china timofeev1.html "Российско-китайские отношения в Приамурье (сер. XIX – нач. XX вв.)" (''Russian-Chinese relations in the Amur region, mid-19th - early 20th centuries''). Part 1. Blagoveshchensk, 2003. which served in 1683-1685 as a base for the Manchus' campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin further north. Bruce Mancall, ''Russia and China:Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728''. 1971, pages 115-127 After the capture of Albazin in 1685
отношения в Приамурье (сер. XIX – нач. XX вв.)" (''Russian-Chinese relations in the Amur region, mid-19th - early 20th centuries''). Part 2. Blagoveshchensk, 2003. Quote: "3 июля благовещенский полицмейстер Батаревич предложил военному губернатору Амурской области К.Н. Грибскому депортировать китайцев на правый берег... Сразу же возник вопрос о транспортных средствах для перевозки нескольких тысяч человек... Батаревич в конечном итоге принял решение о переправе всех китайцев в районе ст
Chilia -Licostomo (Chilia Veche)). Radu managed to convince the Wallachians that paying the Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and having him as their leader would be in their best interest. Vlad Ţepeş was abandoned and fled to Transylvania, where he was imprisoned by Corvinus for 12 years based on a forged letter that described him as asking the sultan for forgiveness and for an alliance against Hungary. He was released in 1474 and was soon on his way to Bosnia (Bosnia (region)) with a Hungarian army, where he captured towns and fortresses and impaled 8,000 Turks. Stephen of Moldavia had managed to capture Chilia and Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) and managed to defend them against the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui. The two cousins forged an alliance and in 1476, conquered Wallachia together; however, in December 1476, Vlad Ţepeş died in battle against the Ottomans. Radu had died of syphilis a year earlier (1475).
control of the regional trade routes by taking advantage of political weaknesses within the Sultanate. Singapore Island, that had been for centuries part of the same greater Malay kingdoms and sultanates, and under direct control of Sultan of Johor, came under British control. The creation of a European-controlled territory in Johor-Riau heart broke the sultanate into two parts, destroying the cultural and political unity that had existed for centuries. The Anglo-Dutch treaty (Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824) of 1824 consolidated this separation, with the British controlling all territories north of the Singapore Strait and Dutch controlling territories from Riau to Java. Till the independence of Indonesia in 1945, Bintan was under the control of the Netherlands East Indies. However, the Riau Archipelago remained a fairly borderless territory till recently. During the World War II Japanese had occupied the Malay world and Singapore was their headquarters. During this period, many Malays including the upper strata of society had to join the Imperial Army (Imperial Japanese Army). After the war, from 1950 the Archipelago was a duty-free zone till the revolution ''Konfrontasi'' in 1963. During this period, the Straight Dollar of British Malaya was the principal currency. Visa free movement of people, which existed then is now no more prevalent. Nordholt, pp. 447–448 Geography and climate ) is a province (Provinces of Indonesia) of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra along the Strait of Malacca. Originally the province consisting of the Riau Islands (Riau Islands Province), the large group of more or less tiny islands, located east of Sumatra Island and south of Singapore, before it were split off as a separate province in july 2004. The biggest islands in the archipelago are Batam and Bintan Island. The provincial capital of Riau Province and its largest city is located in Pekanbaru. Other major cities includes Dumai, Selat Panjang, Bagansiapiapi, Bengkalis, Bangkinang, Rengat and Siak Sri Indrapura. Geography Batam has a majority of the province's population, since becoming special economic region, it has experienced high population growth rates. The population is estimated nearly at 1,137,894 (as of December 2011). Other main islands and populated city included Bintan Island and Karimun. There are around 3,200 islands in the province. with Tanjung Pinang as its capital, located at south of Bintan Island. The islands of the Tudjuh Archipelago, located between Borneo and mainland Malaysia, were attached to the new province, although they were not geographically part of the Riau Archipelago. Geography Batam is located west of Bintan Island, south of Singapore, north of Rempang, east of Karimun and Bulan Island. The Riau Strait (''Selat Riau'') separates Batam and Bintan. Batam has Tropical rainforest climate with average temperatures between 26-32°C. The local governmental offices is resided in Batam Centre and biggest community on the island is Lubuk Baja (Nagoya, Batam) (formerly known as Nagoya). Other residential area included Baloi Garden, Sekupang, Nongsapura (Nongsa), Waterfront City (Teluk Senimba), Batu Ampar, Jodoh. * On November 30, 2006 IPTN C-212 PK-ZAI crashed on landing, no injuries or deaths were reported. * On February 12, 2011, five people were killed when a Casa C-212 Aviocar belonging to SMAC crashed on Bintan Island, Indonesia during a test flight. http: wireupdate.com wires 15056 plane-crash-in-western-indonesia-kills-five BNO News '''HarbourFront Centre''' is a shopping mall and ferry terminal that connects to nearby Indonesia ports and city (Batam and Bintan Island). Located at Maritime Square, Telok Blangah in the Bukit Merah Planning Area, Singapore. The mall is part of a development known as HarbourFront which is connected to VivoCity, the country's largest shopping mall. Formerly known as the '''World Trade Centre''', it was renamed to its present name in 2003 and the mall was refurbished. HarbourFront Centre is directly connected to HarbourFront MRT Station of the Mass Rapid Transit (Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)) and the Singapore Cruise Centre is located in the building. Also, HarbourFront Bus Interchange is located directly opposite Telok Blangah Road. Towards the west of HarbourFront Centre are HarbourFront Tower 1, HarbourFront Tower 2 and Keppel Bay Tower, all are office buildings. The Sentosa Cable Car station is housed in HarbourFront Tower 2. All buildings are connected to HarbourFront Centre.
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of 1711 until 11 February 1715 between the British (Great Britain), Dutch (Netherlands), and German (Germany) settlers and the Tuscarora (Tuscarora (tribe)) Native Americans. A treaty was signed in 1715. Pedra Branca was known to sailors for centuries. Part of the Chinese sailing instructions for the South China Sea based on information compiled by Admiral Zheng He (1371–1433) advised a navigator that after departing Long Ya Men (Mandarin (Standard Mandarin) for "Dragon's Teeth Gate"), a rocky outcrop at the gateway to what is now Keppel Harbour in Singapore, he should steer a course of between 75° and 90° for five watches (watch system) until his vessel reached ''Baijiao''. Pedra Branca was also mentioned in Dutch (Netherlands) voyager Jan Huyghen van Linschoten's ''Itinerario'' (''Itinerary''), Commons:Category:Netherlands Dmoz:Regional Europe Netherlands Wikipedia:Netherlands