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Portuguese India

is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. Somnath is one of the 12 Jyotirlings in India. The other equally famous & important town to Hindus is Dwarka, where Lord Krishna is worshipped. Palitana is sacred to the Jains & is one of a kind in India, with hundreds of temples atop a hill. Sasan Gir located in the Gir Forest is a staging post for Lion Safaris, being the only habitat of the Asiatic Lion in Asia. 109 Buddhist caves, including those at Kanheri, can be found


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0CE8Q6AEwAQ and during the Communist Czechoslovakia times "The political control of Czechoslovakia", 1953,famous&dq hranice+military+academy+-wikipedia+-famous&hl en&ei xf3fTr6wE4XZiQLz7LTwDg&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 3&ved 0CFQQ6AEwAg p.72 the city had a military academy. Notable graduates include Wilhelm von


subset of the community has wielded enormous influence in the locally-owned economic sector, with one famous — if largely discredited — study of companies on the Jakarta Stock Exchange concluding that as many as 70% of its companies (and, by extension, the country) were controlled by ethnic Chinese. They have thus been subject to persecution, with Chinese forcibly relocated into urban areas in the 1960s, forced to adopt Indonesian names and bans imposed on teaching Chinese and displaying Chinese characters. Anti-Chinese pogroms have also taken place, notably in the 1965-66 anti-Communist purges after Suharto's coup and again in 1998 after his downfall, when over 1,100 people were killed in riots in Jakarta and some other major cities. However, the post-''Reformasi'' governments have overturned most of the discriminatory legislation, and Chinese writing and Chinese festivals have made a reappearance, with the Chinese New Year having been declared a public holiday nationwide since 2003. While most of the Javanese Chinese only speak Indonesian, many of the Chinese in Sumatra and Kalimantan still continue to speak various Chinese dialects. To this day, many people feel resentment of, and sometimes even threatened by, the supposed ascendency of the Chinese. However, a sign of a new climate of greater tolerance may be detected in the October 2014 election to office of a new Jakarta Governor often known by his Hakka Chinese affectionate nickname of ''Ahok''. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, to give him his proper Indonesian name, was not born in Java and is only the second Christian to be the Governor of Jakarta. His brave fights against corruption and transparent honesty have endeared him to many locals. Culture thumb 300px ''Wayang kulit'' shadow puppetry, Solo (Image:WayangKulit Scene Zoom.JPG) There is no one unified Indonesian culture as such, but the Hindu culture of the former Majapahit empire does provide a framework for many of the cultural traditions found across the central islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok. Perhaps the most distinctively "Indonesian" arts are '''''wayang kulit''''' shadow puppetry, where intricately detailed cut-outs are used to act out scenes from the ''Mahabharata'' and ''Ramayana'' and other popular Hindu folk stories, and its accompaniment the '''''gamelan''''' orchestra, whose incredibly complex metallic rhythms are the obligatory backdrop to both religious ceremonies and traditional entertainment. Indonesia is culturally intertwined with the Malays (Malaysia), with notable items such as ''batik'' cloth and ''kris'' daggers, and Arabic culture has also been adopted to varying degrees thanks to Islam. Let's not forget the impact of Buddhism, the Portuguese, the English, the Japanese, the Chinese and, of course, the Dutch. Words from these can be found in Indonesian as well as in ethnic languages, and ethnic languages spill over into Indonesian, but only rarely have a national dispersion. The process of standardisation of language and culture in Indonesia has made headway as communications between villages and islands have become easier, and many areas that use to use only local languages now use Indonesian, too. Yet regional cultures remain strong in many areas, and probably will for the foreseeable future. For the visitor to Indonesia, the regional diversity is a wonderful thing, as cultures as different as those of Flores (Flores (Indonesia)), Bali, Sunda (West Java), Minangkabau (West Sumatra) and the Toba Batak (Lake Toba) country can be experienced on a single trip, with adequate time and planning. The variety of cultural, historical and religious sites and experiences, the vast array of traditional handicrafts, and the variety of activities one can experience in Indonesia are truly amazing. One interesting cultural experience is the Baduy (BAH-doo-ee) settlement in the province of West Java. This Sundanese city is characterised by people who reject technology and all its trappings, including deodorant! Visitors are welcome, but there are some restrictions such as a ban on the use of technology. This ban is most strictly enforced in the middle of the city, but also (to a lesser degree) in the outer parts. Culture hounds will find Ubud, a city on Bali to be an excellent place to go, but there are so many cultural experiences in Indonesia that it's almost impossible to make a list. Modern-day Indonesian popular culture is largely dominated by the largest ethnic group, the Javanese. Suharto's ban on Western imports like rock'n'roll, while long since repealed, led to the development of indigenous forms of music like ''dangdut'', a sultry form of pop developed in the 1970s, and the televised pelvic gyrating "''ngebor''" of singer Inul Daratista in 2003 was nearly as controversial as Elvis once was. '''Anggun Cipta Sasmi''' is a talented Indonesian singer who became famous in France. Her single "La neige au sahara" became a top hit on the European charts in the summer of 1997. '''Agnes Monica''' is an energetic dancer, actress and singer who recently performed a duet with Michael Bolton and gained international fame. Most Indonesian films are low-budget B-rated movies, although both the number of film productions and quality have increased steadily. "Daun di Atas Bantal" (1998) won the "best movie" award at the 1998 Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei, Taiwan. '''The Raid, Redemption''' (Indonesian: Serbuan maut), also known as ''The Raid'', was released in 2011 at the Toronto International Film Festival and has international distribution. This Indonesian ''action film'' had a production budget of GBP1.1 million. It was written and directed by Gareth Evans (''UK'') and starred Iko Uwais. Evans and Uwais released their first action film, '''Merantau''' in 2009. Both films showcase the traditional Indonesian martial art, Pencak Silat, which comes in numerous different flavors, and Iko's skills got the attention of Jackie Chan. thumb 300px Sundanese traditional singing performance (Image:SambaSunda Quintett in Cologne (0244).jpg) Indonesian literature has shown considerable domestic success as themes got more liberal and freedom of speech was expanded, but not a lot has made its way onto the world stage. Torch-bearer '''Pramoedya Ananta Toer''''s works were long-banned in his own homeland, but the post-Suharto era has seen a small boom. One notable example is '''Ayu Utami''''s ''Saman'', breaking both taboos and sales records right in the midst of Soeharto's fall. Perhaps the best example would be '''Andrea Hirata'''s '''Laskar Pelangi''' (2007): both the series of books and the movies are praised in Indonesia and around the globe. Probably the most important (although not universal) cultural feature present in most of the archipelago that you should be aware of is that of "face" or "honour," which stems from the principle of harmony. Harmony is considered so important that religious prohibitions on lying take a back seat to protecting someone's honour, which can be looked down on by foreigners. Harmony is, simply put, the effort to maintain peaceful co-existence and pleasant relationships. The harmonious organization of society is in fact the fundamental basis of ''wayang kulit'' plots and performances, and those of related traditional dramas, although some of these traditional values have been somewhat weakened in the process of transition from kingdoms through dictatorship to today's more democratic form of government. Nevertheless, conflict resolution is handled much differently than many foreigners might expect - don't expect that things will be done the way you are accustomed to. Religion thumb right 300px The Istiqlal Mosque and the Jakarta Catholic Cathedral at the center right are across each other to symbolize the harmony in religious diversity. (File:Istiqlal Mosque Monas.jpg) It is expected that people here have a religion, especially since the first principle of the ''Panca Sila'' ("five principles") is: "Ketuhanan yang maha esa", roughly translated as "There's only one god," so don't feel offended if someone asks you about your religious beliefs. Be careful, however, to avoid making disparaging remarks about any of the official religions, as the law protects them from such comments and you don't want to spend time in jail. Roughly 88% of the population of Indonesia state their religion as being Islam, making it numerically by far the largest religion in the nation and Indonesia the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. Nevertheless, Indonesia officially remains a secular state, with all the state-sanctioned religions, at least theoretically, given equal status under Indonesian law. Although religious orthodoxies do vary across the Indonesia archipelago, the strict observance of Islamic dress codes apparent in some countries is generally absent. In larger cities, headscarves and overt manifestations of faith are exceptions rather than the rule. In some regional areas and the devout state of Aceh, things can be considerably stricter. Despite being nominally Muslim, many local stories and customs which are Hindu, Buddhist or animist in origin are faithfully preserved by much of the population. During the 5 obligatory "''adzhan''" (call to prayer) and the subsequent time of prayer, it is expected that people will stop whatever they are doing, but this is not enforced in most places. The other five state-sanctioned religions are Protestantism (5%), Roman Catholicism (3%), Hinduism (2%), Buddhism (1%) and Confucianism (1%). Hindus are concentrated on Bali, while Christians are found mostly in parts of North Sumatra, Papua, North Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, and Kalimantan. Buddhism, on the other hand, is mainly practiced by the ethnic Chinese in the larger cities, such as Bandung and Semarang. There are also some people in various parts of the country who practice traditional animist religions exclusively, and many Indonesians practice a form of Islam or Christianity that is syncretised with animistic or and Hindu beliefs that their ancestors had previously followed. In Java, this animistic belief system is called Kejawen, and while it is popular, it is condemned by the more strictly orthodox practitioners. Indonesian national law decrees that all citizens of the Republic must declare their religion and that the declared religion must be one of the six that are officially sanctioned by the state. This results in obvious distortions. For example, many animist practitioners notionally call themselves Muslim or Christian for the benefit of the state bureaucracy. There is some strife between religions, with the occasional bombing of a place of worship - usually mosques and churches, or violent conflicts between different religious groups - but these are isolated and usually happen in areas where travellers do not go. Folk beliefs Folk beliefs - both traditional ones and others recently adopted from other lands - are very much alive and a vital part of Indonesian culture(s). These are just a few examples of Indonesian folk beliefs and practices: The use of paranormals as well as ''dukun'' (medicine men, shamans or wizards) for both the black and white magic persuasions, and medical needs, is frequent, and there are even "reality" TV programs that feature Muslim clerics doing battle with invisible supernatural beings, which are usually bottled up and a painting or drawing is shown of the creature later, which is usually created by another Muslim cleric who makes the picture while blindfolded. Many people also believe that ''keris'' (wavy-bladed daggers traditionally made from the metal in a meteorite) and special rings with any one of a number of types of stones and gems affixed to them contain magical beings of limited intelligence and specific powers for the owner. These ''"makluk halus"'' (supernatural beings) are thought to prefer specific, well-cared for homes in these daggers and rings, and will desert them if the owner doesn't perform proper ceremonies on a specific basis. If the inhabited object or and spirits are neglected or abandoned, the spirits may attack people nearby, which may necessitate a healing ceremony and the propitiation of the spirits. The use of sleight of hand and other trickery is employed by some mystics and traditional healers, and some European and Chinese superstitions have been adopted, such as the fear of the number 13. Another example is a kejawen tradition that has been added to some religions, including Islam, whereby the umbilical cord and afterbirth are put in a clay urn and either hung outside the house from the rafters or buried in the yard with a red light placed over it. It is believed that it is the companion of the baby that was born and the light serves double duty by lighting its way into the afterlife and letting neighbours know the family has a new baby. A crying baby may sometimes be taken to this place to pacify or to provide it with reassurance, and an infant might be bathed at the location on some occasions for the same reason. Holidays Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia

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