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in Washington Heights, Manhattan during the Great Depression. His father often abandoned the family, causing financial and emotional difficulties. He attended DeWitt Clinton High School and graduated at the age of sixteen. Kipen, David. "Flawed look at career of blacklisted director", ''San Francisco Chronicle'', August 29, 2001. Accessed September 14, 2009. "The American 20th century went to high school at DeWitt Clinton High in the Bronx. Multicultural before there was a name for it -- at least a polite one --Clinton nurtured such diverse and influential figures as Bill Graham, James Baldwin, George Cukor, Neil Simon and Abraham Lincoln Polonsky." DATE OF BIRTH July 4, 1927 PLACE OF BIRTH The Bronx, New York City, USA (United States) DATE OF DEATH United States law enforcement officials announced the arrest Thursday of four men in connection with a plot to blow up two synagogues in The Bronx (w:The Bronx), a borough of New York City (New York, New York), and shoot down military airplanes flying out of the Stewart Air National Guard Base (w:Stewart Air National Guard Base). thumb left Satellite photo of Stewart Air National Guard Base (File:Stewartafb-ny-20apr1994.jpg)


tragic situations. However, she believed this to be an evil affliction and wished to enter a nunnery to cleanse herself. Angelus sensed her purity and became obsessed with destroying her, as Drusilla had the potential for sainthood. Angelus tortured and killed Drusilla's entire family, causing her to flee to a convent in Prague. On the day she was to take her holy vows, Angelus made her watch as he killed every person in the convent and engaged in sexual relations with Darla (Darla (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)). The trauma of Angelus's atrocities drove Drusilla insane, and Angelus chose to turn her into a vampire (vampire (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)), as he considered her a masterpiece, a testament to his talent. Shortly after Angelus is cursed with a soul, Spike and Drusilla (unaware of the ensoulment) go their separate ways from Darla and Angel. At some point before their arrival in Sunnydale in late 1997, Drusilla is attacked and severely injured by an angry mob in Prague, leaving her in a weakened and frail condition. Spike cares for her, and the couple decide to travel to the Hellmouth (Hellmouth (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)) in hopes that its energy will help to restore Drusilla's strength and health. Biography Otto Klemperer was born in Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia Province, then in Germany (German Empire) (now Wrocław, Poland). Klemperer studied music first at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, and later at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin under James Kwast and Hans Pfitzner. He followed Kwast to three institutions and credited him with the whole basis of his musical development. Otto Klemperer site In 1905 he met Gustav Mahler while conducting the off-stage brass at a performance of Mahler's ''Symphony No. 2, 'Resurrection' (Symphony No. 2 (Mahler))''. He also made a piano reduction of the second symphony. Opera. Feb 1961, p 89 The two men became friends, and Klemperer became conductor at the German Opera in Prague in 1907 on Mahler's recommendation. Mahler wrote a short testimonial, recommending Klemperer, on a small card which Klemperer kept for the rest of his life. Later, in 1910, Klemperer assisted Mahler in the premiere of his ''Symphony No. 8 (Symphony No. 8 (Mahler))'', ''Symphony of a Thousand.'' thumb Plate from ''Système silurien du centre de la Bohême'' (File:Joachim Barrande01.jpg) Barrande was born at Saugues, Haute Loire, and educated in the École Polytechnique at Paris. Although he had received the training of an engineer, his first appointment was that of tutor to the duc de Bordeaux (afterwards known as the comte de Chambord), grandson of Charles X (Charles X of France), and when the king abdicated in 1830, Barrande accompanied the royal exiles to England and Scotland, and afterwards to Prague. Settling in that city in 1831, he became occupied in engineering works, and his attention was then attracted to the fossils from the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Bohemia. The district of Prague, ''Barrandov'', was named in honor of the scientist on 24 February 1928. date 8 November 1620 place Bílá Hora, near Prague (present-day Czech Republic) result Decisive victory for Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor Prelude Emperor Matthias wanted his dynastic heir Ferdinand II appointed to the royal throne of Bohemia and Hungary. Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian estates to become the Crown Prince in 1617, and automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia. This did not sit well throughout the Protestant population in Bohemia because they thought that they would lose the rights given to them because of the new Catholic King. Ferdinand II viewed Protestantism as the main problem in his realms. King Ferdinand was also the Holy Roman Emperor and since he held this title he took seriously the duties which came with it. For him, the preservation of The Roman Catholic Church was most important as Holy Roman Emperor. He viewed the Protestant political stature in his realm as an issue involving 'protests' or rebellion against imperial authority. He hoped to bring about the conversion of subjects of the Catholic Lords from Protestantism back to the Catholic Church. The dissension within his estates was an ever daunting domestic issue. Most of his realms in Bohemia were primarily Protestant. These areas under King Ferdinand’s rule were under separate individual constitutions thus giving them separate regional traditions. Johnson, Lonnie. Central Europe enemies, neighbours, friends. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Print. With the majority of his subjects being of the Protestant faith, they had apprehended their lands from the Roman Catholic Church in their initial confiscations of monastic properties at the beginning of the Reformation; they were resistant to their newly elected Catholic King and his tendency to favor the centralization of their region. Catholicism was no longer proscribed but was being actively promoted and both church and local properties seized by King Ferdinand’s royal throne. None were as rebellious as the Protestant Hungarian subjects in Transylvania. However it was Bohemia which became the first to act on these religious and domestic interests in fomenting a rebellion. The conflict known as the Second Defenestration of Prague was a dispute between Bohemian Nobles and the crown in 1618 over a royal guarantee made by one of King Ferdinand’s predecessors Rudolf II ensuring religious freedom throughout Bohemia. Helfferich, Tryntje. The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett Company, Inc., 2009. Print. This conflict resulted in Bohemian nobles throwing King Ferdinand’s appointees and his secretary out of a window in the royal castle in Prague. They survived only because they fell into a heap of manure thus saving their lives. This incident sparked a national struggle known as the Bohemian Revolt. Guthrie, William P. Battles of the Thirty Years War from White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001. Print. Battle The Bohemian estates organized an army of 30,000 men in determination to fight for their liberties, as they saw them. Ferdinand II set to make an example of this Bohemian Revolt and countered the Bohemian Army by sending 25,000 men, many of them seasoned soldiers, to crush the revolt. They included the future philosopher René Descartes. These trained soldiers were under the leadership of Catholic Spanish-Flemish nobleman, Field Marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly. The army made straight for Prague, the capital of Bohemia, which was in the hands of the rebels. The Bohemian army attempted to block the Imperial army by setting up a defensive position on a hill. However, the Imperial army simply ignored the Bohemian army, and bypassed the hill. Christian of Anhalt then force-marched the Bohemian army and managed to get ahead of the Imperial army (Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire) just before Prague. The Bohemian army again tried to set up a defensive position, but had little time, and morale was low. As the Imperial army approached, Tilly divided his men into two distinct squads: The Imperials (Holy Roman Empire) and the Catholic League (Catholic League (German)) troops. The Catholics, Ferdinand’s army, pushed forth without great bombardment of artillery. Anhalt opened the battle by sending forward infantry and cavalry, led by Anhalt's son. The cavalry charged into the Imperial infantry, causing significant casualties. Tilly; however, quickly brought up his own Cavalry, forcing the Bohemian cavalry to retire. The Bohemian infantry, who were only now approaching the Imperial army, saw the Cavalry retreating, at which they fired one volley at extreme range before retreating themselves. The Catholic Imperial Cavalry, amounting to 400 or so, circled the Protestant forces, pushing them closer into the middle of the battle. With the Bohemian army already at a low morale, company after company started retreating, most without having even entered the battle. With the Protestant forces steadily diminishing, Tilly and his 400 Imperial cavalrymen moved with the 2000 hussars which the Bavarians had brought to the battle. Tilly’s men steadily pushed the rebel forces back to the Star Palace where the rebels tried to establish a final defense but failed. The Battle of White Mountain was more of a skirmish than a fully-fledged battle. The Bohemian army was no match for King Ferdinand's troops. The actual battle lasted only an hour and left the Bohemian army in tatters. Some 4,000 Protestants were killed or captured while Catholic losses amounted to roughly 700. Guthrie, William P. Battles of the Thirty Years War from White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001. Print. thumb left The 27 tributary crosses. (Image:Tribute to the 27 victims.jpg) Survivors of the battle soon reached Prague, causing a general panic. Some rebel commanders tried to set up a defense, but they received little support. Frederick V of Bohemia and his entourage, leaving the crown jewels behind, slipped out of Prague quietly, disappearing into the stream of refugees who were fleeing the imminent Imperial takeover of Prague. When the Imperial army (Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire) arrived, it was able to enter Prague without resistance. thumb right Funeral Crown of Stephen V of Hungary (File:Funeral Crown of Stephen V Hungarian King.jpg) After his father's death (3 May 1270), Stephen inherited the whole Kingdom of Hungary, although the deceased senior king had entrusted his daughter, Anna and his followers to King Ottokar II of Bohemia in his last will, and they had escaped to Prague before Stephen arrived to Esztergom. death_date Dmoz:Regional Europe Czech Republic Regions Prague Commons:Category:Prague Wikipedia:Prague

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