Zhangzhou

What is Zhangzhou known for?


main style

"northern pipes") Prof. Wang Ying-Fen, ''Amateur Music Clubs and State Intervention'' is loud, complex and associated with theatrical performance. Although its name sets it in opposition to the "southern" style of nanguan, the other main style associated with the quguan associations, it was widespread in Zhangzhou (the southern part of Fujian) and in Taiwan between the 17th and mid-20th centuries. By the early 21st century its popularity had declined. Formerly it was used when musical associations put on events for one another. Chou Chenier, ''Nanguan Music'' ''Beiguan'' usually uses two Chinese oboes ''(suona)'' together with percussion; the woodblock ''(bangzi)'', large and small gongs ''(da luo'' and ''xiao luo''), large and small cymbals ''(da bo'' and ''xiao bo'') and drums, the ''ban gu (bangu)'' (high-pitched drum), the ''tong gu'' (small drum) and sometimes the ''da gu'' (large drum). It may also use various ''huqin'' and plucked instruments. Partly as a result of Qi Jiguang's military success in Zhejiang, pirate activities surged in the province of Fujian. More than 10,000 pirates had established strongholds along the coast from Fu'an (福安) in the north to Zhangzhou in the south. In July 1562, Qi Jiguang led 6,000 elite troops south into Fujian. Within two months, his army eradicated three major lairs of Japanese pirates at Hengyu (橫嶼), Niutian (牛田) and Lindun (林墩). Shortly afterwards, the State Council (State Council of the People's Republic of China) expanded the open coastal areas, extending into an open coastal belt the open economic zones of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle in south Fujian, Shandong Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula (Liaoning Province), Hebei and Guangxi. Then, beginning in 1985, the central government expanded the coastal area by establishing the following open economic zones (listed north to south): Liaodong Peninsula, Hebei Province (which surrounds Beijing and Tianjin), Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle in southern Fujian Province, Pearl River Delta, and Guangxi. *Shunchang (Shunchang County) 顺昌, Nanping 南平, Fujian *Hua'an (Hua'an County), Zhangzhou 华安, southern Fujian *Guixi 贵溪, Yingtan 鹰潭, Jiangxi The founders of the Tiandihui—Ti Xi, Li Amin, Zhu Dingyuan, and Tao Yuan—were all from Zhangpu, Zhangzhou, Fujian, on the border with Guangdong. They left Zhangpu for Sichuan, where they joined a cult, which did not go well. Ti Xi soon left for Guangdong, where he organized a group of followers in Huizhou. In 1761, he returned to Fujian and organized his followers to form the Tiandihui. In 1935 Barnabas Zhang, Thomas Guo, Silas Lin and others preached to Xiamen, Zhangzhou and surrounding areas. It was in this region where Taiwanese (Taiwanese people) left their former church denominations to join them. Together, they boarded a ship to Taiwan and three churches were established numbering over 100 believers, after preaching there for only forty days. Quanzhou and Zhangzhou are two major varieties of Southern Min, and in Xiamen they combined to form something "not Quan, not Zhang" – i.e. not one or the other, but rather a fusion, which became known as ''Amoy Dialect'' or ''Amoy Chinese''. Ang, ''A Journey Through Taiwanese Regional Speech'', p. 2. In Taiwan, with its mixture of migrants from both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, the linguistic situation was similar; although the resulting blend in the southern city of Tainan differed from the Xiamen blend, it was close enough that the missionaries could ignore the differences and import their system wholesale. The fact that religious tracts, dictionaries, and teaching guides already existed in the Xiamen tongue meant that the missionaries in Taiwan could begin proselytizing immediately, without the intervening time needed to write those materials. Heylen, ''Romanizing Taiwanese'', p. 160. Service under Wang Xu In 881, the bandit leader Wang Xu, along with his brother-in-law Liu Xingquan (劉行全), captured Guang Prefecture (光州, in modern Xinyang); he was subsequently commissioned the prefect of Guang Prefecture by Qin Zongquan the military governor (''Jiedushi'') of Fengguo Circuit (奉國, headquartered in modern Zhumadian, Henan). Wang Xu forced the men of Guang Prefecture to join his army, and he made Wang Chao, who had previously been a government worker at the Gushi County government, his discipline officer. Later on, however, Qin turned against the Tang imperial government and was on the cusp of claiming imperial title himself. He ordered Wang Xu to pay taxes to him. When Wang Xu was unable to do so, he launched an army to attack Wang. Wang Xu, in fear, gathered 5,000 soldiers from Guang and Shou Prefectures and forced the people to cross the Yangtze River to the south. By spring 885, Wang had continued south and captured Ting (汀洲, in modern Longyan, Fujian) and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures, but was not able to hold either for long. By the time that Wang Xu reached Zhang Prefecture, his army was running low on food. As the terrain in Fujian Circuit (福建, headquartered in modern Fuzhou, Fujian), which Zhang Prefecture belonged to, was rugged, he ordered that the old and the weak be abandoned. However, in violation of his order, Wang Chao and his brothers continued to take their mother Lady Dong with them. Wang Xu rebuked them and threatened to put Lady Dong to death. They begged for Lady Dong's life, offering to die in her stead. Other officers also spoke on their behalf, and Wang Xu relented. Jinjiang people speak the Quanzhou variant of Minnan (Min Nan) dialect which is largely intelligible to speakers of the Xiamen Zhangzhou variant (spoken by most Taiwanese). As in many parts of China, most Jinjiang people can use Putonghua (Mandarin (Mandarin Chinese)) to communicate with non-local people in commercial and other daily interactions.


business history

it appears as '''Chiang-chew''' or '''Chiang Chew''' from the Hokkien name. Dialect


literary+version

a colloquial version and a literary version of Taiwanese Hokkien. Spoken Taiwanese Hokkien is almost identical to spoken Amoy Hokkien (Amoy dialect). Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian (Quanzhou and Zhangzhou). Taiwanese Hokkien also contains loanwords from Japanese (Japanese language) and the Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu


including frequent

, including: frequent intermarriage between Han and aborigines, the replacement of aboriginal marriage and abortion taboos, and the widespread adoption of the Han agricultural lifestyle due to the depletion of traditional game stocks, which may have led to increased birth rates and population growth. Moreover, the acculturation of aborigines in increased numbers may have intensified the perception of a swell in the number of Han. Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to Amoy dialect Amoy Hokkien


migration

the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused

of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan County

to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. With increasing migration, the Hokkien dialect was also spread to every part of Taiwan. Although there was a conflict between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people in Taiwan historically, the intermingling of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou people caused the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan (Yilan County, Taiwan) and Lugang, which still preserves the original


combination

the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan (Yilan County, Taiwan) and Lugang, which still preserves the original Zhangzhou and Quanzhou accents respectively, every region of Taiwan speaks a variant of Hokkien based on a mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien. Scholars such as Ang Ui-jin called Taiwanese Hokkien a mix or combination of both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien (漳泉濫). 洪惟仁,《臺灣河佬語聲調研究》,1987年。 During the 200 years

, Taiwan Yilan and Lugang, which still preserves the original Zhangzhou and Quanzhou accents respectively, every region of Taiwan speaks a variant of Hokkien based on a mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien. Scholars such as Ang Ui-jin called Taiwanese Hokkien a mix or combination of both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien (漳泉濫). 洪惟仁,《臺灣河佬語聲調研究》,1987年。 During the 200 years of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated

Zhangzhou and Quanzhou accents respectively, every region of Taiwan speaks a variant of Hokkien based on a mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien. Scholars such as Ang Ui-jin called Taiwanese Hokkien a mix or combination of both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien (漳泉濫). 洪惟仁,《臺灣河佬語聲調研究》,1987年。 During the 200 years of Qing dynasty's rule of Taiwan, Min Nan people who migrated to Taiwan began to increase rapidly. In particular, most of them came from


traditional game

, including: frequent intermarriage between Han and aborigines, the replacement of aboriginal marriage and abortion taboos, and the widespread adoption of the Han agricultural lifestyle due to the depletion of traditional game stocks, which may have led to increased birth rates and population growth. Moreover, the acculturation of aborigines in increased numbers may have intensified the perception of a swell in the number of Han. Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to Amoy dialect Amoy Hokkien


- based

. Minor differences only occur in terms of vocabulary. Like Amoy Hokkien, Taiwanese Hokkien is based on a mixture of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. Due to the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien has grown to become the more influential Hokkien dialect of Min Nan, especially since the 1980s. Along with Amoy, the Taiwanese prestige dialect (based on the Tâi-lâm (Tainan) variant) is regarded as ‘standard Hokkien.’ There is both

, Sakai Toru, and Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ (also known as Tavokan Khîn-hoāⁿ or Chin-An Li), based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek (Ong Iok-tek), has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial Taiwanese with the Austronesian (Austronesian languages) and Tai (Tai languages) language families; however

the two Hokkien accents to be mixed together. Apart from Yilan (Yilan County, Taiwan) and Lugang, which still preserves the original Zhangzhou and Quanzhou accents respectively, every region of Taiwan speaks a variant of Hokkien based on a mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien. Scholars such as Ang Ui-jin called Taiwanese Hokkien a mix or combination of both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien (漳泉濫). 洪惟仁,《臺灣河佬語聲調研究》,1987年。 During the 200 years


characters

reads these characters as "ε̄-mûi", the source of the name "Amoy". The dialect is still spoken in the west and southwest of the city. Later, the authorities found "下門" too unrefined and changed the name to the modern toponym " in Min Nan

in Penang, Malaysia. It is the ''lingua franca'' among the majority Chinese (Malaysian Chinese) population in Penang as well as other northern states of Malaysia surrounding it, and is characterised by the pronunciation of words according to the Zhangzhou (漳州; Hokkien: Chiang-chiu) dialect, together with widespread use of Malay (Malay language) and English (English language) borrowed words. It is predominantly a spoken dialect: it is rarely written in Han characters Chinese

characters , and there is no standard romanisation. This article uses the Missionary Romanisation or ''Pe̍h-ōe-jī'' (白話字) which is common in Taiwan. * Zhangzhou, Fujian Situation Yongding county is situated on the Fujian-Guangdong border. Shanghang County to the northwest and Longyan centre (Xinluo District) to the northeast are in Longyan; Nanjing County to the east and Pinghe County


popular art

puppets that originated during the 17th century in Quanzhou or Zhangzhou of China's Fujian province, and historically practiced in the Min Nan-speaking areas such as Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, the Guangdong region of Chaoshan, and other parts of southern China. It had since established itself more firmly and contemporarily as a popular art form in Taiwan. The puppet's head uses wood carved into the shape of a hollow human head, but aside from the head, palms, and feet, which are made of wood, the puppet's torso and limbs consist entirely of cloth costumes. At the time of the performance, a gloved hand enters the puppet's costume and makes it perform. In previous years the puppets used in this type of performance strongly resembled "cloth sacks," hence the name, which literally means "cloth bag opera." *On November 19, 1987, Liu Zhiyuan (刘志远), a squadron (Squadron (aviation)) commander of PLAAF 49th division (Division (military)) flew his Shenyang J-6 numbered 40208 from Longxi (龙溪) airport, Zhangzhou to Qingquangang air base in Taiwan and was awarded 5,000 taels (approximately 250 kg) of gold. Liu invested heavily in the Taiwanese stock market and his assets (not including the gold rewarded to him) was once more than 10 million New Taiwan dollars (approximately 400,000 United States dollars). Teochew is a member of the Southern Min or Min Nan dialect group, which in turn constitutes one of the seven major dialect groups of the Sinitic language family. As with other varieties of Chinese (Chinese language), linguists have not yet agreed on whether Teochew should be treated as a language or a dialect although it is mutually unintelligible with other "dialect groups" of China but mutually intelligible with some other Southern Min Languages, such as the dialects of Zhangzhou (漳州话) and Quanzhou (泉州话) probably because of their proximity. Even within the Teochew varieties, there is substantial variation in phonology between different regions of Chaoshan and between different Teochew communities overseas. Geography and climate Longyan is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong (Jiulong River) and Ting (Ting River) Rivers. Longyan borders on the municipalities Sanming to the north, Quanzhou to the east, Zhangzhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Guangdong to the west and south respectively. Economy Longyan serves as a strategic center for the distribution of goods to Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. It also acts as a gateway for trade with Guangdong and Jiangxi province. It is the main connection between the inland and coastal area. History The Han Chinese began arriving in the area during the reign of Qianlong Emperor. Members of the Zhang (Zhang (surname)) clan from Zhangzhou as well as the Jian(簡 (Wiktionary:簡)), Lin (Lin (surname)) and Xiao (Xiao (surname)) clans from Nanjing County in Zhangzhou were among the early settlers. A yamen was established in 1759 near the present Nantou Elementary School. In 1898, Nantou Commandery (Commandery (China)) was organized. After the retrocession of Taiwan to the Republic of China (Political status of Taiwan#Cession, retrocession and self-determination of Taiwan), Nantou County was organized out of Taichung County in 1950, and, in October of the same year, Nantou Township (Administrative divisions of the Republic of China#Structural hierarchy) was organized with the county government seated in it. On July 1, 1957, the Taiwan provincial government (Taiwan Province) moved to Zhongxing New Village, making Nantou the location of the provincial government. In 1981, Nantou became a county-controlled city. Due to its location along the Chelungpu Fault,

Zhangzhou

Quanzhou and Zhangzhou are two major varieties of Southern Min, and in Xiamen they combined to form something "not Quan, not Zhang" – i.e. not one or the other, but rather a fusion, which became known as ''Amoy Dialect'' or ''Amoy Chinese''. Ang, ''A Journey Through Taiwanese Regional Speech'', p. 2. In Taiwan, with its mixture of migrants from both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, the linguistic situation was similar; although the resulting blend in the southern city of Tainan differed from the Xiamen blend, it was close enough that the missionaries could ignore the differences and import their system wholesale. The fact that religious tracts, dictionaries, and teaching guides already existed in the Xiamen tongue meant that the missionaries in Taiwan could begin proselytizing immediately, without the intervening time needed to write those materials. Heylen, ''Romanizing Taiwanese'', p. 160.

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