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Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

lands throughout the Baroque and Classical periods. Nevertheless, native forms were developing too. In Nuremberg in 1644, Sigmund Staden (Sigmund Theophil Staden) produced the "spiritual pastorale", ''Seelewig'', which foreshadows the ''Singspiel'', a genre of German-language opera in which arias alternate with spoken dialogue. ''Seelewig'' was a moral allegory inspired by the example of contemporary school dramas and is the first German opera whose music has survived. ''Oxford Illustrated History of Opera'', ed. Parker, pp.31–32; ''A Short History of Opera'', chapter on "Early German Opera", pp.121–131; ''Viking Opera Guide'' articles on Schütz and Staden. History In the Middle Ages, Bischofsheim was ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz, but fell to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) in 1579. In 1930 it was incorporated to the city of Mainz, remaining a constituent community of that city until 1945. Since the American and French occupying powers (Allied Occupation Zones in Germany) severed the links between Mainz and the so-called ''Rechtsrheinische Stadtteile von Mainz'' (Mainz constituent communities on the Rhine's right bank) – the Rhine was the boundary between their two occupational zones – these six communities effectively ceased to be part of the city of Mainz. Whereas the three former constituent communities north of the Main were administered by Wiesbaden since then, Bischofsheim and neighbouring Ginsheim-Gustavsburg once again became independent municipalities in Groß-Gerau district. **'''Hanover (Hanover (state))''' - George III (George III of the United Kingdom), Elector of Hanover (1760–1820) **'''Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt)''' - Louis X (Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1790–1830) **'''Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel)''' - William IX (William I, Elector of Hesse), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1785–1821) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Friedrich I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) * Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) * Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) * Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Isenburg-Birstein - Wolfgang Ernest II (Wolfgang Ernst II of Isenburg-Birstein), Prince of Irsenburg-Birstein (1754–1803) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) – Karl IV Philipp Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) – Karl IV Philipp Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) * Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) * Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) * Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) – Friedrich I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' **'''Hanover''' – Georg Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire (George I of Great Britain) Prince Elector designate (1698–1708) **'''Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt)''' – Ernst Ludwig, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1678–1739) **'''Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel)''' – Karl, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1670–1730) History In 755, Heppenheim had its first documentary mention. At that time, the town was the hub of a Frankish (Franks) domain. In 773, this area became one of Charlemagne’s donations to the Lorsch Abbey, and to protect it, the castle (Starkenburg) was built above it in 1065; in 1066 it successfully resisted a siege by the Adalbert of Hamburg, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (Archbishop of Bremen). The Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) Abbey held the rank of principality, and Heppenheim developed over time into the territory’s administrative and economic hub, although it lost its importance with the Abbey’s downfall in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1229, Emperor Friedrich II (Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor) put the Starkenburg under the administration of the Archbishops of Electoral Mainz (Archbishopric of Mainz), doing likewise with the Lorsch Abbey along with Heppenheim in 1232. But for an interruption from 1461 to 1623 when the fief was pledged to Electoral Palatinate, Heppenheim remained an Electoral Mainz holding right up until the ''Reichsdeputationshauptschluss'' in 1803. Then it became Hessian, first part of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, and since 1948 it has been part of the ''Bundesland'' (States of Germany) of Hesse. **'''Dutch Republic''' on the verge to independence **'''Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt''' - Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1596–1626) **'''Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)''' - Maurice (Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel) (1592–1627) allegiance 24px (image:Pavillon royal de la France.svg) France (Bourbons (House of Bourbon)) ) (December 15, 1719 – April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


Florence

to exercise a considerable sway over German-speaking lands throughout the Baroque and Classical periods. Nevertheless, native forms were developing too. In Nuremberg in 1644, Sigmund Staden (Sigmund Theophil Staden) produced the "spiritual pastorale", ''Seelewig'', which foreshadows the ''Singspiel'', a genre of German-language opera in which arias alternate with spoken dialogue. ''Seelewig'' was a moral allegory inspired by the example of contemporary school dramas and is the first German opera whose music has survived. ''Oxford Illustrated History of Opera'', ed. Parker, pp.31–32; ''A Short History of Opera'', chapter on "Early German Opera", pp.121–131; ''Viking Opera Guide'' articles on Schütz and Staden. He was born in Florence and was a fellow sailor of explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano. He died of malaria in 1530. Early life and career A native of Florence, Pavolini was the son of Paolo Emilio Pavolini, a major scholar of Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages. A brilliant student, he earned a law degree at the University of Florence and a political science one at ''La Sapienza (University of Rome La Sapienza)'' in Rome, travelling to and fro between the two cities. Some street trams (streetcars) used conduit third-rail current collection. The third rail was below street level. The tram picked up the current through a plough (conduit current collection) (U.S. "plow") accessed through a narrow slot in the road. In the United States, much (though not all) of the former streetcar system system in Washington, D.C. (discontinued in 1962) was operated in this manner to avoid the unsightly wires and poles associated with electric traction. The same was true with Manhattan's former streetcar system. The evidence of this mode of running can still be seen on the track down the slope on the northern access to the abandoned Kingsway Tramway Subway (Kingsway tramway subway) in central London, United Kingdom, where the slot between the running rails is clearly visible, and on P and Q Streets west of Wisconsin Avenue in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington DC, where the abandoned tracks have not been paved over. The slot can easily be confused with the similar looking slot for cable trams cars (in some cases, the conduit slot was originally a cable slot). The disadvantage of conduit collection included much higher initial installation costs, higher maintenance costs, and problems with leaves and snow getting in the slot. For this reason, in Washington, D.C. cars on some lines converted to overhead wire on leaving the city center, a worker in a "plow pit" disconnecting the plow while another raised the trolley pole (hitherto hooked down to the roof) to the overhead wire. In New York City for the same reasons of cost and operating efficiency outside of Manhattan overhead wire was used. A new approach to avoiding overhead wires is taken by the "second generation" tram streetcar system in Bordeaux, France (entry into service of the first line in December 2003; original system discontinued in 1958) with its APS (Ground-level power supply) (alimentation par sol — ground current feed). This involves a third rail which is flush with the surface like the tops of the running rails. The circuit is divided into segments with each segment energized in turn by sensors from the car as it passes over it, the remainder of the third rail remaining "dead". Since each energized segment is completely covered by the lengthy articulated cars, and goes dead before being "uncovered" by the passage of the vehicle, there is no danger to pedestrians. This system has also been adopted in some sections of the new tram systems in Reims, France (opened 2011) and Angers, France (also opened 2011). Proposals are in place for a number of other new services including Dubai, UAE; Barcelona, Spain; Florence, Italy; Marseille, France; Gold Coast (Gold Coast, Queensland), Australia; Washington, D.C., U.S.A.; Brasília, Brazil and Tours, France. At least initially there were teething troubles in terms of maintaining current feed, however, and the fact that the system is used exclusively in the historic center, with the cars on leaving this zone converting to conventional overhead pickup, underlines how, esthetics aside, for streetcars trams it is hard to beat the overhead wire system in terms of overall efficiency. At the age of 19 he commissioned the construction of what would later become known as the Badminton Chest (or Badminton Cabinet), an ornate set of drawers made in Florence. The chest was sold in 2004 to Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein for over $35 million, making it the most expensive piece of furniture in the world. It is on display in the Palais Liechtenstein in Vienna, Austria. The want of interest, amounting even to hostility, with which Platen's enthusiasm for the purity and dignity of poetry was received in many literary circles in Germany increased the poet's indignation and disgust. In 1826 he visited Italy, which he henceforth made his home, living at Florence, Rome and Naples. His means were slender, but, though frequently necessitous, he felt happy in the life he had chosen, that of a wandering rhapsodist. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


Vienna

-speaking lands throughout the Baroque and Classical periods. Nevertheless, native forms were developing too. In Nuremberg in 1644, Sigmund Staden (Sigmund Theophil Staden) produced the "spiritual pastorale", ''Seelewig'', which foreshadows the ''Singspiel'', a genre of German-language opera in which arias alternate with spoken dialogue. ''Seelewig'' was a moral allegory inspired by the example of contemporary school dramas and is the first German opera whose music has survived. ''Oxford Illustrated History of Opera'', ed. Parker, pp.31–32; ''A Short History of Opera'', chapter on "Early German Opera", pp.121–131; ''Viking Opera Guide'' articles on Schütz and Staden. The heyday of operetta In the late nineteenth century, a new, lighter form of opera, operetta, became popular in Vienna. Operettas had immediately attractive tunes, comic (and often frivolous) plots and used spoken dialogue between the musical "numbers". Viennese operetta was inspired by the fashion for the French operettas of Jacques Offenbach. ''Der Pensionat'' (1860) by Franz von Suppé is generally regarded as the first important operetta in the German language, but by far the most famous example of the genre is ''Die Fledermaus'' (1874) by Johann Strauss (Johann Strauss II). Franz Lehár's ''The Merry Widow'' (1905) was another massive hit. Other composers who worked in this style include Oscar Straus and Sigmund Romberg. ''Viking Opera Guide'' articles on Suppé, Johann Strauss and Lehár. birth_date Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna


France

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