, especially for minorities who endured poor facilities and tight-fisted budgets from local taxes. Bernstein, ''Guns or Butter: The Presidency of Lyndon Johnson'' (1994) pp 183-213. He made education a top priority of the Great Society, with an emphasis on helping poor children. After the 1964 landslide brought in many new liberal Congressmen, he had the votes for the ''Elementary and Secondary Education Act'' (ESEA) of 1965. For the first time, large amounts of federal money went
: chicagohistory.org aboutus building title About the Building publisher Chicagohistory.org accessdate 2010-10-14 The major work of producing reliable mathematical tables, as described above, was part of the WPA (Works Progress Administration) project of Franklin Roosevelt. During the Great Depression a $400,000 expansion of the zoo was conducted by the Works Progress Administration. Many new cages were constructed, along with an artificial hill known as "Monkey Hill", built to show the children of flat New Orleans what a hill looks like. Local folklore calls Monkey Hill the highest point in New Orleans, although another artificial hill in City Park (City Park (New Orleans)) competes for that title. accessdate 2006-12-23 Moses soon prepared extensive plans to reconstruct the city's parks, renovate existing facilities and create new swimming pools, zoos, playgrounds and parks. Moses acquired substantial Civil Works Administration, and later, Works Progress Administration funding and soon embarked upon an eight year city-wide construction program, relieving some of the high unemployment in New York City in this Depression (Great Depression) year. Public use The building and the surrounding park were used for many public purposes throughout the early 20th century. The Tower Building served as headquarters for the United Confederate Veterans Reunion, May 15–18, 1911. Over 106,000 http: arkansashistory.arkansas.com photo gallery reunion.asp Civil War veterans, the largest popular gathering in the history of the city up to that time, attended and were housed in the building or camped in the park, which had also become a popular camping area. Later the building served as an armory for the Arkansas National Guard. In 1912, the second floor of the Tower Building became Little Rock's first public library. In 1917, Little Rock built a fire station in the park, that building is now gone. A band shell named for H. H. Foster also was built in the park during this time, but also no longer exists. In 1936, Works Progress Administration built the Museum of Fine Arts, now called the Arkansas Arts Center, just south of the Tower Building. The paths along the west side are lined with gutters built by WPA (Works Progress Administration) workers out of broken headstones from the City's Victorian cemeteries at Lone Mountain (i.e. Laurel Heights), which were moved to Colma (Colma, California) in 1930s. Details of the dismantlement of the Lone Mountain cemeteries in the Encyclopedia of San Francisco. In a few cases the inscriptions were placed facing up and can be discerned (''Cf.'' the Wave Organ). The Commissioner's Plan of 1811 called for strict use of a grid in Manhattan, but Stuyvesant Street was an exception in the plan. Into the 20th century, Stuyvesant Street ran east all the way through to Second Avenue, fronting St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, but the portion of the street between 10th Street and Second Avenue, directly in front of the church, is now Abe Lebewohl Park. For street-pattern reasons this small plot of land had been turned into a sitting area in 1938 by the Works Progress Administration and called St. Mark’s Park, but by the 1970′s it had become filthy and drug-ridden. Marilyn Appleberg, president of the 10th and Stuyvesant Streets Block Association, found that this land was actually under the auspices of the city's Parks Department (New York City Parks Department), which was responsible for its upkeep. In 1980 she, along with Beth Flusser and Abe Lebewohl, the owner of the nearby Second Avenue Deli, began a petition to save the park. On March 4, 1996, Lebewohl was shot and killed while handling a bank transaction at a neighborhood bank. That same year the park underwent a long awaited renovation by the Parks Department. Appleberg fought to have the name of the park changed to honor Lebewohl and she again won. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.
A large district of CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) and Works Progress
. Laughlin's decision to publish Patchen's work started a relationship that would last for the remainder of both men's careers. In addition to their professional relationship, Patchen and Laughlin also became good friends. Smith, L.R. (2000), pp 90, 119. Roosevelt discovered an entirely new use for city machines in his reelection campaigns. Traditionally, local bosses minimized turnout so as to guarantee reliable control of their wards and legislative districts. To carry the electoral college, however, Roosevelt needed massive majorities in the largest cities to overcome the hostility of suburbs and towns. With Postmaster General James A. Farley and WPA administrator Harry Hopkins cutting deals with state and local Democratic officials, Roosevelt used federal discretionary spending, especially the Works Progress Administration (1935–1942) as a national political machine. Men on relief could get WPA jobs regardless of their politics, but hundreds of thousands of supervisory jobs were given to local Democratic machines. The 3.5 million voters on relief payrolls during the 1936 election cast 82% percent of their ballots for Roosevelt. The vibrant labor unions, heavily based in the cities, likewise did their utmost for their benefactor, voting 80% for him, as did Irish, Italian and Jewish voters. In all, the nation's 106 cities over 100,000 population voted 70% for FDR in 1936, compared to 59% elsewhere. Roosevelt won reelection in 1940 (United States presidential election, 1940) thanks to the cities. In the North, the cities over 100,000 gave Roosevelt 60% of their votes, while the rest of the North favored Willkie by 52%. It was just enough to provide the critical electoral college margin. The tragic Paluxy River flood in 1908 uncovered 3-toed prints from the Cretaceous period, possibly Acrocanthosaurus, and were discovered by high school student George Adams in the limestone river bed. The teenager related the discovery to his principal Robert McDonald. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.
"Town History", 2011-02-11 Today, the historic activities of Fruita are supported by the efforts of the Fruita Historic Preservation Board and the Lower Valley Heritage Chapter. External links * The Story of Immokalee 1938 WPA (Works Progress Administration) interview covering founding, slave era, post-Civil War Reconstruction and up through Great Depression. Electronic record
Dallas Morning News '' and civic leader, and the man who had campaigned for the area's revitalization. Many assume the monuments outlining the plaza are there to honor President (President of the United States) Kennedy, but they actually honor previous prominent Dallas residents and predate President Kennedy's visit by many years. The actual Dallas monument to Kennedy, in the form of a cenotaph, is located one block away. In 1936, the two were running a Works Progress Administration
Party (United States) Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised "a New Deal for the American people", coining the enduring label for his domestic policies. The desperate economic situation, along with the substantial Democratic victories in the 1932 elections, gave Roosevelt unusual influence over Congress in the "First Hundred Days" of his administration. He used his leverage to win rapid passage of a series of measures to create welfare
thumb left 240px View from Mount Jefferson. History San Jose Municipal Stadium was built in 1941-42 as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project at a cost of $80,000. It was one of the first stadiums to be built entirely of reinforced concrete and opened in 1942. The first game featured the San Francisco Seals (San Francisco Seals (PCL)) as the home team. Image:Griffith Observatory south elevation 2006.jpg 300px thumb right View from a trail in Griffith
. Until April 2010, the Museum was located in the airport's original 1932 hangar, built by the Works Progress Administration. In April 2010, the Museum moved into a new facility at the Charlotte-Douglas International Airport at 4672 First Flight Drive. The new facility has enabled the majority of the aircraft to be inside a climate-controlled (HVAC) facility along with new displays. In the 1930s, Biddle became a champion of social art and strongly advocated government funding for artistic
of hydroelectric power (hydroelectricity) for the state. She also worked for the Worker's Education Project of the Works Progress Administration, where she taught courses in consumer education, labor history and African history. Baker immersed herself in the cultural and political milieu of Harlem in the 1930s. She protested Italy's invasion of Ethiopia (Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and supported the campaign to free the Scottsboro defendants (Scottsboro Boys) in Alabama, a group of young
black men accused of raping two white women. She also founded the Negro History Club at the Harlem Library and regularly attended lectures and meetings at the YWCA. During this time, she lived with and married her college sweetheart, T.J. (Bob) Roberts - though most people did not know she had ever married. Their respective work schedules kept them often apart, and they finally divorced in 1958. Her life in Harlem was very exciting, and she befriended the future scholar and activist John
thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, Eric Arnesen, ed. ''Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History'' (2007) vol. 1 p. 1540 including the construction of public buildings and roads. In a much smaller but more famous project, the Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87
thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772 (File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg) At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs. Full employment, which was reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the WPA goal. It tried to provide one paid job for all families in which the breadwinner (Breadwinner model) suffered long-term unemployment. Robert D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal'' (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 64, 184. Robert D. Leighninger asserts that “The stated goal of public building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance (the dole) because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp." Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996).
The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages (and for the salaries of supervisors, who were not on relief). WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) or Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) programs. D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 63
It was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II (United States home front during World War II). The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for 8 years. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 71. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its positions. Hourly wages were typically set to the prevailing wages in each area. Bradford A. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered," ''The Wilson Quarterly'' 6 (1982): 70.