this time. Many bison kill sites are located near the St. Victor Petroglyphs Provincial Park, though many have been buried by the hills over time. First people The land in Saskatchewan was first believed to been populated by Paleo-Indians around 9,500 BCE. These were hunter-gatherer societies who mainly hunted big game, such as bison. Eventually Saskatchewan became populated with Great Plains Indian peoples. The records of the first people near Willow Bunch are few, but they left behind a piece of themselves at the St. Victor petroglyphs. St. Victor is 19 km west of Willow Bunch. The petroglyphs are carvings of many Great Plains Indian symbols. Carvings include several variations of human faces, many types of hooves, turtles, grizzly bear paws, and human handprints. These were carved into the rock faces approximately AD 500-1700. Since there are no carvings of horses or horse hooves, researchers assume the carvings were created before 1750, the approximate year horses arrived in the northern part of the plains. The carvings' use may have been for records or as a way of communication, but researchers are unsure. Government of Saskatchewan - St. Victor Provincial Park, pamphlet thumb View at St. Victor Petroglyphs (File:View at St. Victor Petroglyphs.jpg) The petroglyphs are located on a hill with a grand view of the surrounding area. This may have been a resting spot for nomadic peoples at the time. These peoples could have been Assiniboine (Assiniboine people), Cree, Cree-Assiniboine or Siouan. From the style of the carvings it is believed that they may have been carved by Siouan speakers. Sioux-speaking cultures include the Dakota (Dakota people), Nakota and Lakota (Lakota people). Wishart, David J., 1998, Great Plains Indians, page 185, University of Nebraska Press The Assiniboine inhabited the area near southeast Saskatchewan. Ibid. page 33 They were an off-shoot of Yanktonais in the south; Howard, James, 1984, The Canadian Sioux, page 4, University of Nebraska Press it is believed this split occurred around 1550. They were also called asini-pwat, Stoney Sioux, Stoneys or opwa-si-mu. Mandelbaum, David. 1979, The Plains Cree, page 8, University of Regina Press The Assiniboine referred to themselves as Nakota, which meant they were Siouan speakers. Howard, page 4 They became close allies with the Cree, who came as “invaders” from areas north and east of the prairies. Mandelbaum, page 3 The Assiniboine were referred to as “cultural godfathers to the Plains Cree in introducing them into many of the ways of the Plains life” Mandelbaum, page 8 The Cree spoke a variety of Algonquian (Algonquian languages) languages and are said to have taken over areas that had formerly been that of the Assiniboine or Gros Ventre. They were also a nomadic band, which explains their movement into the territory now known as Saskatchewan. The Gros Ventre were Algonquian-speaking. They had originally been allies with Blackfoot, also Algonquian-speaking. However, the Gros Ventre later allied with the Assiniboines until the Cree invaded the area. The two struggled to get along and the Gros Ventres began to relocate. Carlson, Paul. 1998,The Plains Indians, page 33, Texas A&M University Press Cree and Assiniboines eventually became great allies around 1730–1775. Their alliance became so strong that they began to intermarry into a band known as the Cree-Assiniboine or nehiopwat. Mandelbaum, page 9 This band, Cree-Assiniboine, inhabited areas by Wood Mountain (Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan), 105 km west of Willow Bunch. However, they eventually moved to the Piapot (Piapot, Saskatchewan) area, which is 346 km west of Willow Bunch. Ibid. page 10 Around 1679 that Cree-Assiniboine created an alliance with the Sioux, who traded almost exclusively with the French. Ibid. page 21 The Canadian Sioux had traveled north from America. Howard, page 1 Those around Wood Mountain were known as Titunwan or Tetons; members of the Hunkpapa sub-band. Tetons is another term for a Lakota Sioux. The Lakota Sioux would eventually settle in the Wood Mountain area. Ibid. page 15 Lifestyle of original peoples In southern Saskatchewan there was one main group of plains Indians who were called Assiniboine (Assiniboine people). Brasser, Ted J. The Canadian Encyclopedia "Aboriginal People: Plains". 2012. http: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com articles native-people-plains They moved around the area that is modern day Willow Bunch. This band is thought to have arrived 11,000 years ago, just after the last glacier retreated. Government of Saskatchewan. "Aboriginal Peoples".http: www.gov.sk.ca Default.aspx?DN d35c114d-b058-49db-896a-4f657f5fd66e Like most bands at the time, this group moved where their food went. They depended on the bison for almost everything. They used the bison to make clothing, build their shelter and to make tools. Giannette, J. Saskatchewan History - The First People. 2011.http: www.aitc.sk.ca saskschools firstnations first.html Since they moved around a lot they made a very smart way of transporting their tipis. The poles of the tipis would make a sled of sort that was called a travois and would be pulled by dogs. Brasser, Ted J. The Canadian Encyclopedia. "Aboriginal People: Plains". 2012.http: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com articles native-people-plains This carried all that they needed and transported their home at the same time. thumb Bird's eye view of Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan (File:Willow Bunch.JPG) The Assiniboine had a system of a Sioux Kinship. Day, Bonnie L. A History of the Lakota Sioux of Wood Mountain. Pg 9. 1997. In this kinship everyone who was born belonged to it, but outsiders could become part of the kinship through relationships. Ibid. Page 9. In terms of spiritual beliefs, the band had strong ties to the spiritual world. Their religious ideas and practices formed the basis of their life. They had powerful connections with animals and natural phenomena. They believe that animals and natural phenomena had spiritual power that could be acquired for personal advantage through a vision quest. Ibid. In this quest they would go to a secluded area of the forest where they would fast and pray until a spiritual guardian came to them in a dream. Ibid. When it comes to food and other necessities of life the band worked together. The men would hunt the buffalo by driving them into pounds or corrals to be killed or they would be stampeded off cliffs. Ibid. The women would collect edible roots and berries but they would also preserve the food and build tools for everyday life. Ibid. The band worked together so everyone would have enough food. If there were shortages on food the band would split into smaller bands so they had a better chance to survive. Ibid. As for the political structure of the bands, they had a chief but their way of dealing with issues was like a democracy. Any decisions that needed to be made were reached by finding a consensus between all the families of the band. Government of Saskatchewan. "Aboriginal Peoples". http: www.gov.sk.ca Default.aspx?DN d35c114d-b058-49db-896a-4f657f5fd66e Although the chief was the advisor of the band there was no guarantee that he would stay at the top. The only way the chief stayed in his position was if people were being fed and the band staved off attacks from enemy bands. Brasser, Ted J. The Canadian Encyclopedia. "Aboriginal People: Plains". 2012. http: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com articles native-people-plains When it came to punishment there were straightforward rules. If you did not aid the community then you were seen as an enemy to the band. Day, Bonnie L. A History of the Lakota Sioux of Wood Mountain. 1997. Page 11. The way that they disciplined people was also straight forward. If you did something wrong your punishment would be public shame and ridicule. When the band depends so much on each other, this kind of punishment would have been one that was hard to deal with. thumb Mural of a Bison in Willow Bunch (File:Buffalo (Willow Bunch Mural).JPG) In general the other bands in the area and the Assiniboine moved independently of each other. However during midsummer when there was a lot of bison, all the bands came together for a few weeks in one tribal encampment. Ibid. During this time they would have celebrations and possibly a tribal buffalo drive. Ibid. After this time the bands would separate again and go to the river valleys or foothills and get ready for the winter months. Ibid. The Métis of Willow Bunch thumb Albert Legaré, Xavier Larocque, Ouile Létourneau, Alex Gosselin, Gédéon Légare, Fred Beaupré.Saskatchewan Archives Board (No. R-A 3433). (File:Ranchers in Willow Bunch.JPG) At the end of the 1860s, many Métis settlers started their move towards the Wood Mountain (Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan) region, soon to be known as Willow Bunch, from Red River (Red River Colony), Pembina (Pembina, North Dakota), and other communities in the North West. Following the footsteps of the hunters and traders before them, they came in search of bison. Littlejohn, Catherine, Ron Rivard, et al. "Metis History for Exhibits and Scripts." Historica Foundation. (2002): 1-2. Print. Soon after the arrival of the Métis, Jean-Louis Legaré set up a trading post in Willow Bunch, aiding the Métis as a trader of bison goods. Littlejohn, Catherine, and Ron Rivard . The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch. Saskatoon: Ron Rivard and Catherine Littlejohn, 2003. 195. Print. Nearing the mid-1880s, there was a decline of bison in the Wood Mountain region. This was a result of the United States government’s attempt to starve out Sitting Bull. Littlejohn, Catherine, and Ron Rivard . The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch. Saskatoon: Ron Rivard and Catherine Littlejohn, 2003. 194. Print. With the end of the Bison Hunt, the Métis began life as ranchers: “We brought our stock and expertise to Willow Bunch. No one knew more about horsemanship and training horses than we did” (Rivard and Littlejohn). Littlejohn, Catherine, and Ron Rivard . The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch. Saskatoon: Ron Rivard and Catherine Littlejohn, 2003. 201. Print. The Métis population in Willow Bunch became known as a “hub of the first tentative ranching operations in southwestern Saskatchewan.” “Talle de Saule” thumb Medicine person Angelique Bottineau and her husband Joseph. Saskatchewan Archives Board (No. R-A 3443). (File:Medicine Woman in Willow Bunch.jpg) The Métis originally referred to the town and its surrounding area as “Talle de Saule” which means “Clump of Willow.” This nickname soon gave rise to the town’s name of Willow Bunch. The red willows found around Willow Bunch were an important factor in the everyday lives of the Métis. The multifaceted willow played a large role in their wellbeing: :In spring, our women harvested the supple, young shoots to make baskets. Our men fashioned the wood into pipe stems, emergency snowshoes, snares, wooden nails, whistles for the children, beading looms, and frames for stretching hides. Rotted willow wood was used to smoke hides. Green willow branches were burned to smoke meat. We twisted the inner bark fibers into temporary rope, twine and fish nets. We weather proofed rawhide by wrapping it in willow bark. We used willow branches as lathing for our houses. Our men scraped off the inner cambium layer and added other ingredients, such as bearberry, to make a smoking mixture, ‘Kinnikinick (Kinnikinnick)’. We repaired our carts, made a shelter when we were caught in a storm, burned for fuel and had a variety of other practical uses for the wood of the willow. Littlejohn, Catherine, and Ron Rivard . The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch. Saskatoon: Ron Rivard and Catherine Littlejohn, 2003. 193. Print. The Métis found use for the willows in a variety of ways. It was even used as an ingredient for medicinal purposes. Thus, the places where the willows grew were considered a healing place. This is why “the people would settle near clumps of willow and name their community accordingly.” Cuthand, Doug. "Metis played vital role in history: Final Edition ." Leader Post. 16 Feb 2004: B1. Print. The first Métis settlers thumb Métis Pioneers - Willow Bunch Museum (File:Métis Pioneers.jpg) According to Métis oral historians, the Métis peoples’ long history as Hivernants helped with their travels through the Canadian Prairies. Their vast understanding of the Great Plains was an advantage; this knowledge “proved to be invaluable guides as settlement inched their way from east to west.” Clemence, Verne. "History of Metis aims to correct misconceptions: Final Edition ." Star - Phoenix. 27 Mar 2004: E11. Print. Their navigation skills were also an asset to the Northwest Mounted Police. With help from the Métis, the Mounties could get through uncharted territory. Around 1824, the Métis began to move towards Southern Saskatchewan: “As they ventured farther out, they began to set up winter camps and stay year-round. One of the first settlements was at Wood Mountain, which was settled in about 1868-69. But in 1879, fires forced the Métis to move to the eastern slope of the hills to a place known as ‘Talle de Saule.’” Cuthand, Doug. "Metis played vital role in history: Final Edition ." Leader Post. 16 Feb 2004: B1. Print. The Métis settlement in Willow Bunch is one of the first in Saskatchewan. They initially arrived in groups consisting of large extended families; no one journeyed individually. As a result of travelling between communities regularly, the Métis began to intermingle, creating relationships with the different groups of settlers. This gave rise to the growth of the settlement in Willow Bunch. Littlejohn, Catherine, Ron Rivard, et al. "Metis History for Exhibits and Scripts." Historica Foundation. (2002): 3. Print. The majority of the Métis settlers that came to Willow Bunch were partially of First Nations and of French or Scottish descent. These are some of the family names belonging to the first Métis settlers: Bottineau, Bruyere, Caplette, Chartrand, Delorme, Faillant, Gaudry, Gosselin, Klyne, La Fournaise, Lacerte, Langer, Larocque, McGillis, Morin, Ouellette, Pelletier, Piché, Short, and Whitford. thumb Randy Gaudry in front of the Métis hamlet, 2013 (File:Randy Gaudry.jpg) left thumb NHS Profile, Willow Bunch, T, Saskatchewan, 2011 (File:Sheet 2.png) thumb Métis Hamlet in Willow Bunch, 2013 (File:Willow Bunch Métis Hamlet.jpg) The Métis today The town of Willow Bunch is occupied with Francophone and Métis people who settled upon these lands. The history in this small town is very interesting to Saskatchewan. The Métis played an important role in Saskatchewan history. Yet the Métis had fewer advantages in the Francophone town and they had very passive voices. Even today, the Métis are still trying to regain their rights and to educate about the history of the Métis and the roles they played. Just like First Nations peoples, Métis face the same inequality and misconceptions from non-Métis peoples. Willow Bunch is the Rural Municipality #42 in southern Saskatchewan. In 2006, the total Aboriginal population for the RM #42 was 407. Statistics Canada. Census of Canada. Town of Willow Bunch. 2006 The Métis in Willow Bunch “played a key role in maintaining the peace during the time that the Sioux and the other American tribes were forced from the United States into the area of Wood Mountain. Rivard, Ron; Littlejohn, Catherine. "The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch." 2003; Prologue. ” The Métis had a strong relationship with the Sioux, especially with Chief Sitting Bull. “The fires of 1880 on Wood Mountain resulted in the movement of our people to other communities. It was at this time that the Métis pioneers moved to Willow Bunch at the suggestion of Andre Gaudry, (Rivard and Littlejohn) Ibid. ” The Métis were already settled in Willow Bunch when the North West Resistance, led by Louis Riel, battled the Canadian government over land rights. It was in 1885, “the Resistance had an impact on the Métis of Willow Bunch...marked the end of the influence of the Métis on the development of Western Canada. Ibid. ” Within the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan, there are different numbered locals for each area in the province. Willow Bunch is Local #17 with Randy Gaudry as the president. Gaudry has instilled pride in being a Métis within the town of Willow Bunch. Gaudry has been actively involved in fighting for Métis rights for his Local 17. His activism may have stemmed from his late grandfather, Andre Gaudry,one of the eight guiders that took Sioux Chief Sitting Bull back to America due to bad living conditions and starvation. “ They were the guides, scouts, interpreters and security for these trips. Ibid, 143. ” After living away from WIllow Bunch for a time, Gaudry worked hard when he returned to reactivate the Métis Local 17. This meant working between two communities that disconnected years before his return, the Francophone and the Métis. The Local 17 president gathered the two estranged communities to create a dialogue to improve living conditions. “The Francophone community and the Métis community have butted heads for a number of years and there are still problems that have to be ironed out, (noted an article in the Eagle Feather News) Francis, Cherish. The Eagle Feather News. 2008; 14. ” A discussion panel was organized to help build a community connection. Attempts made to improve the lives of the Métis community in Willow Bunch, and to protect cultural artifacts. “SaskPower hired a contractor to construct... and left a right of way to gain access to the construction site and inadvertently drove through one of the teepee rings, damaging it slightly," according to a report in the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix "SaskPower contractor damages historic site".The Star Phoenix. 2010 ” This left the Métis community to act quickly to recover what was left of the damaged site. This action shows the inequality the Métis people faced, which is similar to many First Nations situations when it comes to land reconstruction. Following the 1885 Resistance, many changes occurred for the Métis nation of Willow Bunch. “ They were told that the land property that they settled on didn’t belong to them . It became an issue...as new immigrants arrived they found their identity and culture continually being eroded. Rivard, Ron; Littlejohn, Catherine. "The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch." 229–230. ” The Métis of Willow Bunch still feel the indifference within this small town due to lack of the historical Métis knowledge to the newcomers. “That feeling of inferiority that many of them were taught to feel...That practice of one group being denigrated at the expense of another is still evident today. Ibid. ” The Métis of Willow Bunch will hopefully coexist with the non-Métis community without the idea of superiority over another. Alike to most First Nations situations, the Métis will continue to fight for their rights not only in Willow Bunch but across this nation. The Willow Bunch Métis Local #17 thumb Willow Bunch (File:Metis Local 17.jpg) The Métis Local #17 in Willow Bunch is one of the first Locals established within the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan: “Its mandate is to serve and represent the needs and interests of the Métis people of Willow Bunch and surrounding area, and to coordinate programs and services for the Métis people of this region.” Town of Willow Bunch, n.d. "Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan." Metis Local 17. Web. 11 Nov 2013. . Historical background to 1880 For Saskatchewan, Willow Bunch has the title as one of the oldest settlements established. Founded in 1870 by variety of groups of Métis hunters and settlers, Willow Bunch has strong historical connections with Red River Métis. northwest of Willow Bunch (Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan), Saskatchewan, Canada. Beaupré was the eldest of 20 children born to Gaspard and Florestine (born Piché) Beaupré in the newly-founded parish of Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan, Canada, and was the first child to be baptized in the parish. Beaupré did not appear abnormally large at birth, and for the first three years of his life, his growth was relatively normal. However, Edouard's growth rate then increased dramatically, so much so that by age nine he was six feet tall, and by the age of 17 his height was recorded at 7'1". In 1902, Edouard's height was measured at 8 feet 2.5 inches and he weighed over 400 pounds. His death certificate described him as being 8'3" (2.52m) tall and still growing.
Ovila The loss was blamed on tuberculosis and his gentle nature. Edouard continued on with the circus, making it his full-time career in 1902. In the fall of 1903, he showed signs of tuberculosis, bone decay, and weak legs. Doctors told him his tuberculosis was incurable, but he decided to continue his life in the circus His health continued to decline that winter ref name Ovila >
alone; cultivation technologies were not sophisticated, so devices such as harrows, carriages and harvest racks were the standard. Steam-powered farming machinery began to appear in southern Saskatchewan in the 1920s, which created much public attention for farmers using the machines. Public archives, Willow Bunch Museum Despite fascination with the new technologies, the machinery disappeared from Saskatchewan farms during the 1930s; the machines were not economically
: www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca Default.aspx?DN 5e3d0f74-ef7a-49f5-a975-f340e11fa394 Livestock Willow Bunch's agriculture generates the most profit from grain yields; as a result there is much less emphasis on livestock. Surveys from the 1930s show high poultry production, and moderate production of horses, cattle, sheep and swine. Sheep production saw a major drop from 1931 to 1936 and never rose again. The 1950s continued these pre-existing trends with low sheep production, high cattle
renting classroom space, the building went up for sale in 1983. It was to be bought by the town on March 27, 1985 to be the Museum of Willow Bunch. '''The Telegraph Office''' The Telegraph Office is presumably one of the oldest and famous buildings still standing in Willow Bunch. Built in the early 1900s by Jean-Louis Légaré, this building served as the Telegraph Office from 1904 to 1931. The building has acted as a private dwelling and as a Saskatchewan
Sheets url http: www.canadiangeographic.ca kids animal-facts animals.asp?region sask publisher Canadian Geographic accessdate November 7, 2013 Water conservation is of the utmost importance in the Willow Bunch area because of the dry nature of the climate. Long term agricultural success is dependent on closely monitoring the local water supply. northwest of Willow Bunch (Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan), Saskatchewan, Canada. Beaupré was the eldest of 20 children born to Gaspard and Florestine (born Piché) Beaupré in the newly-founded parish of Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan, Canada, and was the first child to be baptized in the parish. Beaupré did not appear abnormally large at birth, and for the first three years of his life, his growth was relatively normal. However, Edouard's growth rate then increased dramatically, so much so that by age nine he was six feet tall, and by the age of 17 his height was recorded at 7'1". In 1902, Edouard's height was measured at 8 feet 2.5 inches and he weighed over 400 pounds. His death certificate described him as being 8'3" (2.52m) tall and still growing.
Brochure.jpg thumb Farmfest Brochure Of the six Campagne siblings, Paul, Annette, Michelle and Suzanne reformed as their old-time band, Hart-Rouge. The band performs its ‘80s hits and foot-stomping folk harmonies. The other two family members, Solange and Carmen, join the other four to perform as their previous band, Folle Avoine. The family band sings in French, English, Spanish, and Mi’kmaq. Levesque, Roger, "Celebrating a Giant of a Homecoming; Hart Rouge Returns
Government Insurance SGI office since then. As of October 10, 2007 it has been under a restoration process by Allan Mondor. Mondor, Allan. "Helping to preserve the history of Willow Bunch." Willow Bunch Telegraph Office Restoration Project . 12 Nov 2013. . '''The Jean Louis Légaré Regional Park ''' The Jean Louis Légaré Regional Park is located two km southwest of the town
by CPrize Foundation, Inc., an educational non-profit, formed in the same year. The board of directors said they would develop an extensive program to show the practical use of dreams and visions, for Eternal Life, health at godofhealth.com, safety at longlifeproject.com and avoidance of the effects of disasters at godofdreams.com, as well as two technology challenges which also relate, found on hibots.com
GeologicalandHistoricalInformation The uniqueness of the plateau is characterized by being only one of five sites in Canada where petroglyphs are on a horizontal structure of a rock. File:Petroglyph View.JPG thumb The view of the sandstone cliff at St
; ” The Métis of Willow Bunch still feel the indifference within this small town due to lack of the historical Métis knowledge to the newcomers. “That feeling of inferiority that many of them were taught to feel...That practice of one group being denigrated at the expense of another is still evident today. Ibid. ” The Métis of Willow Bunch will hopefully coexist with the non-Métis community without the idea of superiority over another. Alike to most First Nations situations
.” Town of Willow Bunch, n.d. "Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan." Metis Local 17. Web. 11 Nov 2013. . Historical background to 1880 For Saskatchewan, Willow Bunch has the title as one of the oldest settlements established. Founded in 1870 by variety of groups of Métis hunters and settlers, Willow Bunch has strong historical connections with Red River Métis.
'''Willow Bunch''' is a small community located in south central Saskatchewan, Canada, southwest of the provincial capital of Regina (Regina, Saskatchewan). The population was 286 at the 2011 census.
Previous names for Willow Bunch have been ''Hart-Rouge'' and ''Talle-de-Saules''. The area has seen influences from Métis (Métis people (Canada)) and Fransaskois.