Works Progress Administration

What is Works Progress Administration known for?


original feature

. The latest renovation won a 2001 National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The center column was not an original feature, and was added in the 1939 renovation. Many American artists of the early 20th century came under the influence of anarchist ideas, while others embraced anarchism as an ideology. The Ashcan School of American realism included anarchist artists, as well as artists such as Rockwell Kent (1882–1971) and George Bellows (1882-1925) who were influenced by anarchist ideas. Abstract expressionism also included anarchist artists such as Mark Rothko and painters such as Jackson Pollock, who had adopted radical ideas during his experience as a muralist for the Works Progress Administration. Pollock's father had also been a Wobbly (Industrial Workers of the World). thumb 200px left Bricktown Canal Landrun Statues. (Image:Bricktown Canal Landrun Statues.JPG) The new city continued to grow at a steady rate until December 4, 1928, when oil was discovered in the city. Oil wells popped up everywhere, even on the south lawn on the capitol building, and the sudden influx of oil money within the city and throughout the state greatly accelerated the city's growth. While those who had made money during this early oil boom largely escaped the Depression, the majority of Americans and Oklahomans were not so lucky. By 1935, rural migrants and unemployed workers had built a massive shanty town (or "Hooverville" after president Herbert Hoover) on the south bank of the North Canadian River. Weisiger, Marsha L., Migrant camps," ''Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture'' (accessed May 26, 2010). The river often flooded, bringing disease and misery to the people living there. As part of the "New Deal", the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps greatly reduced the level of the river to prevent flooding (a move which would later become a problem for city leaders stuck with a nearly empty river) and built one of the first experiments with public housing in the country. In 1934 he painted ''The Fleet's In! (Paul Cadmus#List of works)'' while working for the Public Works of Art Project of the WPA (Works Progress Administration). This painting, featuring carousing sailors, women, and a homosexual couple, was the subject of a public outcry and was removed from exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery (Corcoran Gallery of Art). The publicity helped to launch his career. He worked in commercial illustration as well, but Jared French, another tempera artist who befriended him and became his lover for a time, convinced him to devote himself completely to fine art. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


created+illustrations

and in 1936, the peak for employment in this federal project, the Federal Art Project employed over 5,300 artists. The Arts Service Division created illustrations and posters for the WPA writers, musicians, and theaters. The Exhibition Division had public exhibitions of artwork from the WPA, and artists from the Art Teaching Division were employed in settlement houses and community centers to give classes to an estimated 50,000 children and adults. They set up over 100 art centers around the country


including business

Wood . Because the city had diversified its economy before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Lewisville was fairly insulated from the Great Depression. Still, Lewisville residents, including business leaders, supported Franklin D. Roosevelt's (Franklin D. Roosevelt) New Deal programs. By 1936, the Works Progress Administration operated a cannery in the town to provide temporary jobs for unemployed residents.


educational+shows

bowling, and shuffleboard, to tennis. The auditorium hosts clubs for cards, dancing, games, gardening, and numerous hobbies as well as having become the community meeting place for commercial and educational shows and the venue for local schools and charities to hold events and dances. Tourists are attracted to exhibitions provided by local businesses as well as vendors from national circuits. This building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places because of its architecture and for providing the enormous range of community activities that are scheduled at it every week. In the late 1960s, an amendment (constitutional amendment) was passed to the Georgia State Constitution, giving home rule to the 159 counties in Georgia. Led by Ernest Barrett, the first county commission voted to demolish the historic county courthouse, which was located on the northeast corner of Roswell Street (former Georgia 120) and East Park Square (former Georgia 5) since 1888. This loss is now regarded as one of the county's biggest mistakes, and state law now requires a county-wide referendum before destroying historic county courthouses. Other historic buildings, such as the Works Progress Administration building, were also torn down at the time. The Glover Locomotive Works, which had been abandoned (urban decay), was also torn down in the late 1990s despite its historic significance (although it was just outside city limits). plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


performance winning

during the Games was speed-skater Eric Heiden's performance, winning five gold medals. Lansing High School was built in 1941 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) using very beautiful local granite stone. Sylva was once the only town in the United States with a waterfall within its incorporated limits, Dills Falls, but the waterfall was destroyed to make way for the 4-lane Sylva Bypass (US 74 23) in 1973. The town had the first municipally owned swimming pool west of Asheville


film art

plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


track site

flora alongside the road. Gruen & Lee (#Gruen), pp. 34–51. In 1936, Akron civic leaders recognized the need for a permanent track site for the youth racing classic and, through the efforts of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) (Works Progress Administration), Derby Downs became a reality. In June 1939, Tobey attended a Baha'i summer school and overstayed his allotted vacation time. Inverarity dropped him from the WPA project. Fortunately, paintings he had done on the project were included in a Works Progress Administration (WPA) exhibition that August, where they were seen by Marian Willard, who operated a New York art gallery. For a while she worked as a substitute teacher at Hunter College; then, in 1938, she began work on the Mathematical Tables Project of the WPA (Works Progress Administration), for which she was technical director. This entailed designing algorithms that were executed by teams of human computers under her direction. Many of these computers possessed only rudimentary mathematical skills, but the algorithms and error checking in the Mathematical Tables Project were sufficiently well designed that their output defined the standard for transcendental function solution for decades. This project later became the Computation Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards. The Zoo underwent a large expansion during the Great Depression and became a major work site for the Works Progress Administration. Throughout the next several decades, more exhibits and facilities were added, including the Reptile House (1942), Children’s Zoo (1965), Giraffe House and Veterinary Hospital (1967), and The Gorilla Habitat Building (1981). The Zoo’s mission also began to change during the 1980s and 1990s under the direction of Minot Ortolani, as it began reducing the numbers of animals in its collection to focus on the breeding of endangered species that might not otherwise have a chance at survival. In addition to its conservation efforts, the Zoo also placed more of an emphasis on education to teach visitors about the animals and their natural habitats. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


program history

be happy in the theater." Ritt then went to work with the Roosevelt administration's New Deal Works Progress Administration as a playwright for the Federal Theater Project, a federal government-funded theater support program. History In 1939 the Works Progress Administration created a road enabling widespread access to Mount Jefferson (Mount Jefferson (North Carolina)). Local citizens donated land and money in efforts to attain state park status for the local park, which


growing low

January 2. Great Depression Like all the rest of the United States, New Jersey was hit hard by the Great Depression. By 1933, one-tenth of the population were dependent upon the Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. In fact, New Jersey issued begging licenses to the poor and unemployed people because the New Jersey government funds were growing low and were being exhausted. Gerdes


difficult causing

eroded from prehistoric mountains, are a regional landmark. To the north of Tuskahoma lies McKinley Rocks, a series of massive white boulders seemingly strewn across the top of a mountain. Access is difficult, causing a Works Progress Administration survey crew to recommend during the 1930s that the site, while abounding in scenic beauty, should not become a state park due to lack of roads. The rocks, which afford views for miles in any direction, were first noted

Works Progress Administration

thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, Eric Arnesen, ed. ''Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History'' (2007) vol. 1 p. 1540 including the construction of public buildings and roads. In a much smaller but more famous project, the Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.

Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87

thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772 (File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg) At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs. Full employment, which was reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the WPA goal. It tried to provide one paid job for all families in which the breadwinner (Breadwinner model) suffered long-term unemployment. Robert D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal'' (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 64, 184. Robert D. Leighninger asserts that “The stated goal of public building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance (the dole) because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp." Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996).

The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages (and for the salaries of supervisors, who were not on relief). WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) or Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) programs. D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 63

It was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II (United States home front during World War II). The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for 8 years. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 71. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its positions. Hourly wages were typically set to the prevailing wages in each area. Bradford A. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered," ''The Wilson Quarterly'' 6 (1982): 70.

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