Places Known For

centuries causing


Kingdom of Dyfed

in Wales, with St. David's covering all of West Wales and part of Mid Wales. Davies, John, ''A History of Wales'', Penguin, 1994, ''Celtic Church'', 72-79 ''Welsh Church'' pg 118 Dyfed was subject to extensive raids during the Viking Age between the 8th and 11th centuries, causing social and political instability, and with the Vikings establishing settlements in southern Dyfed. By the latter part of the 9th century, the rulers of Dyfed had grown cautious of the influence of the sons of Rhodri the Great, and sought out an alliance and the patronage of Alfred the Great of England. The precise nature of the relationship between King Alfred and the rulers in Wales remains unclear, whether a transitory alliance or a formal mediatization of the Welsh rulers to the king of England. Historical attempts have been made to cast the relationship as one as a confederation of Christian unity on the isle of Britain, under the leadership of Alfred, against the heathen Danes. However there evolved a significant degree of coercion in the relationship, according to Davies. "The recognition by Welsh rulers that the king of England had claims upon them would be a central fact in the subsequent political history of Wales," according to Davies. In about 904, Dyfed's ruler, Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, died, leaving his daughter Elen (Elen ferch Lywarch) as his heiress. Elen was married to Hywel (Hywel ap Cadell), ruler of neighbnoring Seisyllwg and grandson of Rhodri the Great through his second son Cadell (Cadell ap Rhodri). Through (Jure uxoris) his marriage to Elen, Hywel incorporated Dyfed into an enlarged realm to be known as ''Deheubarth'', meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd. However, both Powys and Gwynedd returned to their native dynasties on Hywel's death in 950. Hwyel's grandson Maredudd ab Owain recreated the kingdom of his grandfather, but his rule was beset with increasing Viking raids during the latter part of the 10th century. It is during this period that Viking settlements increased, particularly in the area in the cantref of Penfro, with other Viking settlements and trading station at Haverfordwest, Fishguard and Caldey Island in Dyfed. Viking raids upon the Welsh were "relentless", according to Davies, and Maredudd was compelled to raise taxes to pay the ransoms for Welsh hostages in 993, and in 999 a Viking raiding party attacked St. David's and killed Morganau, the bishop. Dyfed remained an integral province within Deheubarth until the Norman invasions of Wales between 1068-1100. In the Dyfed region, the cantrefi of Penfro, Rhos, Cemais and Pebidiog became occupied by Norman overlords. The Normans influenced the election of the Bishops of St. David's, in Pebidiog, from 1115 onwards. The Princes of Deheubarth, and later Llywelyn the Great as the Prince of a virtual Principality of Wales from 1216, fought to recover the region until the Edwardian Conquest of Wales in 1284 settled the matter. The 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan established the English county of ''Pembrokeshire'' and ''Carmarthenshire'' out of the region formally known as ''Dyfed''. Rulers *Anwn ( c. 357) *Ednyfed ( c. 373) *Gloitgwyn *Clotri ( c. 405) *Triffyn Farfog ( c. 385) *Aergol Lawhir ( c. 437) *Gwrthefyr (c. 475 - 540) *Arthwyr ( c. 585) *Cloten (Cloten of Dyfed and Brycheiniog) ( c. 630) *Rhein (Rhain of Dyfed and Brycheiniog) ( c. 690) *Tewdos ( c. 710) *Owain (c. 771 - 811) *Hyfaidd (c. 815 - 893) *Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (c. 893-904) *Rhodri (c. 845 - 905) *Hywel Dda (c. 905-909) References and notes Additional reading * ''The Irish settlements in Wales'', Myles Dillon, ''Celtica'' 12, 1977, p. 1-11. See also *Déisi *Dyfed, a Welsh administrative county from 1974 to 1996 , ''A History of Wales'', Vol. I If the man mentioned in both inscriptions was the same as Gildas' Vortiporius, we would expect the Latin and Irish forms to have been spelled *Vorteporigis and *Vortecorigas, respectively; the difference in spelling has led some to suggest that they are not the same person, though it is possible that they were related. Sims-Williams, Patrick (2003), The Celtic Inscriptions of Britain: Phonology and Chronology, c. 400 – 1200, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 342, 346 – 347, ISBN 1-4051-0903-3


Luxembourg

the province poor and underpopulated for centuries, causing many people to move to the coast or emigrate to other European countries such as France, Luxembourg and Switzerland, and to Brazil. The '''European Parliament Election, 1999''' was a European election (Elections in the European Union) for all 626 members (Member of the European Parliament) of the European Parliament held across the 15 European Union member states (European Union member state) on 10, 11


Switzerland

for centuries, causing many people to move to the coast or emigrate to other European countries such as France, Luxembourg and Switzerland, and to Brazil. There is one road, aptly called "The Road". Its construction was masterminded by Josephus Lambert Hassell who, despite the common opinion of Dutch and Swiss (Switzerland) engineers, believed that a road could be built.


France

on the "other" (eastern) side of such mountains as Marão, Alvão and Gerês, which separate the coast from the interior, and along the upper valley of the Douro River. This isolation kept the province poor and underpopulated for centuries, causing many people to move to the coast or emigrate to other European countries such as France, Luxembourg and Switzerland, and to Brazil. As a result of the war, St. Eustatius was taken by British Admiral George Brydges Rodney on 3


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