of the artistic decisions about the design of the palace, and participated in its decoration, including as a painter. Queen Marie considered ''Art Nouveau'' a weapon against sterile historicism, creating a personal style combining Art-Nouveau elements with Byzantine (Byzantium) and Celtic elements. Performance history Schubert never heard the opera performed in his lifetime. Opera houses in Vienna, Berlin, Dresden and Graz all had refused to stage it. ref name "Boas"