Zeila

What is Zeila known for?


Circumcision

to Zeila (then the capital of Adal) when he recounts how the Sultan of Aden seized a bishop of Abyssinia traveling through his realm, attempted to convert the man by force, then had him circumcised (circumcision) according to Islamic practice. This action provoked the Abyssinian Emperor into raising an army and capturing the Sultan's capital. Pankhurst, p. 55. Through extensive trade with Abyssinia and Arabia, Adal attained its height of prosperity during


political character

Zeila, finally capturing the city and killing Sultan Sa'ad ad-Din. Early Islamic States in Western Somaliland With the introduction of Islam in the 7th century in what are now the Afar (Afar people)-inhabited parts of Eritrea and Djibouti, the region began to assume a political character independent of Ethiopia. Three Islamic sultanates were founded in and around the area named Shewa (a Semitic-speaking sultanate in eastern Ethiopia, modern Shewa province and ruled by the Mahzumi dynasty, related to Muslim Amhara (Amhara people)s and Argobbas), Ifat (Kingdom of Ifat) (another Semitic-speaking Pankhurst, Richard. ''The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th century'' (Asmara, Eritrea: The Red Sea, Inc., 1997) sultanate located in eastern Ethiopia in what is now eastern Shewa) and Adal and Mora (Gadabursi Clan, Somali, and Harari vassal sultanate of Ifat by 1288, centered around Dakkar and later Harar, with Zeila as its main port and second city, in eastern Ethiopia and in Somaliland's Awdal region; Mora was located in what is now the southern Afar Region of Ethiopia and was subservient to Adal). Ottoman Somaliland In 1548 CE, the port city of Zeila was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. The reason for this was that Zeila is situated in a stragetic location on the Red Sea because it is near the Bab el Mandeb strait; a key area for trade with the East. For 300 years, Zeila enjoyed trade with other countries and was home to Arab, Persian (Persian people) and even Indian merchants. On 1884, when the empire was on the brink of collapse; Egypt, an Ottoman vassal at that time, occupied western parts of Somaliland, the other regions being controlled by Somali clans. Then, During the Scramble for Africa era, the region now claimed by Somaliland was the British Somaliland Protectorate. Biography While little is known of his life, according to Franz Steiner, al-Jabarti was born in the village of Tell el Gabarti in the northern Delta province of Beheira, al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. History of Egypt: 'Aja'ib al-Athar fi 'l-Tarajim wa'l-Akhbar. vol.1. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. 1994. while Abdulkader Saleh states that al-Jabarti was born in Cairo. Abdulkader Saleh, "Ǧäbärti," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed., ''Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha''. Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, p.597. According to al-Jabarti's writings, his name comes from his "seventh-degree grandfather," Abd al-Rahman, who was the earliest member of his family known to him. David Ayalon, "The Historian al-Jabartī and His Background," ''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London'', 1960, p.238 The older Abd al-Rahman was from the al-Jabart region in Zeila, modern Somalia A history of Arabic literature‎ pg 423 by Clément Huart and visited the ''Riwaqs'' of the Jabarti communities in Mecca and Medina before making it to Egypt where he became Sheikh of the ''Riwaq'' there and head of the Jabarti community. - Salal (Salal, Somalia) Zeila Awdal - It took until 1897 before the necessary permission from French authorities was received, by which time significant opposition in Ethiopia had materialised. Elements of the traditional nobility were opposed to the construction, and there were popular demonstrations against it. There was also opposition from the British (United Kingdom) legation in Addis Ababa, which feared a reduction in traffic to the port of Zeila in British Somaliland. The 9th-century Islamic writers Al-Masudi and Yaqub Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi wrote in their book ''Aqeeliyoon'' (which describes the lives and lineages of the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin, Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) sub-clans moved to the city of Zeila in present day Somalia, around the ninth century A.D. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


making quick

Zeila, Shewa common_languages Somali (Somali language), Arabic (Arabic language) The '''Ifat Sultanate''' was a medieval Muslim sultanate in the Horn of Africa. Led by the Walashma dynasty, it was centered in Zeila. The kingdom ruled over parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti and northern Somalia. Despite these steps, Sa'ad ad-Din's practice of making quick raids into Ethiopian territory presented a difficult challenge to the Ethiopian Emperor, and it was not until the sultan was pursued deep into Adal territory that the Ethiopians got purchase on the problem. After a battle between Sa'ad ad-Din and the Ethiopian general Barwa, in which the Ifat army was defeated and "no less than 400 elders, each of whom carried an iron bar as his insignia of office" were killed, Sa'ad ad-Din with his remaining supporters were chased to Zeila in modern Somalia. There, the Emperor besieged Zeila, finally capturing the city and killing Sultan Sa'ad ad-Din. Early Islamic States in Western Somaliland With the introduction of Islam in the 7th century in what are now the Afar (Afar people)-inhabited parts of Eritrea and Djibouti, the region began to assume a political character independent of Ethiopia. Three Islamic sultanates were founded in and around the area named Shewa (a Semitic-speaking sultanate in eastern Ethiopia, modern Shewa province and ruled by the Mahzumi dynasty, related to Muslim Amhara (Amhara people)s and Argobbas), Ifat (Kingdom of Ifat) (another Semitic-speaking Pankhurst, Richard. ''The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th century'' (Asmara, Eritrea: The Red Sea, Inc., 1997) sultanate located in eastern Ethiopia in what is now eastern Shewa) and Adal and Mora (Gadabursi Clan, Somali, and Harari vassal sultanate of Ifat by 1288, centered around Dakkar and later Harar, with Zeila as its main port and second city, in eastern Ethiopia and in Somaliland's Awdal region; Mora was located in what is now the southern Afar Region of Ethiopia and was subservient to Adal). Ottoman Somaliland In 1548 CE, the port city of Zeila was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. The reason for this was that Zeila is situated in a stragetic location on the Red Sea because it is near the Bab el Mandeb strait; a key area for trade with the East. For 300 years, Zeila enjoyed trade with other countries and was home to Arab, Persian (Persian people) and even Indian merchants. On 1884, when the empire was on the brink of collapse; Egypt, an Ottoman vassal at that time, occupied western parts of Somaliland, the other regions being controlled by Somali clans. Then, During the Scramble for Africa era, the region now claimed by Somaliland was the British Somaliland Protectorate. Biography While little is known of his life, according to Franz Steiner, al-Jabarti was born in the village of Tell el Gabarti in the northern Delta province of Beheira, al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. History of Egypt: 'Aja'ib al-Athar fi 'l-Tarajim wa'l-Akhbar. vol.1. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. 1994. while Abdulkader Saleh states that al-Jabarti was born in Cairo. Abdulkader Saleh, "Ǧäbärti," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed., ''Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha''. Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, p.597. According to al-Jabarti's writings, his name comes from his "seventh-degree grandfather," Abd al-Rahman, who was the earliest member of his family known to him. David Ayalon, "The Historian al-Jabartī and His Background," ''Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London'', 1960, p.238 The older Abd al-Rahman was from the al-Jabart region in Zeila, modern Somalia A history of Arabic literature‎ pg 423 by Clément Huart and visited the ''Riwaqs'' of the Jabarti communities in Mecca and Medina before making it to Egypt where he became Sheikh of the ''Riwaq'' there and head of the Jabarti community. - Salal (Salal, Somalia) Zeila Awdal - It took until 1897 before the necessary permission from French authorities was received, by which time significant opposition in Ethiopia had materialised. Elements of the traditional nobility were opposed to the construction, and there were popular demonstrations against it. There was also opposition from the British (United Kingdom) legation in Addis Ababa, which feared a reduction in traffic to the port of Zeila in British Somaliland. The 9th-century Islamic writers Al-Masudi and Yaqub Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi wrote in their book ''Aqeeliyoon'' (which describes the lives and lineages of the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin, Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) sub-clans moved to the city of Zeila in present day Somalia, around the ninth century A.D. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


remarkable+strength

took place, is still of remarkable strength; almost marble. thumb right 300px Sheikh Darod (Image:Darod2.JPG)'s tomb in Haylaan, Somalia. In addition, the Somali community has produced numerous important Islamic figures over the centuries, many of whom have significantly shaped the course of Muslim learning and practice in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and well beyond. Among these Islamic scholars is the 14th century Somali theologian and jurist Uthman


founding period

, the polity was governed by local dynasties consisting of Somalized Arabs (Arab people) or Arabized Somalis, who also ruled over the similarly-established Sultanate of Mogadishu in the Benadir region to the south. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia (Ethiopian Empire). thumb right 280px Ruins of the Muslim (File:Zayla.jpg) Adal Sultanate Sultanate of Adal


oil making

of Aden.jpg thumb right A dhow in the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden is a vital waterway for shipping, especially for Persian Gulf oil (Petroleum), making it an integral waterway in the world economy. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


extensive commercial

or Berber (ancestral Somalis (Somali people)) who inhabited the area are recorded in the 1st century CE Greek document the ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'' as engaging in extensive commercial exchanges with Egypt and pre-Islamic Arabia. The travelogue mentions the Barbaroi trading frankincense, among various other commodities, through their port cities such as Avalites (modern Zeila). Competent seamen, the Periplus' author also indicates that they sailed throughout the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden for trade. The document describes the Barbaroi's system of governance as decentralized, and essentially consisting of a collection of autonomous city-states. Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press, 2001), pp.13-14 It also suggests that "the Berbers who live in the place are very unruly", Wilfred Harvey Schoff, The ''Periplus of the Erythræan sea (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea)'': travel and trade in the Indian Ocean, (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912) p.25 an apparent reference to their independent streak. Adal kingdom Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


time significant

, modern Somalia A history of Arabic literature‎ pg 423 by Clément Huart and visited the ''Riwaqs'' of the Jabarti communities in Mecca and Medina before making it to Egypt where he became Sheikh of the ''Riwaq'' there and head of the Jabarti community. - Salal (Salal, Somalia) Zeila Awdal - It took until 1897 before the necessary permission from French authorities was received, by which time

significant opposition in Ethiopia had materialised. Elements of the traditional nobility were opposed to the construction, and there were popular demonstrations against it. There was also opposition from the British (United Kingdom) legation in Addis Ababa, which feared a reduction in traffic to the port of Zeila in British Somaliland. The 9th-century Islamic writers Al-Masudi and Yaqub Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi wrote in their book ''Aqeeliyoon'' (which describes the lives and lineages of the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin, Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) sub-clans moved to the city of Zeila in present day Somalia, around the ninth century A.D. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


historic position

route between Tadjoura and Shewa cut further into Zeila's historic position as the main regional port. Abir, ''Era of the Princes'', p. 16 Ottoman period Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


significant military

, and gives the credit to Emperor Yeshaq (Yeshaq I of Ethiopia). J. Spencer Trimingham, ''Islam in Ethiopia'' (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 74 and note explains the discrepancy in the sources; some historians pick one of the two possible dates (e.g. Paul Henze selects 1403 in ''Layers of Time, A History of Ethiopia'' New York: Palgrave, 2000 , p. 67) without even mentioning the problem.) Eskender's most significant military accomplishment was sacking Dakkar, the capital of the Adal Sultanate, in 1478; despite this achievement, as he led his army back home, the larger Adal army under amir Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din overtook them, killing many of his men and taking many prisoners. Eskender was said to have escaped capture only through the assistance of angels, and afterwards he built a church named Debere Meshwa'e, "Place of Sacrifice". Richard Pankhurst, ''The Ethiopian Borderlands'' (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp. 121f There is some disagreement over the context of this campaign. One view is presented by James Bruce, who adds that Zasillus, governor of Amhara (Amhara province), had been commanded to mobilize the forces in the south while Eskender himself raised levies from Angot and Tigray (Tigray Province); according to Bruce, Eskender was responding to the predations of Mahfuz of Zeila. Bruce, ''Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile'' (1805 edition), vol. 3, pp. 144f More recent scholars, such as Richard Pankhurst (Richard Pankhurst (academic)), hold that Eskender's sack of Dakkar led to Amir Muhammad to seek peace with the Ethiopians, but he was outmaneuvered by Mahfuz. '''Mahfuz''' (or '''Mohammed''') ( Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila

Zeila

'''Zeila''' ( ), also known as '''Zaila''', As in the 1911 Britannica--see the External links below and a quote from it later in this article--and also more currently in writings . The Most Historical City" . is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.

In antiquity, it was identified with the commercial port of Avalites described in the 1st century Greco-Roman travelogue the ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'', an area that was situated in the historic northern Barbara (Barbara (region)) region. The town evolved into an early Islamic center with the arrival of Muslims shortly after the hijra (Hijra (Islam)). By the 9th century, Zeila would be described as the capital of an already-established Adal kingdom (Adal Sultanate), and would attain its height of prosperity a few centuries later in the 1300s. The city subsequently came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) and British (British Empire) protection.

In the post-independence period, Zeila was administered as part of the official Zeila District in the Awdal region of Somalia. It serves as the province's commercial capital and is a major seaport within the autonomous Awdalland region.

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