Zhangzhou

What is Zhangzhou known for?


free period

and long, very hot and humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from . The frost-free period lasts 330 days.


main+style

"northern pipes") Prof. Wang Ying-Fen, ''Amateur Music Clubs and State Intervention'' is loud, complex and associated with theatrical performance. Although its name sets it in opposition to the "southern" style of nanguan, the other main style associated with the quguan associations, it was widespread in Zhangzhou (the southern part of Fujian) and in Taiwan between the 17th and mid-20th centuries. By the early 21st century its popularity had declined. Formerly it was used when musical associations put on events for one another. Chou Chenier, ''Nanguan Music'' ''Beiguan'' usually uses two Chinese oboes ''(suona)'' together with percussion; the woodblock ''(bangzi)'', large and small gongs ''(da luo'' and ''xiao luo''), large and small cymbals ''(da bo'' and ''xiao bo'') and drums, the ''ban gu (bangu)'' (high-pitched drum), the ''tong gu'' (small drum) and sometimes the ''da gu'' (large drum). It may also use various ''huqin'' and plucked instruments. Partly as a result of Qi Jiguang's military success in Zhejiang, pirate activities surged in the province of Fujian. More than 10,000 pirates had established strongholds along the coast from Fu'an (福安) in the north to Zhangzhou in the south. In July 1562, Qi Jiguang led 6,000 elite troops south into Fujian. Within two months, his army eradicated three major lairs of Japanese pirates at Hengyu (橫嶼), Niutian (牛田) and Lindun (林墩). Shortly afterwards, the State Council (State Council of the People's Republic of China) expanded the open coastal areas, extending into an open coastal belt the open economic zones of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle in south Fujian, Shandong Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula (Liaoning Province), Hebei and Guangxi. Then, beginning in 1985, the central government expanded the coastal area by establishing the following open economic zones (listed north to south): Liaodong Peninsula, Hebei Province (which surrounds Beijing and Tianjin), Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle in southern Fujian Province, Pearl River Delta, and Guangxi. *Shunchang (Shunchang County) 顺昌, Nanping 南平, Fujian *Hua'an (Hua'an County), Zhangzhou 华安, southern Fujian *Guixi 贵溪, Yingtan 鹰潭, Jiangxi The founders of the Tiandihui—Ti Xi, Li Amin, Zhu Dingyuan, and Tao Yuan—were all from Zhangpu, Zhangzhou, Fujian, on the border with Guangdong. They left Zhangpu for Sichuan, where they joined a cult, which did not go well. Ti Xi soon left for Guangdong, where he organized a group of followers in Huizhou. In 1761, he returned to Fujian and organized his followers to form the Tiandihui. In 1935 Barnabas Zhang, Thomas Guo, Silas Lin and others preached to Xiamen, Zhangzhou and surrounding areas. It was in this region where Taiwanese (Taiwanese people) left their former church denominations to join them. Together, they boarded a ship to Taiwan and three churches were established numbering over 100 believers, after preaching there for only forty days. Quanzhou and Zhangzhou are two major varieties of Southern Min, and in Xiamen they combined to form something "not Quan, not Zhang" – i.e. not one or the other, but rather a fusion, which became known as ''Amoy Dialect'' or ''Amoy Chinese''. Ang, ''A Journey Through Taiwanese Regional Speech'', p. 2. In Taiwan, with its mixture of migrants from both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, the linguistic situation was similar; although the resulting blend in the southern city of Tainan differed from the Xiamen blend, it was close enough that the missionaries could ignore the differences and import their system wholesale. The fact that religious tracts, dictionaries, and teaching guides already existed in the Xiamen tongue meant that the missionaries in Taiwan could begin proselytizing immediately, without the intervening time needed to write those materials. Heylen, ''Romanizing Taiwanese'', p. 160. Service under Wang Xu In 881, the bandit leader Wang Xu, along with his brother-in-law Liu Xingquan (劉行全), captured Guang Prefecture (光州, in modern Xinyang); he was subsequently commissioned the prefect of Guang Prefecture by Qin Zongquan the military governor (''Jiedushi'') of Fengguo Circuit (奉國, headquartered in modern Zhumadian, Henan). Wang Xu forced the men of Guang Prefecture to join his army, and he made Wang Chao, who had previously been a government worker at the Gushi County government, his discipline officer. Later on, however, Qin turned against the Tang imperial government and was on the cusp of claiming imperial title himself. He ordered Wang Xu to pay taxes to him. When Wang Xu was unable to do so, he launched an army to attack Wang. Wang Xu, in fear, gathered 5,000 soldiers from Guang and Shou Prefectures and forced the people to cross the Yangtze River to the south. By spring 885, Wang had continued south and captured Ting (汀洲, in modern Longyan, Fujian) and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures, but was not able to hold either for long. By the time that Wang Xu reached Zhang Prefecture, his army was running low on food. As the terrain in Fujian Circuit (福建, headquartered in modern Fuzhou, Fujian), which Zhang Prefecture belonged to, was rugged, he ordered that the old and the weak be abandoned. However, in violation of his order, Wang Chao and his brothers continued to take their mother Lady Dong with them. Wang Xu rebuked them and threatened to put Lady Dong to death. They begged for Lady Dong's life, offering to die in her stead. Other officers also spoke on their behalf, and Wang Xu relented. Jinjiang people speak the Quanzhou variant of Minnan (Min Nan) dialect which is largely intelligible to speakers of the Xiamen Zhangzhou variant (spoken by most Taiwanese). As in many parts of China, most Jinjiang people can use Putonghua (Mandarin (Mandarin Chinese)) to communicate with non-local people in commercial and other daily interactions.


political studies

;Biodata on Tan Cheng Lock, Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia 2000. He did not try to earn a living to support his family and instead lived off his annual allowance of $130 (Straits dollars) from the family trust in genteel poverty. Speech by Tan Siok Choo, granddaughter of Tan Cheng Lock, addressed to the MCA School of Political Studies. Tan Cheng Lock refused to emulate his father. Hokkiens (Hoklo people) Xiamen (厦门), Quanzhou (泉州), Zhangzhou (漳州


military success

also use various ''huqin'' and plucked instruments. Partly as a result of Qi Jiguang's military success in Zhejiang, pirate activities surged in the province of Fujian. More than 10,000 pirates had established strongholds along the coast from Fu'an (福安) in the north to Zhangzhou in the south. In July 1562, Qi Jiguang led 6,000 elite troops south into Fujian. Within two months, his army eradicated three major lairs of Japanese pirates at Hengyu (橫嶼), Niutian (牛田


written quot

making with this city a unique built up area of more than 5 million people. The Jinmen (Kinmen) Islands administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan) are less than ), possibly referring to its position at the mouth of the Nine Dragon River. The Zhangzhou dialect of Min Nan


frequent high

have undergone significant changes recently. Since mid-2012, there are two passenger stations in the Zhangzhou metropolitan area: Zhangzhou Railway Station and Zhangzhou East Railway Station. The new Zhangzhou Railway Station (which was known as Zhangzhou South during the planning stage) sits on the new high-speed railway about 10 km south of downtown Zhangzhou. It has fairly decent rail service, since both the frequent high-speed trains from Xiamen and Fuzhou to Longyan and many


literary version

a colloquial version and a literary version of Taiwanese Hokkien. Spoken Taiwanese Hokkien is almost identical to spoken Amoy Hokkien (Amoy dialect). Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian (Quanzhou and Zhangzhou). Taiwanese Hokkien also contains loanwords from Japanese (Japanese language) and the Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu


previous+years


life+offering

Lady Dong with them. Wang Xu rebuked them and threatened to put Lady Dong to death. They begged for Lady Dong's life, offering to die in her stead. Other officers also spoke on their behalf, and Wang Xu relented. Jinjiang people speak the Quanzhou variant of Minnan (Min Nan) dialect which is largely intelligible to speakers of the Xiamen Zhangzhou variant (spoken by most Taiwanese). As in many parts of China, most Jinjiang people can use Putonghua


migration

the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused

of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan County

to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan (Yilan County, Taiwan) and Lugang, which still preserves the original

Zhangzhou

Quanzhou and Zhangzhou are two major varieties of Southern Min, and in Xiamen they combined to form something "not Quan, not Zhang" – i.e. not one or the other, but rather a fusion, which became known as ''Amoy Dialect'' or ''Amoy Chinese''. Ang, ''A Journey Through Taiwanese Regional Speech'', p. 2. In Taiwan, with its mixture of migrants from both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, the linguistic situation was similar; although the resulting blend in the southern city of Tainan differed from the Xiamen blend, it was close enough that the missionaries could ignore the differences and import their system wholesale. The fact that religious tracts, dictionaries, and teaching guides already existed in the Xiamen tongue meant that the missionaries in Taiwan could begin proselytizing immediately, without the intervening time needed to write those materials. Heylen, ''Romanizing Taiwanese'', p. 160.

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