Gestapo officer, with the rank of SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant), on November 9, 1938 (the traditional anniversary of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch). * A plea bargain in a US court reveals details of an alleged Libyan plot to assassinate Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Abdullah (Abdullah of Saudi Arabia). Leading US Muslim activist Abdurahman Alamoudi, founder of the American Muslim Council, admits taking part in the plot, as he pleads guilty to three charges of illegal dealings with Libya. US Attorney General John Ashcroft says the case has provided "critical intelligence" in the war on terror. (BBC) * The Olympic Stadium (Olympic Stadium, Berlin) in Berlin is given a new lease of life after a four-year renovation. The stadium is to stage the Football World Cup 2006 final, Germany's biggest sporting spectacle since reunification, exactly 70 years after the infamous Nazi Olympics (1936 Summer Olympics). (BBC) * Valve & Sierra's joint WON (World Opponent Network) system was permanently shut down, and replaced by VALVE's (Valve Corporation) new Steam Client (Steam (software)). Steam (software) Lexell left St. Petersburg in late July 1780 on a sailing ship and via Swinemünde arrived in Berlin, where he stayed for a month and travelled to Potsdam, seeking in vain for an audience (Audience (meeting)) with King Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia). In September he left for Bavaria, visiting Leipzig, Göttingen, and Mannheim. In October, via Strassburg he arrived in Paris, where he spent the winter, and in March 1781 he moved to London. After spending three months in England, in August he left for Belgium, where he visited Flanders and Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), then moved to the Netherlands, visited The Hague, Amsterdam, and Saardam, and then returned to Germany in September. He visited Hamburg and then got aboard a ship in Kiel to sail to Sweden; he spent three days in Kopenhagen on the way. In Sweden he spent some time in his native city Åbo, and also visited Stockholm, Uppsala, and the Åland Islands. In early December 1781 Lexell returned to St. Petersburg, after having travelled for almost a year and a half. '''Ronaldo da Costa''' (born June 7, 1970 in Descoberto, Brazil) broke the ten-year-old marathon (Marathon (sport)) world record in 1998 in Berlin. The record was previously held by Belayneh Densamo from Ethiopia at the Rotterdam Marathon in April, 1988. The time is still the fastest time by a non-African born athlete. http: www.iaaf.org statistics toplists inout o age n season 0 sex M all y legal A disc MAR detail.html IAAF All Time Marathon List In 2007, she released a highly-praised album of music written by composers imprisoned in the Nazi "model" ghetto of Theresienstadt concentration camp (also known as Terezin) prior to their transportation to the death camp of Auschwitz. She collaborated on this project with Christian Gerhaher (baritone) and chamber musicians. She has explained that the material has special personal meaning for her as her father, a Swedish diplomat in Berlin during World War II, had attempted unsuccessfully during the war to spread information that he had received from SS officer Kurt Gerstein about the Nazi death camps. Lebrecht, Norman. "Tales of the Recording Angel." 31 October 2007. ''The Lebrecht Report.'' Accessed on 17 August 2011 at: http: www.scena.org columns lebrecht 071031-NL-angel.html *KWI for Brain Research, founded 1914 in Berlin by Oskar Vogt. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research. *KWI for Cell Physiology, founded 1930 in in Dahlem (Dahlem (Berlin)), Berlin by Otto Heinrich Warburg and the Rockefeller Foundation. *KWI for Chemistry, founded 1911 in Dahlem. It is now the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, also known as the Otto Hahn Institute. Archipenko moved to Nice in 1914. In 1920 he participated in ''Twelfth Biennale Internazionale dell'Arte di Venezia'' in Italy and started his own Art school in Berlin the following year. In 1922 Archipenko participated in the ''First Russian Art Exhibition'' in the Gallery van Diemen in Berlin together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Solomon Nikritin, El Lissitzky and others. In a last-ditch attempt to save the country, the Prague government deposed Tiso as Slovak premier, replacing him with Karel Sidor. A few days later, amid massive German provocations, Hitler invited Tiso to Berlin and urged him to proclaim Slovakia's independence. Hitler added that if Tiso didn't do so, he would have no interest in Slovakia's fate. During the meeting, Joachim von Ribbentrop passed on a (false) report saying that Hungarian troops were approaching Slovak borders. Tiso refused to make such a decision himself, after which he was allowed by Hitler to organize a meeting of the Slovak parliament which would approve Slovakia's independence. Early life Wilhelm Solf was born into a wealthy and liberal family in Berlin. He attended secondary schools in Anklam in western Pomerania and in Mannheim. He took up the study of Oriental languages, in particular Sanskrit at universities in Berlin, Göttingen and Halle (Halle, Saxony-Anhalt), earning a doctorate in philology in the winter of 1885. Under the supervision of the well-known Indologist Richard Pischel, he wrote an elementary grammar of Sanskrit. Early life Wilhelm Solf was born into a wealthy and liberal family in Berlin. He attended secondary schools in Anklam in western Pomerania and in Mannheim. He took up the study of Oriental languages, in particular Sanskrit at universities in Berlin, Göttingen and Halle (Halle, Saxony-Anhalt), earning a doctorate in philology in the winter of 1885. Under the supervision of the well-known Indologist Richard Pischel, he wrote an elementary grammar of Sanskrit. In 1995, the band signed up to No Fashion Records and started preparing songs for a full-length album. After an attempt to record ''The Secrets of the Black Arts'' at Uni-Sound studios (again with Dan Swanö), the band decided to relocate to Abyss Studio and re-record the entire album. During the break between studio sessions, the band wrote the song ''When Angels Forever Die''. With engineer Peter Tägtgren (Hypocrisy (Hypocrisy (band))) on board, the band finally got the production they were looking for. Shortly after, Dark Funeral played their first festival gig, Under The Black Sun I in Berlin. A few weeks prior to this gig Emperor Magus Caligula (Magnus 'Masse' Broberg, the original vocalist of Hypocrisy (Hypocrisy (band))) replaced Themgoroth and eventually became a permanent member. The band also shot their first video for the track "The Secrets Of The Black Arts", which was well received and played on music channels all over the world. Commons:Category:Berlin Wikipedia:Berlin Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Berlin
Wrestling (WCW) and World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). The '''National Outdoor Leadership School''' ('''NOLS'''), is a non-profit outdoor education school based in the United States dedicated to teaching environmental ethics, technical outdoor skills, safety and judgment, and leadership on extended wilderness expeditions. NOLS runs a very wide range of courses and has trained more than 120,000 students.