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, with their individualizing Protestant religions, found it easier to exploit the slaves and to draw hard and fast social categories. But Mintz argued that the treatment of slaves had to do instead with the integration of the colony into the world economic system, the degree of control of the metropolis over the colony, and the intensity of exploitation of labor and land (Mintz, 1974a:59-81). In collaboration with anthropologist Richard Price, Mintz considered the question of “creolization” (a term used to describe the blending of two or more cultural traditions to create a new one) in Afro-American culture in the book ''The Birth of African-American Culture: An Anthropological Approach'' (Mintz and Price 1992, first published in 1976 and first delivered as a conference paper in1973). There, the authors qualify anthropologist Melville J. Herskovits’s view that Afro-American culture was mainly African cultural survivals. But they also oppose those who claimed African culture was stripped from the slaves through enslavement, such that nothing “African” remains in Afro-American cultures today. Combining Herskovits’s cultural anthropological approach and the structuralism of anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, Mintz and Price argued that Afro-Americana is characterized by deep-level “grammatical principles” of various African cultures, and that these principles extend to motor behaviors, kinship practices, gender relations, and religious cosmologies. This has been an influential model in the ongoing anthropology of the African diaspora (see Yelvington 2001). '''Tyrone Downie''' is a Jamaican keyboardist pianist who is most known for his involvement as a member of Bob Marley and The Wailers. Foster, Chuck (1999) ''Roots Rock Reggae'', Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7831-0, p. 66, 116 He studied at Kingston College and joined the wailers in the mid-1970s, making his recording début with the band on ''Rastaman Vibration'', having previously been a member of the Impact All Stars. He has also played with The Abyssinians, Beenie Man, Black Uhuru, Moskowitz, David V. (2006) "Tyrone Downie", in ''Caribbean Popular Music: an Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rock Steady, and Dancehall'', Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-33158-8, p. 92-3 Buju Banton, Peter Tosh, Junior Reid, Tom Tom Club, Ian Dury, Burning Spear, Steel Pulse, Alpha Blondy, Tiken Jah Fakoly and Sly & Robbie. He currently resides in France and is a member of the touring band of Youssou N'Dour, whose album ''Remember'' he produced. "Wailers bands carry on tradition for survival", ''Jamaica Gleaner'', 19 July 2009, retrieved 2010-10-31 He was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst and served in the military in Barbados, the Windward Islands, and Jamaica with the 57th Foot. He started his colonial service while in Jamaica and became Lieutenant-Governor of St. Lucia in 1847. He became Lieutenant-Governor of the Cape Colony in South Africa in 1851. He became Governor of Newfoundland (Colony of Newfoundland) in 1855. The dish is also known as "escoveitch" or "escoveech fish" in Jamaica, and is marinated in a sauce of vinegar, onions, chayote, carrots and scotch bonnet peppers overnight, since it is a traditional breakfast dish. And as "escabecio", "scapece" or "savoro" in Italy, "savoro" in Greece and "scabetche" in North Africa. John Grant, the eldest son of Patrick Grant of Glenlochy, in Strath Spey, Inverness-shire, and whose principal wealth was made in Jamaica, was for several years a member of the Assembly there, becoming an assistant Judge of Jamaica's Supreme Court, and eventually succeeded Thomas French as Chief Justice of that island in January 1783, which office he held until 1790. Also, in 1783, he was confirmed as an armiger by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Grant purchased, towards the end of the 18th century, from the Murray and Craigie families, the contiguous estates of '''Kilgraston''' and Pitcaithly, situated in the east end of the beautiful and rich valley of Strath Earn, and extending over part of the Ochil Hills. He died issueless at Edinburgh on March 29, 1793, and is buried under a marble tablet in St Cuthbert's Church (The Parish Church of St Cuthbert)yard. He was succeeded in his estates by his brother Francis (d. 1819, who built the mansion. *'''Predator''' - A new robot named Hunter assembles a team of humans and journeys to the age of dinosaurs to find the first component robot, MC 1, before his actions in the late Cretaceous alter the course of Earth's zoology. *'''Marauder''' - Hunter pursues MC 2 to 17th-century Port Royal (Port Royal, Jamaica), Jamaica, in the time of privateers and buccaneers. *'''Warrior''' - Hunter and his team travel to Germany in the year A.D. 9 (9 (year)) to stop MC 3 from interfering at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. The noctuid (Noctuidae) moth '''''Ascalapha odorata''''' bears the common name '''Black Witch'''. It is considered a harbinger of death in Mexican and Caribbean folklore. In Spanish it is known as "Mariposa de la muerte" (Mexico & Costa Rica) Daniel H. Janzen ''Costa Rican Natural History'' Pages 679 & 687, University of Chicago Press, 1983 ISBN 0226393348 Original from University of Texas, Digitized Mar 26, 2008 - Accessed via GoogleBooks September 5, 2008 , "Pirpinto de la Yeta" (Argentina), "Tara Bruja" (Venezuela) or simply "Mariposa negra" (Colombia); in Nahuatl (Mexico) it is "Miquipapalotl" or "Tepanpapalotl" (''miqui'' death, black + ''papalotl'' moth); in Quechua (Quechua language) (Peru) it is "Taparaco"; in Mayan (Yucatec Maya language) (Yucatán) it is "X-mahan-nail" (''mahan'' to borrow + ''nail'' house) Charles L. Hogue ''Latin American Insects and Entomology'' Page 323, University of California Press, 1993 ISBN 0520078497 - Accessed via GoogleBooks September 5, 2008 ; in Jamaica and the Caribbean, the moth is known as the "Duppy Bat" or "Money moth" The Black Witch Moth: Its Natural & Cultural History, by Mike Quinn . Other names for the moth include the Papillion-devil, La Sorcière Noire, or the Mourning or Sorrow moth. '''Christina Koning''' is a novelist and short story writer who has reviewed extensively for the UK national press. Koning was born in Kuala Belait , Borneo, in 1954, and spent her early childhood in Venezuela and Jamaica. She was educated at Girton College, Cambridge, and the University of Edinburgh – the setting for her first novel. Since the early 1990s, she has worked as a travel writer and journalist – most recently for The Times. She has also taught Creative Writing at the University of Oxford and Birkbeck, University of London. Koning has appeared as a critic on BBC Radio 4’s Woman’s Hour and has also had stories broadcast on Radio 4; her stories have also appeared in ''New Writing''. Stevens additionally named the album ''Foreigner'', because he took up residency in Brazil as a tax exile. He recorded ''Foreigner'' in Jamaica. On 9 November 1973, Stevens performed the song on ABC (American Broadcasting Company)'s ''In Concert (In Concert (TV series))'', a 90–minute program they named the ''Moon & Star'', including the full 18 minute "Foreigner Suite" without commercial interruption. commons:Jamaica


At age 20 Alcione moved to Rio de Janeiro. There she worked at the city's TV Excelsior, and later went on tour in Argentina and Chile for four months. On returning to Brazil, she settled in São Paulo, working in nightclub and making appearances on television. In 1970, she started her two-year tour in Europe, performing as a vocalist and a trumpet artist. In 1972, when back to Brazil, Alcione recorded her first single. The following year, she traveled to sing in Mexico and, in 1974, Portugal, where she recorded her first full-length album. In 1975 Alcione released her LP (Vinyl record), ''A Voz do Samba'', which achieved gold sales status and featured several hit tracks. The most successful songs were ''Não Deixe o Samba Morrer'', written by Edson and Aloiso, and ''O Surdo'', written by Totonho Paulinho Resende. It would seem that Hines' last-ever recording was on 29 December 1981. At São Paulo, Brazil, when Hines was aged 78: ''One O'clock Jump'' with Eric Schneider and the 150 Band on "Fatha's Birthday" (source: Tom Lord, ''The Jazz Discography'') In the Americas, it is present in seven countries: Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The issue was regarding Bolivia's large natural gas reserves and the prospect for their future sale and use. The Bolivian gas reserves are the second-largest in South America, after Venezuela, and exploration after the privatization of the national oil company YPFB showed that proven natural gas reserves were 600 percent higher than previously known. The cash-poor state-owned company could not afford the exploration costs. These reserves are mainly located in the south-eastern Tarija Department, which contains

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