; Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. After the reorganization, the ''Großdeutschland'' Division was assigned to XLVIII. Panzerkorps (German XLVIII Panzer Corps) during the opening phases of Fall Blau, the assault on Stalingrad. The division took part in the successful attacks to cross the upper Don river (Don River, Russia) and to capture Voronezh. In August, the division was pulled back to the north bank of the Donets and held as a mobile reserve and ''fire-brigade'' counterattack force. During the combined Soviet winter offensives Operation Uranus and Operation Mars, the Division was involved in heavy winter fighting near Rzhev. The Division sustained heavy losses in the Rzhev salient, effectively making the division combat ineffective. It was pulled out of the lines and refitted. ''Sonderkommando'' 7a ''Sonderkommando'' 7a led by Walter Blume, was attached to the 9th Army (9th Army (Wehrmacht)) under General Adolf Strauß. SK 7a entered Vilna on 27 June and remained there until 3 July. Soon Vilna was in the command sphere of ''Einsatzgruppe'' A, and ''Sonderkommando'' 7a was transferred to Kreva near Minsk. The ''Sonderkommando'' was active in Vilna, Nevel, Gorodoik, Vitebsk, Welish, Rzhev, Vyazma, Kalinin, and Klinzy. It executed 6,788 people. thumb right 300px ''Relief of Smolensk'' by Polish forces, by Juliusz Kossak (Image:Juliusz Kossak Odsiecz Smolenska.jpeg). While both countries were shaken by internal strife, many smaller factions thrived. Polish Lisowczycy mercenaries, who were essential in the defense of Smolensk in 1612, when most of regulars (wojsko kwarciane) mutinied and joined the ''konfederacja rohatynska'', were content to guard the Polish border against the Russian incursions for the next three years. However, in 1615 Aleksander Józef Lisowski gathered many outlaws and invaded Russia with 6 ''chorągiew'' of cavalry. He besieged Bryansk and defeated the relief force of few thousand soldiers under Prince Yuri Shakhovskoy near Karachev. Then Lisowski defeated the front guard of a force several times larger than his own, under the command of knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky, who decided to defend instead of attack and fortified his forces in a camp. Lisowczycy broke contact with his forces, burned Belyov and Likhvin, took Peremyshl (Peremyshl, Russia), turned north, defeated the Russian army at Rzhev, proceeded north towards Kashin, burned Torzhok, and, heavy with loot returned to Poland without any further opposition from Russian forces. Lisowski and his forces remained at the Russo–Polish border until autumn 1616, at which point Lisowski suddenly fell ill and died on 11 October The formation was then known as ''Lisowczycy''. Despite the death of Lisowski, his forces remained a significant threat: in 1616 they captured Kursk and defeated Russian forces at Bolkhov. '''Rzhev Battles''' ( 2.67 16 October 1942, in the days of Battle of Stalingrad the division was assigned to front-line airfields near Andreapol, Tver Oblast and subordinated to Mikhail Gromov (Mikhail Gromov (aviator))'s Third Air Army targeted against Rzhev and Smolensk. The division entered combat 29 October Kamanin's first personal combat sortie in World War II occurred 28 December 1942, against Velikiye Luki railroad station. The division was engaged in the Battle of Velikiye Luki and Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive, which ended in German evacuation of Rzhev bridgeheads at an enormous cost to Red Army. 292nd division, credited with saving Soviet offensive at Bely, Tver Oblast (8 December) and other tactical successes, was slowly bleeding, losing 20 pilots and 35 aircraft in two months, with no replenishments until January 1943. Refit division served against Demyansk Pocket, 15–23 February 1943. 1 March 1943, Kamanin was summoned to Moscow again and passed command of 292nd division to Filipp Agaltsov, future Marshal of Aviation (Military ranks of the Soviet Union). On 15 September 1941 von Thoma was made Army High Command Leader Reserve, his duties being determined by the Commander of Wehrkreis (Military District) III, Berlin. On 14 October 1941 he was made Commander of the 20th Panzer Division (German 20th Panzer Division) on the Eastern Front. Succeeding Generalmajor Horst Stumpff as divisional commander, von Thoma led his new command on the drive on Moscow that began on 15 November 1941. Despite the onset of a brutal winter, the Germans doggedly advanced on Moscow from the north and the south in an attempt to close pincers around the Russian capital. However, the increasing cold, fierce local counter attacks, and lack of reserves slowed the advance. On 6 December, the Russians launched the first of a series of major counter offensives that forced the Germans back from Moscow. By the end of the month, von Thoma had received the coveted Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for organizing and holding a new defensive position on the Ruza River despite being closely pursued by strong Soviet forces. On 15 January 1942, Hitler finally bowed to the inevitable and authorized his freezing and exhausted armies to slowly pull back in measured stages to the Rzhev–Gzhatsk–Orel (Oryol)–Kursk Königsberg Line. After continuing to serve on the Moscow front, von Thoma relinquished command of the 20th Panzer Division to Generalmajor Walther Düvert.
. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Gingerbreads are known in Russia. The most famous gingerbreads there are baked in the ancient cities Tula (Tula, Russia) (Tula gingerbread), Vyazma, and Gorodets. Khovansky came from a senior Gediminid family, whose ancestors moved from Podolia to Moscow in 1408. He started his employment under Mikhail I (Michael I of Russia) as a stolnik. In 1650 he was sent to Tula (Tula, Russia) to counter the raids of Crimean Tatar (Tatars#Crimean Tatars)s. In 1651–1654 he was governor in Vyazma, and in 1656 he was governor of Mogilev. The Russian historian A. Lobin tried to calculate the size of the Russian army at Orsha based on the mobilisation capacities of the towns which had to send townspeople for military services. Лобин А. Н. К вопросу о численности вооружённых сил Российского государства в XVI в. Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana 2009 Nr 1-2. pp.45-78 It is known that except for Boyar sons of the sovereign's regiment there were people of 14 towns: Novgorod, Pskov, Velikie Luki, Kostroma, Murom, Borovsk, Tver, Volok (Volokolamsk), Roslavl, Vyazma, Pereyaslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Kolomna, Yaroslavl and Starodub. Лобин А. Н. К вопросу о численности вооружённых сил Российского государства в XVI в. Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana 2009 Nr. 1-2. pp. 63-64 Based on the data of the well-documented Polotsk campaign of 1563 the author gives following numbers: 400–500 Tatars, 200 boyar sons of the sovereign's regiment, 3,000 Novgorodian and Pskovians, and about 3,600 representatives of other towns, altogether about 7,200 noblemen. Complemented with servants the overall number of the Russian army could be 13,000-15,000 men. Considering the losses during the campaign, the abandonment of service which is documented in the sources and the number of soldiers left as garrison in Smolensk the number of Russian troops present at Orsha could be about 12,000 men. align "center" 100px (Image:Borisgodunov.jpg) align "center" c.1551, Vyazma, Russia align "center" Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya 2 children ''Sonderkommando'' 7a ''Sonderkommando'' 7a led by Walter Blume, was attached to the 9th Army (9th Army (Wehrmacht)) under General Adolf Strauß. SK 7a entered Vilna on 27 June and remained there until 3 July. Soon Vilna was in the command sphere of ''Einsatzgruppe'' A, and ''Sonderkommando'' 7a was transferred to Kreva near Minsk. The ''Sonderkommando'' was active in Vilna, Nevel, Gorodoik, Vitebsk, Welish, Rzhev, Vyazma, Kalinin, and Klinzy. It executed 6,788 people. ''Einsatzkommando'' 9 The ''Einsatzkommando'' was active in Vilna, Grodno, Lida, Bielsk-Podlaski, Nevel, Lepel, Surazh, Vyazma, Gzhatsk, Mozhaisk, Vitebsk, Smolensk, and Varena. It executed 41,340 people. **'''Uglich''' - Constantine, Prince of Uglich (1331–1364) **'''Vyazma''' - Fëdor Svyatoslavič, Prince of Vyazma (1326 1343–1346)*'''Meskheti''' (Diakeli Dynasty) - Kwarkware I, King of Meskheti (1334–1361) *'''Mingrelia''' (Dadiani Dynasty) - Mamia I, King of Mingrelia (1323–1345) - 24th Army (24th Army (Soviet Union)) 15 July 1941 1943 The army headquarters, formed from Headquarters Siberian Military District; under General Staff instructions of 25.06.41 arrived on 28.06.41 at Vyazma, accepting on arrival in this area six Siberian rifle divisions of the high command reserve. Involved in the Yelnya Offensive, August-September 1941. HQ disbanded 10 October 1941, having been destroyed in the Vyazma Pocket. Reformed again, then redesignated as HQ 58th Army on August 28, 1942; David Glantz, personal correspondence, December 2007 Soon afterwards reformed again from 9th Reserve Army and ended up in the Stalingrad area. Then redesignated 4th Guards Army on 16 April 1943 (Glantz, 2005, p. 511), or May 1943 (Perechen) - thumb right 200px Hetman (Image:HetmanChodkiewicz.jpg) Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, sketch by Juliusz Kossak. Eventually the Commonwealth Sejm voted to raise the funds necessary to resume large scale military operations. Sigismund's and Władysław's final attempt to gain the throne was a new campaign launched on 6 April 1617. Władysław was the nominal commander, but it was hetman Chodkiewicz who had actual control over the army. In October, the towns of Dorogobuzh (''Дорогобуж'', ''Drohobuż'', ''Drohobycz'') and Vyazma (''Вязьма'', ''Wiaźma'') surrendered quickly, recognizing Władysław as the tsar. However, the Commonwealth forces suffered defeats between Vyazma and Mozhaisk, and Chodkiewicz's plans for a counterattack and an advance to Moscow failed. Władysław did not have enough forces to advance to Moscow again, especially because the Russian support for the Poles was all but gone by that time. In response to Władysław's invasion, the burghers of Smolensk revolted against Polish rule, and the Polish troops had to fight their way back as they retreated from the city. However, in 1617 Polish forces, besieged in Smolensk by Russian forces, were relieved by Lisowczycy, when Russian forces retreated to Biała soon after receiving news that Lisowczycy, then commanded by Stanisław Czapiński, had appeared in the area. In 1618 Petro Sahaidachny's campaign against Muscovy resulted in sacking numerous forts such as Putivl, Kursk, Yelets, and others. Together with Chodkiewicz he laid the siege to Moscow in September 1618. Due to the unclear reasons both Hetmans failed to take the city. Negotiations began and a peace treaty was signed in 1618. '''Rzhev Battles''' (
defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. birth_date December 31, 1948 birth_place Bryansk, Russian SFSR occupation Pilot (aviator) '''Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev''' page 118, accessed: 14 November 2008 thumb left Aleksey Trubetskoy was the godparent godfather (File:Young peter.jpg) of Peter I of Russia. Young Peter with royal (Regalia) regalia. In 1654 Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy on the side of Alexis I of Russia led the southern flank of the Muscovite army from Bryansk to Ukraine. The territory between the Dniepr and Berezyna was overrun quickly, with Aleksey Trubetskoy taking Mścisław and Rosławl. In 1654 the former Principality of Trubetsk was finally conquered by Aleksey Trubetskoy, Prince of Trubetsk himself, as a result of the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667). In 1656 the second Muscovian (Muscovite Tsardom) army advanced in the north of Swedish Livonia and besieged Tartu. In 1659 a Muscovite army, led by Aleksey Trubetskoy, crossed into Ukraine and was partly defeated by a Ruthenian (Principality of Ruthenia)–Tatar (Crimean Tatars) army led by Ivan Vyhovsky in the Battle of Konotop. In 1659 he negotiated the Second Treaty of Pereiaslav with Yurii Khmelnytsky. In 1659 Aleksey Trubetskoy together with Ivan Sirko, who went to Zaporozhian Sich in 1654, and became a polkovnyk (colonel), fought against the Crimean Khanate.
a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district), Minsk Belarus *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district) in the following Russian cities: Astrakhan, Barnaul, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Grozny, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov (Kirov, Russia), Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Penza, Perm, Rostov-na-Donu, Samara (Samara, Russia), Saransk, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Tambov, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir (Vladimir, Russia), Vladivostok, Voronezh, Yaroslavl and Yekaterinburg *'''Závody V. I. Lenina''' (V. I. Lenin Works) – now Škoda Plzeň (Škoda Works), Plzeň Czech Republic In 1946 Shukshin left his native village and worked as a metal craftsman at several enterprises in the trust Soyuzprommekhanizatsiya: at the turbine plant in Kaluga, at the tractor plant in Vladimir, etc. In 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy (Soviet Navy). He first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet, then a radio operator on the Black Sea. In 1953 he was demobilized due to a stomach ulcer and returned to his native village. Having passed an external exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian, and later a school principal in Srostki. #Oktyabrsky City District, Izhevsk, a city district of Izhevsk, The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer saloon bodies (Sedan_(automobile)) such as Brazil and China.
stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver
or ''Podul de la Giurgiu'') is a steel truss bridge over the Danube River connecting the Bulgarian bank to the south with the Romanian bank to the north and the cities of Ruse (Ruse, Bulgaria) and Giurgiu respectively.
the besieged city of Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad) (now Volgograd) by the German Sixth Army (6th Army (Wehrmacht)) and there meet up with the relief Operation Wintergewitter. ''Donnerschlag'' was to be the code word for the commencement of ''Operation Wintergewitter''. The operation was downgraded and converted into a defensive stance after Hermann Göring's boast that the ''Luftwaffe'' would resupply the surrounded troops at Stalingrad. This effort eventually failed totally
accessdate 11 June 2007 During the first round, Miguel went on the offensive, scoring hits on Abdullaev's head and body while he was in a defensive stance. In the fourth round, a left hook by Miguel hurt Abdullaev, who proceeded to focus his hits on Cotto's body. Abdullaev's offense was effective in the sixth and seventh rounds and as a result of this, Cotto assumed a defensive stance. ref name "Abdullaev
), advocating that Li Mi take a defensive stance, refusing to engage Wang and draining Wang's food supplies. Zheng rejected the proposal, and the proposal apparently was never submitted to Li Mi. Subsequently, when Li Mi engaged Wang, Wang defeated him. Believing that he could no longer hold out against Wang, Li Mi fled to Tang Dynasty territory and surrendered to Emperor Gaozu of Tang. Wei followed him to Tang territory. Subsequently, with Li Mi's major general Xu Shiji (Li Shiji) (later known as Li Shiji) still holding the Liyang region, Wei requested that Emperor Gaozu send him to Liyang to persuade Xu to submit to Tang as well. Xu did so. However, despite the apparent Later Tang strength that the destruction of Former Shu showed, Emperor Zhuangzong's rule was actually becoming destabilized due to the soldiers' discontent toward his failure to implement his prior promises of rewards to them for their achievements in destroying Later Liang and Former Shu, and the discontent was further exacerbated by the subsequent executions of Guo and another major general, Li Jilin (Zhu Youqian) the Prince of Xiping by Emperor Zhuangzong and his wife Empress Liu (Empress Liu (Zhuangzong)). Thereafter, Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother Li Siyuan (Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang) rebelled at Daming (大名, in modern Handan, Hebei). By summer 926, another mutiny at the capital Luoyang caused Emperor Zhuangzong to die in battle. Li Siyuan subsequently declared himself emperor (as Emperor Mingzong). ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 275 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷275). At some time prior to 700, Zhang was serving as the secretary general of Jing Prefecture (荊州, roughly modern Jingzhou, Hubei), when, on one occasion, Wu Zetian was having a conversation with the senior chancellor (chancellor of Tang Dynasty) Di Renjie, asking Di's recommendation for someone with extraordinary talent, to serve as chancellor or general. Di responded, "As far as literary talent is concerned, Your Imperial Majesty already have them in Su Weidao and Li Jiao Di's fellow chancellors , but if you truly want extraordinary talent, I know Zhang Jianzhi, the secretary general of Jing Prefecture. Even though he is old, he is capable of being chancellor." In response, Wu Zetian promoted Zhang to be the military advisor to the prefect of the capital prefecture Luo Prefecture (洛州, roughly modern Luoyang, Henan), sending Yang Yuanyan (楊元琰) to replace him. (When Yang reached Jing Prefecture, Zhang and Yang rowed a boat on the Yangtze River together, and they secretly discussed Wu Zetian's overthrow of Tang Dynasty. During the conversation, Yang expressed sentiment that he wanted to see Tang's restoration—a sentiment that Zhang kept in his mind for later.) A few days after Zhang's promotion, Wu Zetian was again asking Di for a recommendation, and Di responded, "I had just recommended Zhang Jianzhi, and Your Imperial Majesty has not yet promoted him." She responded, "I already did." Di responded, "I recommended a chancellor, not a military advisor." Wu Zetian then, while not promoting Zhang to be chancellor at that time, promoted him to be the deputy minister of justice (秋官侍郎, ''Qiuguan Shilang''). Failed attempt to guide Emperor Shun onto the right path Emperor Shun, whose disposition was generally meek but weak, quickly himself became controlled by those eunuchs and officials around him, who were largely corrupt. Sun despised this situation, and in 126, when the eunuch Zhang Fang (張防) was accused of corruption by the governor of the capital district, Yu Xu (虞詡) but instead turned the situation around and convinced Emperor Shun that Yu had falsely accused him and should be sentenced to death, Sun and another eunuch who helped restore Emperor Shun, Zhang Xian (張賢), interceded at great personal peril to themselves. Yu was spared, while Zhang was exiled. However, officials who were close to Zhang then attacked Sun and his fellow eunuch-marquesses of being overly arrogant. Emperor Shun therefore sent them out of the capital Luoyang, to their marches. Of the 19, Sun alone became sufficiently enraged by this development that he had his marquess seal and emblems returned to the emperor and secretly stayed in the capital, looking to find another chance to try to guide the emperor onto the right path. He was soon captured, but Emperor Shun, remembering his accomplishments, simply sent him back to his march without further punishment, but also without listening to his advice on stamping out corruption. * Weiyang Palace (未央宮 - "The Endless Palace"), in (Han) Chang'an (長安), now 7 km 4 miles northeast of downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace of the prestigious Western Han Dynasty for two centuries. This is the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 km² (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City, or 11 times the size of the Vatican City. * Southern Palace (南宮) and Northern Palace (北宮), in Luoyang (洛陽), Henan province: imperial palaces of the Eastern Han Dynasty for two centuries, the Southern Palace being used for court hearings and audiences, the Northern Palace being the private residence of the emperor and his concubines. * Taiji Palace (太極宮 - "The Palace of the Supreme Ultimate"), also known as the Western Apartments (西内), in (Tang) Chang'an (長安), now downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace during the Sui Dynasty (who called it Daxing Palace - 大興宮) and in the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (until A.D. 663). Area: 4.2 km² (1,040 acres), imperial section proper: 1.92 km² (474 acres). In 145, the young Emperor Chong died, and in an effort to be open to people, Empress Dowager Liang announced his death openly immediately. She summoned the young emperor's third cousins Liu Suan (劉蒜), the Prince of Qinghe, and Liu Zuan (劉纘), the son of Liu Hong (劉鴻) the Prince of Bohai, to the capital Luoyang, to be examined as potential successors. Prince Suan was probably an adult, and was described as solemn and proper, and the key officials largely favored him. However, Liang Ji wanted a young emperor whom he could control, so he convinced Empress Dowager Liang to make the seven-year-old Liu Zuan emperor (as Emperor Zhi (Emperor Zhi of Han)). Empress Dowager Liang continued to serve as regent. Strategies As the stalemate was reached again, Cao Cao's emissary returned to the capital Luoyang with a letter from Sun Quan, which informed Cao that Sun planned to attack Guan Yu from his rear, Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)). Sun Quan asked Cao Cao to keep this secret so that Guan Yu would not be prepared, and most of Cao Cao's advisors agreed with the plan. However, Dong Zhao (Dong Zhao (Three Kingdoms)) objected, pointing out that Liu Bei and Sun Quan would also be the two adversaries of Cao Cao despite the temporary subjection of Sun Quan to Cao Cao. For the long term goal, it would be in the best interest of Cao Cao to weaken both adversaries, instead of letting one adversary become too strong in the long run. In the short run, if Guan Yu knew about Sun Quan's attack in his rear, he would certainly withdraw his army to reinforce his home base in Jing Province, and the siege of Fancheng would be lifted. In addition, Fancheng was under siege for some period of time, and the morale of Cao Cao's forces was low. If this critical information was not passed along to the defenders, some people inside Fancheng might turn their back on Cao Cao's side, because the food supplies were running out and they knew nothing about the secret agreement with Sun Quan. Furthermore, Dong Zhao pointed out that even if Guan Yu knew Sun Quan's intention, he would not retreat swiftly because of his stubbornness and his confidence on the two cities of Jiangling and Gong'an. Origin Medicine peddler Hometown Luoyang, Henan First appearance Chapter 36 Background Xue Yong is from Luoyang, Henan. He excels in martial arts, in particular, staff (Gun (staff)) and spear (Qiang (spear)) movements. He earns a living as a medicine peddler by performing martial arts and physical feats on the streets to promote the drugs he sells. He is nicknamed "Sick Tiger". Emperor Ai ascended the throne at the age of 11 after his father, the Emperor Zhaozong, was assassinated on the orders of the paramount warlord Zhu Quanzhong (Emperor Taizu of Later Liang) in 904, and while Emperor Ai was emperor, the Tang court, then at Luoyang, was under the control of officials Zhu put in charge. In 905, under the instigation of his associates Liu Can (Liu Can (Tang Dynasty)) and Li Zhen (Li Zhen (Later Liang)), Zhu had Emperor Ai issue an edict summoning some 30 senior aristocrats at Baima Station (白馬驛, in modern Anyang, Henan), near the Yellow River; the aristocrats were thereafter ordered to commit suicide, and their bodies were thrown into the Yellow River. Less than two years later in 907, Zhu made his final move against Emperor Ai himself, forcing the young emperor to abdicate to him. In Zhu's new Later Liang Dynasty, the former Tang emperor carried the title of Prince of Jiyin, but in 908, Zhu had the prince poisoned, at the age of 15. In 904, Zhu forced Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang, which was even more firmly under his control. Later that year, fearing that the adult Emperor Zhaozong would try to rise against him while he was away on campaigns against other warlords, he had Emperor Zhaozong assassinated. Bypassing Li Yu and the other older princes, he had an edict issued in Emperor Zhaozong's name creating Li Zuo crown prince and changing his name to Li Zhu. Shortly after, Li Zhu took the throne (as Emperor Ai). Empress He, who survived the assassination, was honored empress dowager. In the Battle of Central Henan, 390,000 Chinese soldiers, led by General Tang Enbo (汤恩伯), were deployed to defend the strategic position of Luoyang. The 12th Army (Twelfth Army (Japan)) spearheaded by the 3rd Tank Division (3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)) of the IJA crossed the Yellow River around Zhengzhou in late April and defeated Chinese forces near Xuchang, then swung around clockwise and besieged Luoyang. Luoyang was defended by three Chinese divisions. The 3rd Tank Division began to attack Luoyang on May 13 and took it on May 25. - Chinese Empire (Imperial Chinese) China Various, including Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Luoyang, Xi'an, Kaifeng, Zhengzhou -221 BCE 1912 2133 ''Weakened by Western Empires, and the court reluctance for reform, China became a republic in 1912, but continues to occupy most of the area occupied by the Qing dynasty.'' - - Han Dynasty China Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang -206 BCE 220 426 - - Jin Dynasty (265–420) China Luoyang, (265-311) Chang'an, (312-316) Jiankang (317-420) 265 420 155 ''Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn Dynasty, (265-316) Eastern Jìn Dynasty (317-420).'' - - Wei Empire (Cao Wei) China Luoyang 220 265 45 ''See also Three Kingdoms''. - Family background and marriage to Emperor Ling The later Empress Song was born into a clan that was honored, but not particularly powerful, during the Eastern Han Dynasty. Her father Song Feng (宋酆) was a grandnephew of Consort Song, the imperial consort of Emperor Zhang (Emperor Zhang of Han) who gave birth to his first crown prince Liu Qing (Liu Qing (prince)). During the early reign of Emperor Ling, he served as the commander of the capital (Luoyang) defense forces. Her aunt was the wife of Prince Liu Kui (劉悝) of Bohai, the brother of Emperor Ling's predecessor Emperor Huan (Emperor Huan of Han). Domination by Empress Dowager He and He Jin Emperor Ling died in 189 and was succeeded by his 13-year-old son, Liu Bian (Prince of Hongnong) (born to Empress He (Empress He (Ling))), who became known as Emperor Shao. Empress He, now empress dowager, became regent to the young emperor, while her older brother, General-in-Chief He Jin, became the most powerful official in the imperial court. He Jin and Yuan Shao plotted to exterminate all the Ten Attendants, a group of ten influential eunuch officials in the court, but Empress Dowager He disapproved of their plan. In a fateful move, He Jin summoned Dong Zhuo, a warlord controlling the battle-tested Liang Province (涼州; covering present-day Gansu), to march on the capital Luoyang to threaten Empress Dowager He into eliminating the Ten Attendants. After the eunuchs discovered He Jin's plot, they lured him into the palace and murdered him. In response, Yuan Shao led the imperial guards on an indiscriminate massacre of the palace eunuchs. The surviving eunuchs kidnapped Emperor Shao and his younger brother, the eight-year-old Prince of Chenliu (raised by his grandmother Empress Dowager Dong), and fled north towards the Yellow River, but were finally forced to commit suicide by throwing themselves into the river. In the spring of 190, several provincial officials and warlords formed a coalition against Dong Zhuo, claiming that he was set on usurping the throne and had effectively kidnapped Emperor Xian. Yuan Shao, Administrator of Bohai (渤海; covering present-day Cangzhou, Hebei), was nominated to be the leader of the coalition. The coalition armies was stationed at Henei (河內; in present-day Jiaozuo, Henan) and appeared to be ready to move on the capital Luoyang. However, the coalition was actually rather disorganized, and Yuan Shao did not have effective command over the entire alliance. Besides, the coalition members were also hesitant to directly confront Dong Zhuo and his strong Liang Province military. Still, Dong Zhuo was anxious and chose to move the capital to Chang'an in the west to avoid the coalition. About a month later, Dong Zhuo forced Emperor Xian and the imperial court to move to Chang'an, along with Luoyang's residents, and in the process, he ordered the former capital to be destroyed by fire. During the move, Dong Zhuo remained near Luoyang, ready to resist any coalition attacks on him. In 191, the coalition tried to further de-legitimize Dong Zhuo's position by offering to enthrone Liu Yu (Liu Yu (warlord)), who was eligible to be Emperor since he was a member of the royal clan. Liu Yu remained faithful to Emperor Xian and firmly declined to take the throne. As the coalition members continued to bicker over battle plans, a minor general under Yuan Shu, Sun Jian, took a calculated risk and attacked Dong Zhuo directly near Luoyang. After scoring a number of victories over Dong Zhuo's forces, Sun Jian eventually forced Dong to retreat to Chang'an, and Luoyang came under the coalition's control. In 195, turmoil ensued in Chang'an when Li Jue and Guo Si killed Fan Chou together, and later turned against each other. Li Jue held Emperor Xian hostage while Guo Si kidnapped the imperial officials, and both sides engaged in battle. Later that year, Li Jue and Guo Si made peace and agreed to allow Emperor Xian to return to the old capital, Luoyang, but later regretted their decision and pursued him. While Li Jue and Guo Si were never able to capture Emperor Xian again, the imperial court was rendered poor and unable to fend for itself. As Luoyang had been previously devastated by fire during Dong Zhuo's time, the city lacked the basic essentials of life and many officials starved to death or resorted to cannibalism. Around this time, Ju Shou suggested to Yuan Shao to welcome Emperor Xian to his province so that he could take effective control of the government. However, Guo Tu and Chunyu Qiong opposed Ju Shou's view, claiming that if Yuan Shao brought Emperor Xian to his territory, he would need to yield to the emperor on key decisions and follow proper court protocol. Yuan Shao remained hesitant and did not come to a conclusion on whether to receive the emperor or not. In 757, a joint Tang-Huige army recaptured Chang'an and then the eastern capital Luoyang, forcing An Lushan's son and successor An Qingxu to flee to Yecheng (Ye, China). Tang forces put Yecheng under siege, and Li Siye, one of the Tang commanders at the siege, made Duan the prefect of Huai Prefecture (懷州, in modern Jiaozuo, Henan) to be responsible for logistics—the shipping of food supplies from the area to the army at Yecheng. In spring 759, Li Siye died in battle during the siege. The Anxi army supported Li Siye's subordinate Lifei Yuanli (荔非元禮) to take over the command, and Emperor Suzong agreed. Duan remained as Lifei's deputy. Subsequently, at Duan's request, Li Siye's casket was sent to Hezhong (河中, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), where it was buried in grand ceremony at Duan's expense. This touched Lifei greatly, and he recommended Duan for a promotion in rank. In 762, while a number of armies were at Hezhong, including the Anxi army, Lifei was killed in an army mutiny, along with many other officers, but the soldiers respected Duan and did not dare to harm him. Subsequently, Bai Xiaode (白孝德) was put in command of the Anxi army, and Duan remained as Bai's deputy. This continued after Bai was made the military governor of Fufang Circuit (鄜坊, headquartered in modern Yan'an, Shaanxi). Meanwhile, Emperor Jingzong continued to, in addition to games, have a desire to tour the realm, despite the pleas from advisory officials not to do so. For example, in 825, despite many pleas not to, he visited Mount Li (驪山). He also continued to prepare for a visit to the eastern capital Luoyang, even though such visits required great expenses — since the eastern capital, long damaged by campaigns ever since the Anshi Rebellion, required extensive repairs to its palace if it were to receive the emperor. Only after that explanation by the chancellor Pei Du in 826, as well as semi-mocking offers by the warlords Zhu Kerong and Wang Tingcou to assist the repairs, did Emperor Jingzong abandon the idea of visiting Luoyang. In 814, Wu Shaoyang died. Emperor Xianzong did not confirm Wu Shaoyang's son Wu Yuanji as his successor. In response, Wu Yuanji began attacking the nearby circuits to create pressure on the imperial government. Emperor Xianzong declared a general campaign against Wu Yuanji. Wu sought aid from Li Shidao and Wang Chengzong, who repeatedly petitioned Emperor Xianzong to pardon Wu Yuanji, to no avail. Li Shidao thereafter retained a group of assassins to carry out guerilla warfare tactics around the eastern capital Luoyang, to try to disrupt the campaign against Zhangyi and to create a sense of terror among the officials and the people. When the imperial pressure on Zhangyi still being unrelenting, with the imperial generals Wu Chongyin and Li Guangyan frequently dealing Zhangyi troops defeats (although imperial troops were unable to decisively defeat Zhangyi), Li Shidao decided to assassinate the chancellor Wu Yuanheng, whom Emperor Xianzong had put in charge of the campaign against Zhangyi, as well as the official Pei Du, a major proponent of the campaign. In summer 814, assassins that Li Shidao sent killed Wu Yuanheng and wounded Pei, terrifying the officials and the people at Chang'an. Emperor Xianzong's resolve against Zhangyi did not change, however, and when he came to believe that Wang was responsible for the assassination, he declared a general campaign against Wang as well. He also promoted Pei to be a chancellor. (Later, after investigations by Lü Yuanying (呂元膺) the defender of Luoyang after a plot by Li Shidao's subordinates to riot at Luoyang was foiled, Emperor Xianzong found out that Li Shidao was responsible for Wu Yuanheng's assassination, but by that point, as he was already waging campaigns against Wu Yuanji and Wang, he could not, and did not, declare yet another campaign against Li Shidao as well at that point.) *Central Aviation School (trainers): 16 Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16, also used as fighters in the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War. *Luoyang Aviation School (trainers): Breda Ba.25, Ba.28 (Breda Ba.25#Variants) *Liuzhou Aviation School (trainers): Around 20 Avro Avian(616 IVM), 6 Avro Cadet, 5 Avro Tutor, 7 Nakajima (Nakajima Aircraft Company) Ko-4 (Japanese license produced Nieuport-Delage NiD 29 C.1) This seal passed on even as dynasties rose and fell. It was seen as a legitimising device, signalling the Mandate of Heaven. During turbulent periods, such as the Three Kingdoms period, the seal became the object of rivalry and armed conflict. Regimes which possessed the seal declared themselves, and are often regarded historically, as legitimate. At the end of the Han Dynasty in the 3rd Century AD, General Sun Jian found the Imperial Seal when his forces occupied the evacuated Han imperial capital Luoyang, in the sequence of the campaign against Dong Zhuo, giving it to his chief, warlord Yuan Shu. When Yuan Shu was defeated, the Seal came into the hands of Cao Cao, whose son Cao Pi proclaimed the Wei Dynasty (Cao Wei) as the legitimate successor state to Han and the other rival dynasties Shu-Han and Wu to be illegitimate. As empress As Emperor Xian continued his reign of being constantly under the control of one warlord or another, he and Empress Fu were apparently in a loving relationship, but both saw their power increasingly becoming minimal. Later in 195, during Emperor Xian's flight back to the old capital Luoyang, Empress Fu was personally carrying silk, which were seized by soldiers ostensibly protecting her—such that even her own personal bodyguards were killed, and their blood splashed on her. When they returned to Luoyang, the court was ill-supplied, and while there is no record indicating that Empress Fu personally was under threat of starvation, a number of imperial officials died of hunger or were killed by robbers. Materially, the court became much better supplied once Cao Cao arrived in 196 and took Emperor Xian and his court under control. Cao relocated the court to his headquarters of Xu (in modern Xuchang, Henan). Family background and marriage to Cao Cao Lady Bian was born in 159 in Baiting (白亭) of Qi commandery (齊郡; in modern Shandong) although her family was registered in Langye commandery (琅琊; in modern southeastern Shandong). Because her family was poor, she was a courtesan in a brothel when she was young. When she was 19, Cao Cao took her as a concubine. In 189, when Cao Cao fled from Dong Zhuo at Luoyang, Yuan Shu spread rumours that Cao Cao had died. Lady Bian refused to believe them and persuaded Cao Cao's followers not to desert him. When Cao Cao came back, he was impressed at her conduct. She bore him four sons—Cao Pi, Cao Zhang, Cao Zhi, and Cao Xiong. After the death of Cao Cao's oldest son Cao Ang, Cao Cao's wife Lady Ding (who was not Cao Ang's biological mother but adopted him as her own) was constantly mournful, and Cao Cao became so displeased that he divorced her. He then made Lady Bian his principal wife. In 219 (after Cao Cao had been created the King of Wei in 216), Emperor Xian of Han created her the Queen of Wei. She was known for her wisdom and humility. She was particularly praised for refusing to celebrate lavishly (as her attendants had suggested) when her son Cao Pi was made Heir in 217. Around this time, Emperor Wen also started preparing for a campaign against rival Northern Wei, seeking to recover several provinces lost to Northern Wei during the reign of Emperor Shao. In spring 430, he put Dao Yanzhi in command of a 50,000-man army to attack Northern Wei. Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, when informed by Emperor Wen's messengers that all Emperor Wen was interested in was to recover the provinces south of the Yellow River, retorted angrily that he would withdraw but return in the winter once the Yellow River froze, and that was what he initially did—withdrawing his armies south of the Yellow River to areas north, allowing Liu Song to recover the four key cities of Luoyang, Hulao, Huatai (滑台, in modern Anyang, Hunan), and Qiao'ao (碻磝, in modern Liaocheng, Shandong) without a fight. Instead of advancing further north against Northern Wei proper, however, Emperor Wen stopped, and stretched his troops to become a Yellow River defense force, even though he had entered into an alliance with Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))'s emperor Helian Ding to conquer and divide Northern Wei. With Emperor Wen's forces inactivte, Northern Wei's Emperor Taiwu was able to attack Helian Ding and greatly damage Xia (eventually leading to its destruction in 431), while his other generals, even in Emperor Taiwu's absence, prepared to counterattack. In winter 430, Emperor Wen's general Du Ji (杜驥), unable to defend Luoyang, abandoned it. Hulao soon also fell. Upon hearing this, Dao retreated, leaving the general Zhu Xiuzhi (朱脩之) defending Huatai alone. In spring 431, Emperor Wen sent Tan north to try to relieve Zhu at Huatai, but with Northern Wei forces cutting Tan's supply route off, Tan was unable to reach Huatai and forced to withdraw as well. Zhu, without support, was soon captured when Huatai fell. Emperor Wen's first attempt to regain the provinces south of the Yellow River had resulted in failure. After Cao Mao became emperor, he gradually established a circle around him—a number of officials who were unquestioned in their support of the Simas, but who might also have something to gain from allegiance to the emperor, including Sima Shi's cousin Sima Wang, Wang Chen (王沈), Pei Xiu, and Zhong Hui. By doing this, he was hoping that he could minimize suspicion against him but at the same time gradually win their heart. In 255, he made a failed attempt to capture power back—when Sima Shi died while at Xuchang, Sima Zhao was at Xuchang as well. Cao Mao issued an edict which, under the rationale that Sima Shi had just defeated Guanqiu and Wen's rebellion and that the southeastern empire was still not complete pacified, ordered Sima Zhao to remain at Xuchang and that Sima Shi's assistant Fu Gu (傅嘏) return to the capital Luoyang with the main troops. Under Fu and Zhong's advice, however, Sima Zhao returned to Luoyang anyway against edict, and was able to maintain control of the government. Indeed, from that point on, he would not let Cao Mao or Empress Dowager Guo to be out of his control, and when Zhuge Dan made a failed rebellion in 257, believing that Sima Zhao would soon usurp the throne, Sima Zhao would insist on the emperor and the empress dowager accompanying him on the campaign against Zhuge. Biography When Luoyang fell under the control of the warlord Dong Zhuo, Sima Lang was able to escape with his entire family. He returned with them to his place of birth and escaped danger. Parthians also played a role in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism from Central Asia to China. An Shih Kao, a Parthian nobleman and Buddhist (Buddhism) missionary, went to the Chinese capital Luoyang in 148 CE where he established temples and became the first man to translate Buddhist scriptures into Chinese (Chinese language). Biography Zhu served as a county clerk in his early career and was noted for his filial piety and modesty. He was soon made a prefecture official and followed Sun Jian on his rise to power. In 188 he was promoted to the rank of Major (司马) and led an army to attack rival armies in Changsha, Lingling (Lingling District), Guiyang (all in present-day Hunan). Zhu was a skilled and successful tactician, and was promoted to the rank of Commandant (都尉) by Sun Jian because of his victories. Zhu assisted in Sun Jian's defeat of Dong Zhuo in the Battle of Yangren, and upon the army's entrance into Luoyang was promoted to the rank of Colonel (校尉), with special command to lead a regiment of cavalry to Xu Province and reinforce its governor, Tao Qian (Tao Qian (Han Dynasty)), in the fight against the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Sun Hao and his clan were escorted to the Jin capital Luoyang. Sun Hao, now a captive, humiliated himself by covering himself with mud and having himself bound behind his back. Jin's Emperor Wu had him unbound and seated next to himself at the next imperial gathering, commenting "I have set this seat for you for a long time." Sun Hao's response was, "I also had a seat for your imperial majesty in Jianye." When the key official Jia Chong, seeking to humiliate Sun, asked him, "I heard that you had such cruel punishments as poking out people's eyes and peeling the facial skin off people. What kind of punishment is this?" Sun's response was, "If a subordinate planned to murder his emperor or was treacherous, I would use those punishments on him." Jia, who was instrumental in Cao Wei's emperor Cao Mao's death, was humiliated and could not further respond. When Liu Yao was young, he, along with his cousin Liu Cong, were studying in the Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) capital Luoyang, when on one occasion he committed an unspecified crime punishable by death. He therefore fled to Chaoxian (朝鮮, near modern Pyeongyang, North Korea -- not, in this case, a generic geographic term for Korea). Later, after a general pardon, he returned, but decided to live in the mountains away from trouble. Late reign In 324, the first real battle between Later Zhao and Han Zhao occurred at Xin'an (新安, in modern Luoyang, Henan), ushering an era in which Later Zhao and Han Zhao would continuously battle for years. In 325, their armies fought a major battle near Luoyang (which the two, as well as Jin, had fought over for months), and after some initial Han Zhao successes, Later Zhao's general Shi Hu decisively defeated and captured Han Zhao's general Liu Yue (劉岳), after Liu Yao himself encountered difficulties with his army discipline and could not come to Liu Yue's aid. Later Zhao took this opportunity to effectively take the modern central Henan, northern Jiangsu, and western Shandong under its control. Wikipedia:Luoyang
Treaty Organization (NATO) which had taken a defensive stance against the Warsaw Pact headed by the Soviet Union. Chambley Air Base was located about ten miles west of the French city of Metz, and just south of the road leading to Verdun near France’s strategic northeastern border with Luxembourg, Belgium, and West Germany. On 25 July 2011, French club Paris Saint-Germain (Paris Saint-Germain F.C.) confirmed that the club had signed Ménez to a three-year contract. Commons:Category:Luxembourg Dmoz:Regional Europe Luxembourg Wikipedia:Luxembourg