Wuwei, Gansu

What is Wuwei, Gansu known for?


acting military

chancellor in 728, at Xiao's recommendation, Niu was made the secretary general of Liang Prefecture (涼州, roughly modern Wuwei) and acting military governor of Hexi. Xiao continued to recommend him, and eventually, Niu was made the military governor. While serving as military governor, Niu was frugal and saved a large amount of surplus for the governmental treasury, and also had good armor and weapons made. After the Yangs' death, Wei Jiansu was the only remaining high level official in the imperial train, and the remaining generals had differences in opinion about what to do next—with many not wanting to proceed further to Jiannan because Yang was the military governor (''jiedushi'') of Jiannan, and therefore they saw Jiannan as a potential trap. There were therefore various suggestions: to flee to Hexi (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and Longyou (隴右, headquartered in modern Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai) Circuits; to flee to Lingwu; to flee to Taiyuan; and to return to Chang'an. Emperor Xuanzong was intent on still going to Jiannan, but did not dare to offend the soldiers. At Wei E's suggestion, he proceeded to Fufeng (扶風, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), leaving Li Heng (Emperor Suzong of Tang) the Crown Prince behind as rear guard—but Li Heng was subsequently detained by the soldiers, who believed that a counterattack should be launched, and eventually departed from Emperor Xuanzong and proceeded to Lingwu. Early career Yang Yan was known in his youth for his handsome eyebrows and beard, his ability to stand up against monetary enticements, and his beautiful writing. In his home region, he became known as the younger Yang ''Shanren'' (山人), implying that he was a Taoist hermit. Later, he took off his hermit robes and served as a secretary under Lü Chongbi (呂崇賁) the military governor (''Jiedushi'') of Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). He had previously been humiliated by Li Dajian (李大簡), and he became a colleague of Li's after he came to serve under Lü, and he took the opportunity, on one occasion, to batter Li severely along with his guards, almost causing Li's death. Lü, however, favored his talent and did not punish him. Later, when the major general Li Guangbi invited him to serve as an assistant, he declined, and he also declined a promotion to serve as an imperial chronicler at the capital Chang'an. Instead, he returned home to support his mother. After his mother died, he was honored for his filial piety to her — and it was said that it was unprecedented, at that point, that a household would be decorated for three straight generations for their filial piety. During the Anshi Rebellion In 755, the general An Lushan rebelled against Emperor Xuanzong's rule, and by 756, the forces of his state of Yan (Yan (Anshi)) were approaching the Tang capital Chang'an, forcing Emperor Xuanzong to flee to Jiannan Circuit (劍南, headquartered in modern Chengdu, Sichuan). Emperor Xuanzong's son and crown prince Li Heng (Emperor Suzong of Tang) fled to Lingwu and was declared emperor there (as Emperor Suzong). Emperor Suzong summoned forces from various border outposts, including from Anxi. Li Siye was then the deputy military governor of Anxi, and he initially suggested to the military governor Liang Zai (梁宰) that they wait for more information. Duan Xiushi, however, rebuked him, pointing out that Emperor Suzong's position was desperate. Li Siye changed his mind and agreed with Duan, and Liang subsequently commissioned Li Siye to lead the Anxi forces to rendezvous with Emperor Suzong at Fengxiang (鳳翔, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), with Duan as his deputy. The ''Zizhi Tongjian'', which provided the account about Li Siye's and Duan's initial disagreement and later agreement, actually indicated that both of them were then serving at Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu), but as that was inconsistent with all other accounts of where Li Siye and Duan were then serving, it appeared far more likely that they were then still at Anxi. See ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 218 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷218). On the way, under LI Siye's orders, the army followed strict discipline and did not cause damage to the people. When LI Siye's army arrived at Fengxiang, Emperor Suzong was very pleased, and had LI Siye serve as a commander of the imperial forces, along with Guo Ziyi and Pugu Huai'en. At this time, it was said that Li Siye's weapon of choice was still his staff, and that he would lead his forces into battle, charging while swinging his staff, and was without rival. He was made the commander of the expedition forces from Anxi and Beiting (北庭, headquartered in modern Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang). After his victory over Chen, Liu Yao continued west and attacked the Jin vassal Former Liang, crushing all bases that Former Liang had east of the Yellow River. He declared that he would next cross the Yellow River and head for the Former Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu), but instead was intending to intimidate the Former Liang leader Zhang Mao (then carrying the Jin-created title Duke of Xiping) into submission. Zhang was indeed intimidated and submitted to Han Zhao suzerainty. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang. However, in 323, after the Han Zhao emperor Liu Yao defeated Chen An, he continued on and reached the Yellow River, claiming to be ready to cross it. Zhang went into a battle posture, but negotiated peace, agreeing to submit to Han Zhao authority and offering tributes of horses, livestock, and jewels. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang and granted him the nine bestowments. With the Han conquest of the Hexi Corridor in 121 BC, the city-states at the Tarim Basin were caught in between the onslaught of the war, with much shifting of allegiance. Millward (2006), 21. There were several Han military expeditions undertaken to secure the submission of the local kings to the Han empire; the Han took control of the regions for strategic purposes while the Xiongnu needed the regions as a source of revenue. Due to the ensuing war with the Han empire, the Xiongnu were forced to extract more crafts and agricultural foodstuffs from the Tarim Basin urban centers. Cosmo (2002), 250–251. By 115 BC, the Han had set up commanderies (Commandery (China)) at Jiuquan and Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), while extending the old Qin (Qin Dynasty) fortifications from Lingju to the area west of Dunhuang. From 115 to 60 BC, the Han and Xiongnu battled for control and influence over these states, Yü (1986), 390–391. which saw the rise of power of the Han empire over eastern Central Asia with the decline of that of the Xiongnu's. Lewis (2007), 137–138. The Han empire brought the states of Loulan (Loulan Kingdom), Jushi (Turpan), Luntai (Bügür), Dayuan (Ferghana), and Kangju (Soghdiana) into tributary submission (List of tributaries of Imperial China) between 108 to 101 BC. Chang (2007b), 174; Yü (1986), 409–411. The farthest-reaching invasion was Li Guangli's four-year campaign (War of the Heavenly Horses) towards Ferghana (Fergana Valley) in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya valleys (present-day Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Yü (1986), 409–411. The long walled defense line that now stretched all the way to Dunhuang protected the people, guided caravans and troops to and from Central Asia, and served to separate the Xiongnu from their allies, the Qiang people. Loewe (2009), 71. However, the jailer Huyan Ping (呼延平) was a former subordinate of Murong De's, and he took Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter (Empress Huyan (Murong Chao)) as his wife. However, Huyan Ping was then the jailer, and took Murong Na and Murong De's mother Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter as his wife. '''Lü Long''' (呂隆) (died 416), courtesy name '''Yongji''' (永基), was the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Di (Di (ethnic group)) state Later Liang. He was the nephew of the founding emperor Lü Guang (Emperor Yiwu), and he took the throne after his brother Lü Chao (呂超) assassinated the emperor Lü Zuan (Emperor Ling) in 401 and offered the throne to him. During his reign, Later Liang was under constant attacks by Northern Liang and Southern Liang and reduced largely to its capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). In 403, Lü Long decided to end the state by surrendering Guzang to Later Qin's emperor Yao Xing. He became a Later Qin official, but after aligning himself with Yao Xing's son Yao Bi (姚弼), who made unsuccessful attempts to seize the crown prince position from Yao Hong, was executed by Yao Hong after Yao Xing's death in 416. Early reign Juqu Mengxun, having taken the ducal title, promoted a number of officials who were considered capable, and it was said that the people of his state were pleased. He also nominally submitted to the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing as a vassal, although remaining in reality independent. However, he immediately faced the crisis that his Jiuquan (酒泉) and Liangning (涼寧) Commanderies (roughly modern Jiuquan, Gansu) rebelled against him and joined Western Liang. He became fearful, and he sent his brother Juqu Ru (沮渠挐) the Marquess of Dugu and official Zhang Qian (張潜) to meet Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德), who had just recently sieged Later Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and forced the Later Liang emperor Lü Long to submit, offering to surrender his state to Later Qin. Yao Shuode was pleased, but upon return to Northern Liang, while Zhang recommended such surrender, Juqu Ru argued against it, and Juqu Mengxun, while remaining nominally a Later Qin vassal, executed Zhang and never actually surrendered his state. He also tried to make peace with Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, initially sending his son Juqu Xi'nian (沮渠奚念) as a hostage to Southern Liang, but Tufa Lilugu rejected Juqu Xi'nian, stating that he was too young to be a meaningful hostage and demanding Juqu Ru instead. After initially refusing, Juqu Mengxun gave in to Southern Liang demands after Tufa Lilugu defeated him in battle. Very little is known about Princess Meng. She was mentioned as Juqu Mengxun's wife in 413, when she thwarted an assassination attempt against him by the eunuch Wang Huaizu (王懷祖) and captured Wang. She was probably the mother of his first two heirs apparent (heir apparent) Juqu Xingguo (沮渠興國) and Juqu Puti (沮渠菩提), although this is not completely clear. It appears unlikely that she was the mother of his actual successor Juqu Mujian. During Juqu Mujian's reign, a princess dowager was mentioned, without any names, and it could have been Princess Meng or Juqu Mujian's birth mother. If it was Princess Meng, then she died in the Northern Wei capital Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) after Juqu Mujian's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) had fallen to Northern Wei forces and he had been taken captive, but she was still buried with honors due a princess. The succession table below assumes that she survived to Juqu Mengxun's death in 433, but that is obviously conjecture. In 439, aggravated that Juqu Mujian's sister and sister-in-law Lady Li (with whom Juqu Mujian was having an affair) had tried to poison Princess Wuwei, and also unhappy that Juqu Mujian had friendly relations with Rouran, decided to launch a major attack on Northern Liang. Li Shun, who had previously advised him to attack Northern Liang, by this point had somehow switched positions and, along with Tuxi Bi, opposed such military actions, stating falsely that there was so little water and grass for grazing in Northern Liang that Northern Wei troops would suffer from thirst and hunger. At Cui Hao's insistence, however, Emperor Taiwu believed that he could conquer Northern Liang, and he launched the campaign. He quickly reached the Northern Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) in the fall, capturing it after a short siege. Meanwhile, Yujiulü Wuti had launched a surprise attack on Pingcheng to try to save Northern Liang, but was repelled. (Cui Hao, who was a political enemy of Li Shun's, would attribute Li's switch in position to bribes by Juqu Mujian, and later Emperor Taiwu would force Li to commit suicide.) Northern Liang territory was largely in Northern Wei's control, and although both Juqu Mujian's brother Juqu Wuhui and Tufa Baozhou (禿髮保周), a son of Southern Liang's last prince Tufa Rutan, would try to hold various parts of Northern Liang territory, by 440 Tufa Baozhou would be dead by suicide after failures, and by 441 Juqu Wuhui had fled to Gaochang. Northern China was now united under Emperor Taiwu's reign, ending the Sixteen Kingdoms era and starting the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. He continued to treat Juqu Mujian as a brother-in-law, and Juqu Mujian was allowed to continue carry the title of Prince of Hexi. In 439, Emperor Taiwu, even though by this point he had taken Juqu Mengxun's daughter as a concubine and had married his sister Princess Wuwei (Princess Tuoba) to Juqu Mengxun's son and successor Juqu Mujian, became resolved to conquer Northern Liang, and Cui greatly encouraged him, despite opposition from other key officials, including Li Shun, Daxin Jin (達奚斤), and Tuxi Bi (吐奚弼). (Why Li switched his position from supporting a campaign to opposing it at this point was unclear, but Cui would later accuse him of having accepted bribes from Juqu Mengxun and Juqu Mujian.) Li and Tuxi argued that Northern Liang's territory was desolate, and that the Northern Wei army would run out of food and water. Emperor Taiwu followed Cui's suggestion, and was able to quickly conquer Northern Liang and force Juqu Mujian's surrender—and when he saw that the region around Northern Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) was exceptionally fertile, he became very resentful of Li, and would eventually force Li to commit suicide in 442. Meanwhile, after the conquest of Northern Liang, at Cui's request, Juqu Mujian's officials Yin Zhongda (陰仲達) and Duan Chenggen (段承根) were added to Cui's staff of historians. He also added Gao Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Wei)) to his staff around this time.


books title

created him the Prince of Liang. However, in 323, after the Han Zhao emperor Liu Yao defeated Chen An, he continued on and reached the Yellow River, claiming to be ready to cross it. Zhang went into a battle posture, but negotiated peace, agreeing to submit to Han Zhao authority and offering tributes of horses, livestock, and jewels. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang and granted him the nine bestowments.


academic studies

composition, constitute typical examples of the Han Chinese burial style that can be found all over China. Other graves found along the Hexi Corridor show Xiongnu and other minority influence, which are used to trace regimes such as the Northern Liang.


military success

In late 749, Shilidaqieluo (失里怛伽羅), a prince of the Tuhuoluo (吐火羅, believed by some to be the Tocharians), reported to Tang that the king of Qieshi (朅師, believed to be in modern northern India), had been aligned with Tufan to pin down Chinese forces stationed at Lesser Bolü, and suggested that Emperor Xuanzong send forces the region. In spring 750, Emperor Xuanzong sent Gao Xianzhi to attack Qieshi, capturing its king Botemo (勃特沒) and making Botemo's son Sujia (素迦) king instead. He then made a peace treaty with Shi (石國, modern Tashkent, Uzbekistan) and then, once Shi stood down its defenses, attacked it without warning. He captured the Shi king Chebishi (車鼻施) and sent Chebishi to Chang'an to be executed, drawing great anger from the nearby states, particularly after Gao slaughtered the old and weak captives. Gao also personally took much treasure in the battle—a large supply of diamonds, several camel-loads of gold, prized horses, and other treasures. In spring 751, Gao personally visited Chang'an, and, for his contributions, Emperor Xuanzong gave him the honorific title ''Kaifu Yitong Sansi'' (開府儀同三司) and was poised to move him to Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu), when the military governor of that circuit, An Sishun, resisted the move. Emperor Xuanzong allowed An to remain at Hexi and Gao to remain at Anxi. Early life Jia Xu was born in Gozang (姑臧) in Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu) (now Wuwei, Gansu). He received proper education since his childhood. A man from Hanyang named Yan Zhong (閻忠) once stated that Jia Xu had the genius of Zhang Liang (Zhang Liang (Western Han)) and Chen Ping (Chen Ping (Han Dynasty)), two famous strategists in the early Han dynasty. He was appointed as an official in the Eastern Han government when he was a youth. However, upon seeing the corruption in the government at the time, he returned to Wuwei with excuses of sickness. On the way back he was captured by rebels from the Di tribe (Di (ethnic group)) along with several other travellers. He lied that he was the grandson-in-law of Duan Gong (段熲), a popular general at that time, and was treated with respect and released, while the other travellers were all executed. In 738, Li Linfu was made the deputy military governor of Longyou Circuit (隴右, headquartered in Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai), but did not report to Longyou and remained in the capital as chancellor. He was soon also made the military governor of Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). Meanwhile, he was repeatedly urging Emperor Xuanzong to create Li Mao crown prince, but Emperor Xuanzong hesitated—with Consort Wu having died in 737. Instead, at Gao's urging, Emperor Xuanzong created an older son, Li Yu (Emperor Suzong of Tang) the Prince of Zhong crown prince instead. In 740, Emperor Xuanzong, impressed at the military accomplishments of the general Gai Jiayun (蓋嘉運), the military governor of Hexi (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and Longyou (隴右, headquartered in modern Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai) Circuits, summoned him to the capital to reward him and commissioned him to plan an attack on Tufan. Gai, happy about the imperial favor, lingered in Chang'an and did not immediately depart. Pei submitted a petition, pointing out that while Gai was brave, he was becoming arrogant and unattentive in light of imperial favors. He suggested that Gai's commission be cancelled, or, in the least, that Emperor Xuanzong order Gai to immediately return to his command. Emperor Xuanzong did the latter. Later, as Pei predicted, Gai was unable to prevail over Tufan. During Emperor Xuanzong's reign Early in the ''Kaiyuan'' era (613-641) of Emperor Gaozong's grandson Emperor Xuanzong (Emperor Xuanzong of Tang), the general Wang Junchuo (王君㚟) served as the military governor (''jiedushi'') of Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). Niu Xianke and Song Zhen (宋貞) served as his assistants and were his close associates. In 727, when Wang and Song were killed in an ambush by the Huige tribal leader Yaoluoge Hushu (藥羅葛護輸), Niu escaped death. Subsequently, when Emperor Xuanzong made the general Xiao Song the military governor of Hexi to replace Wang, Niu and Pei Kuan (裴寬) served under Xiao. Xiao entrusted much responsibility to Niu, and Niu was said to be honest and hard-working, and he began to impress the prominent people of the region despite his humble origins. After Xiao became chancellor (chancellor of Tang Dynasty) in 728, at Xiao's recommendation, Niu was made the secretary general of Liang Prefecture (涼州, roughly modern Wuwei) and acting military governor of Hexi. Xiao continued to recommend him, and eventually, Niu was made the military governor. While serving as military governor, Niu was frugal and saved a large amount of surplus for the governmental treasury, and also had good armor and weapons made. After the Yangs' death, Wei Jiansu was the only remaining high level official in the imperial train, and the remaining generals had differences in opinion about what to do next—with many not wanting to proceed further to Jiannan because Yang was the military governor (''jiedushi'') of Jiannan, and therefore they saw Jiannan as a potential trap. There were therefore various suggestions: to flee to Hexi (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and Longyou (隴右, headquartered in modern Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai) Circuits; to flee to Lingwu; to flee to Taiyuan; and to return to Chang'an. Emperor Xuanzong was intent on still going to Jiannan, but did not dare to offend the soldiers. At Wei E's suggestion, he proceeded to Fufeng (扶風, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), leaving Li Heng (Emperor Suzong of Tang) the Crown Prince behind as rear guard—but Li Heng was subsequently detained by the soldiers, who believed that a counterattack should be launched, and eventually departed from Emperor Xuanzong and proceeded to Lingwu. Early career Yang Yan was known in his youth for his handsome eyebrows and beard, his ability to stand up against monetary enticements, and his beautiful writing. In his home region, he became known as the younger Yang ''Shanren'' (山人), implying that he was a Taoist hermit. Later, he took off his hermit robes and served as a secretary under Lü Chongbi (呂崇賁) the military governor (''Jiedushi'') of Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). He had previously been humiliated by Li Dajian (李大簡), and he became a colleague of Li's after he came to serve under Lü, and he took the opportunity, on one occasion, to batter Li severely along with his guards, almost causing Li's death. Lü, however, favored his talent and did not punish him. Later, when the major general Li Guangbi invited him to serve as an assistant, he declined, and he also declined a promotion to serve as an imperial chronicler at the capital Chang'an. Instead, he returned home to support his mother. After his mother died, he was honored for his filial piety to her — and it was said that it was unprecedented, at that point, that a household


famous cultural

(184-280), Liangzhou was governed by Qiang (Qiang (historical people)) leader Ma Teng. After the death of Ma Teng, Ma Chao assumed the post and governed the province for a short time before it fell into the hands of Cao Cao, ruler of Wei Kingdom. Famous cultural relics from Wuwei include the Galloping Bronze Horse ( ), Luoshi Temple Tower


year campaign

;ref Lewis (2007), 137–138. The Han empire brought the states of Loulan (Loulan Kingdom), Jushi (Turpan), Luntai (Bügür), Dayuan (Ferghana), and Kangju (Soghdiana) into tributary submission (List of tributaries of Imperial China) between 108 to 101 BC. Chang (2007b), 174; Yü (1986), 409–411. The farthest-reaching invasion was Li Guangli's four-year campaign (War of the Heavenly Horses) towards Ferghana (Fergana Valley) in the Syr Darya


beautiful writing

. Early career Yang Yan was known in his youth for his handsome eyebrows and beard, his ability to stand up against monetary enticements, and his beautiful writing. In his home region, he became known as the younger Yang ''Shanren'' (山人), implying that he was a Taoist hermit. Later, he took off his hermit robes and served as a secretary under Lü Chongbi (呂崇賁) the military governor (''Jiedushi'') of Hexi Circuit (河西, headquartered in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). He had


including ancient

Road , ''Silk Road, North China'', C Michael Hogan, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A Burnham and a number of important archaeological finds were uncovered from Wuwei, including ancient copper carts with stone animals. Zhang Yiping, ''Story of the Silk Road'', 2005, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 750850832 The motifs and types of objects in the Wuwei graves, as well as their earthenware, lacquer, and bronze


silk

to western China and the rest of Central Asia, many major railroads and national highways pass through Wuwei. History right thumb 240px Wen Miao Confucianism Confucian (File:WuweiTemple.jpg) temple. In ancient times, Wuwei was called Liangzhou ( - the name retained by today's Wuwei's central urban district (Liangzhou District)) and is the eastern terminus of the Hexi Corridor. People began settling here 5,000 years ago. It was a key link for the Northern Silk

Road , ''Silk Road, North China'', C Michael Hogan, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A Burnham and a number of important archaeological finds were uncovered from Wuwei, including ancient copper carts with stone animals. Zhang Yiping, ''Story of the Silk Road'', 2005, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 750850832 The motifs and types of objects in the Wuwei graves, as well as their earthenware, lacquer, and bronze

Wudi brought his cavalry here to defend the Hexi Corridor against the Xiongnu Huns. His military success allowed him to expand the corridor westward. Its importance as a stop along the Silk Road made it a crossroads of cultures and ethnic groups from all over central Asia. Numerous Buddhist (Buddhism) grottoes and temples in the area attest to its role as a path for bringing Buddhism from India and Afghanistan to China. During the Three Kingdoms period


created title

and attacked the Jin vassal Former Liang, crushing all bases that Former Liang had east of the Yellow River. He declared that he would next cross the Yellow River and head for the Former Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu), but instead was intending to intimidate the Former Liang leader Zhang Mao (then carrying the Jin-created title Duke of Xiping) into submission. Zhang was indeed intimidated and submitted to Han Zhao suzerainty. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang. However, in 323, after the Han Zhao emperor Liu Yao defeated Chen An, he continued on and reached the Yellow River, claiming to be ready to cross it. Zhang went into a battle posture, but negotiated peace, agreeing to submit to Han Zhao authority and offering tributes of horses, livestock, and jewels. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang and granted him the nine bestowments. With the Han conquest of the Hexi Corridor in 121 BC, the city-states at the Tarim Basin were caught in between the onslaught of the war, with much shifting of allegiance. Millward (2006), 21. There were several Han military expeditions undertaken to secure the submission of the local kings to the Han empire; the Han took control of the regions for strategic purposes while the Xiongnu needed the regions as a source of revenue. Due to the ensuing war with the Han empire, the Xiongnu were forced to extract more crafts and agricultural foodstuffs from the Tarim Basin urban centers. Cosmo (2002), 250–251. By 115 BC, the Han had set up commanderies (Commandery (China)) at Jiuquan and Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), while extending the old Qin (Qin Dynasty) fortifications from Lingju to the area west of Dunhuang. From 115 to 60 BC, the Han and Xiongnu battled for control and influence over these states, Yü (1986), 390–391. which saw the rise of power of the Han empire over eastern Central Asia with the decline of that of the Xiongnu's. Lewis (2007), 137–138. The Han empire brought the states of Loulan (Loulan Kingdom), Jushi (Turpan), Luntai (Bügür), Dayuan (Ferghana), and Kangju (Soghdiana) into tributary submission (List of tributaries of Imperial China) between 108 to 101 BC. Chang (2007b), 174; Yü (1986), 409–411. The farthest-reaching invasion was Li Guangli's four-year campaign (War of the Heavenly Horses) towards Ferghana (Fergana Valley) in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya valleys (present-day Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Yü (1986), 409–411. The long walled defense line that now stretched all the way to Dunhuang protected the people, guided caravans and troops to and from Central Asia, and served to separate the Xiongnu from their allies, the Qiang people. Loewe (2009), 71. However, the jailer Huyan Ping (呼延平) was a former subordinate of Murong De's, and he took Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter (Empress Huyan (Murong Chao)) as his wife. However, Huyan Ping was then the jailer, and took Murong Na and Murong De's mother Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter as his wife. '''Lü Long''' (呂隆) (died 416), courtesy name '''Yongji''' (永基), was the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Di (Di (ethnic group)) state Later Liang. He was the nephew of the founding emperor Lü Guang (Emperor Yiwu), and he took the throne after his brother Lü Chao (呂超) assassinated the emperor Lü Zuan (Emperor Ling) in 401 and offered the throne to him. During his reign, Later Liang was under constant attacks by Northern Liang and Southern Liang and reduced largely to its capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). In 403, Lü Long decided to end the state by surrendering Guzang to Later Qin's emperor Yao Xing. He became a Later Qin official, but after aligning himself with Yao Xing's son Yao Bi (姚弼), who made unsuccessful attempts to seize the crown prince position from Yao Hong, was executed by Yao Hong after Yao Xing's death in 416. Early reign Juqu Mengxun, having taken the ducal title, promoted a number of officials who were considered capable, and it was said that the people of his state were pleased. He also nominally submitted to the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing as a vassal, although remaining in reality independent. However, he immediately faced the crisis that his Jiuquan (酒泉) and Liangning (涼寧) Commanderies (roughly modern Jiuquan, Gansu) rebelled against him and joined Western Liang. He became fearful, and he sent his brother Juqu Ru (沮渠挐) the Marquess of Dugu and official Zhang Qian (張潜) to meet Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德), who had just recently sieged Later Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and forced the Later Liang emperor Lü Long to submit, offering to surrender his state to Later Qin. Yao Shuode was pleased, but upon return to Northern Liang, while Zhang recommended such surrender, Juqu Ru argued against it, and Juqu Mengxun, while remaining nominally a Later Qin vassal, executed Zhang and never actually surrendered his state. He also tried to make peace with Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, initially sending his son Juqu Xi'nian (沮渠奚念) as a hostage to Southern Liang, but Tufa Lilugu rejected Juqu Xi'nian, stating that he was too young to be a meaningful hostage and demanding Juqu Ru instead. After initially refusing, Juqu Mengxun gave in to Southern Liang demands after Tufa Lilugu defeated him in battle. Very little is known about Princess Meng. She was mentioned as Juqu Mengxun's wife in 413, when she thwarted an assassination attempt against him by the eunuch Wang Huaizu (王懷祖) and captured Wang. She was probably the mother of his first two heirs apparent (heir apparent) Juqu Xingguo (沮渠興國) and Juqu Puti (沮渠菩提), although this is not completely clear. It appears unlikely that she was the mother of his actual successor Juqu Mujian. During Juqu Mujian's reign, a princess dowager was mentioned, without any names, and it could have been Princess Meng or Juqu Mujian's birth mother. If it was Princess Meng, then she died in the Northern Wei capital Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) after Juqu Mujian's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) had fallen to Northern Wei forces and he had been taken captive, but she was still buried with honors due a princess. The succession table below assumes that she survived to Juqu Mengxun's death in 433, but that is obviously conjecture. In 439, aggravated that Juqu Mujian's sister and sister-in-law Lady Li (with whom Juqu Mujian was having an affair) had tried to poison Princess Wuwei, and also unhappy that Juqu Mujian had friendly relations with Rouran, decided to launch a major attack on Northern Liang. Li Shun, who had previously advised him to attack Northern Liang, by this point had somehow switched positions and, along with Tuxi Bi, opposed such military actions, stating falsely that there was so little water and grass for grazing in Northern Liang that Northern Wei troops would suffer from thirst and hunger. At Cui Hao's insistence, however, Emperor Taiwu believed that he could conquer Northern Liang, and he launched the campaign. He quickly reached the Northern Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) in the fall, capturing it after a short siege. Meanwhile, Yujiulü Wuti had launched a surprise attack on Pingcheng to try to save Northern Liang, but was repelled. (Cui Hao, who was a political enemy of Li Shun's, would attribute Li's switch in position to bribes by Juqu Mujian, and later Emperor Taiwu would force Li to commit suicide.) Northern Liang territory was largely in Northern Wei's control, and although both Juqu Mujian's brother Juqu Wuhui and Tufa Baozhou (禿髮保周), a son of Southern Liang's last prince Tufa Rutan, would try to hold various parts of Northern Liang territory, by 440 Tufa Baozhou would be dead by suicide after failures, and by 441 Juqu Wuhui had fled to Gaochang. Northern China was now united under Emperor Taiwu's reign, ending the Sixteen Kingdoms era and starting the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. He continued to treat Juqu Mujian as a brother-in-law, and Juqu Mujian was allowed to continue carry the title of Prince of Hexi. In 439, Emperor Taiwu, even though by this point he had taken Juqu Mengxun's daughter as a concubine and had married his sister Princess Wuwei (Princess Tuoba) to Juqu Mengxun's son and successor Juqu Mujian, became resolved to conquer Northern Liang, and Cui greatly encouraged him, despite opposition from other key officials, including Li Shun, Daxin Jin (達奚斤), and Tuxi Bi (吐奚弼). (Why Li switched his position from supporting a campaign to opposing it at this point was unclear, but Cui would later accuse him of having accepted bribes from Juqu Mengxun and Juqu Mujian.) Li and Tuxi argued that Northern Liang's territory was desolate, and that the Northern Wei army would run out of food and water. Emperor Taiwu followed Cui's suggestion, and was able to quickly conquer Northern Liang and force Juqu Mujian's surrender—and when he saw that the region around Northern Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) was exceptionally fertile, he became very resentful of Li, and would eventually force Li to commit suicide in 442. Meanwhile, after the conquest of Northern Liang, at Cui's request, Juqu Mujian's officials Yin Zhongda (陰仲達) and Duan Chenggen (段承根) were added to Cui's staff of historians. He also added Gao Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Wei)) to his staff around this time.

Wuwei, Gansu

'''Wuwei''' ( ) is a prefecture-level city in northwest central Gansu province. In the north it borders Inner Mongolia, in the southwest, Qinghai. Its central location between three western capitals, Lanzhou, Xining, and Yinchuan makes it an important business and transportation hub for the area. Because of its position along the Hexi Corridor, historically the only route from central China to western China and the rest of Central Asia, many major railroads and national highways pass through Wuwei.

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