Western Xia

What is Western Xia known for?


song period

. Again, both campaigns ended in defeat and Chongzong took direct control of Western Xia. He ended wars with both Liao and Song and focused on domestic reform. In 1115, the Jürchen Jin dynasty (Jin dynasty (1115–1234)) was established and Liao emperor fled to Western Xia in 1123. Chongzong submitted to the Jin demand of the Liao emperor and Western Xia became a vassal state of Jin. After Jin Dynasty attacked and took parts of the northern territories from the Song, initiating the Southern Song

period, Western Xia also attacked and took several thousands square miles of land. Immediately following Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia)'s coronation, many natural disasters occurred and Renzong worked to stabilize the economy. The kingdom developed a Tangut script to write its own Tibeto-Burman language (Tibeto-Burman languages). Leffman, et al. (2005), p. 988. Conquest by the Mongols


writing style

controversial until recent research conducted both in the West and within China. The Western Xia occupied the area of important trade route between North China and Central Asia, the Hexi Corridor. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, and architecture, which was characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style

. Western Xia Empire The Western Xia Empire inherited the political and social structures of the Tang (Tang Dynasty) and further developed an outstanding civilization characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest

into the "Mongols." Western Xia Empire The Western Xia Empire inherited the political and social structures of the Tang (Tang Dynasty) and further developed an outstanding civilization characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities


active interest

of the brothers, and was criticized by Genghis himself for being lazy and shiftless, Temüge proved himself to be a skilled politician and capable ruler, who, alongside his mother Hoelun, ruled the Mongol heartland in his eldest brothers' absence. He appears to have had intellectual leanings, first coming under the influence of the conquered Xia (Western Xia) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)) cultures and then taking an active interest in the other cultures encompassed in the vast Mongol empire.


people quot

from Chinese ''Donghu (Donghu people)''; the "-t" suffix in the Mongolian language means "people". The Mongols referred to the ethnic groups who were immersed among the Jurchens and Mongols as "Jāūqŭt", "Jaquit", and "Joyit", all ending with "-t" and suggesting that the Mongolian terms ending with "-t" in reference of ethnic groups mean "people. See Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi

; in China. They were historically known as the "White Mongols" in contrast to the Mongols who were referred to as the "Black Mongols". They migrated from the northeast to establish the Tuyühu (often misspelled as Tuyuhun (Tuyuhun Kingdom)) Empire (284–670), which was destroyed by the Tibetans in the seventh century. Their reference as "Tu" was abbreviated from the "Tuyühu people", the first record of which occurred in 1001 when the Northern Song

" was abbreviated from the "Tuyühu people", the first record of which occurred in 1001 when the Northern Song officials discussed defense strategies against the Tangut. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. pp. 193–202. Their reference as "White" Mongols came from Murong Xianbei who had been historically referred to as "the White


impressive skills

"bowman 2000 105" Bowman (2000), 105. and proposed many reforms to the Chinese calendar alongside the work of his colleague Wei Pu. Sivin (1995), III, 18. With his impressive skills and aptitude for matters of economy and finance, Shen was appointed as the Finance Commissioner at the central court. *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata


extensive stance

in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. Their extensive stance among the other empires of the Liao (Liao dynasty), Song (Song dynasty), and Jin (Jin dynasty (1115–1234)) was attributable to their effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on land and water. Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. Name The full title of the Western Xia as named by their own state is "90px (File:Western Xia 2.svg)" reconstructed as *phiow¹-bjij²-lhjij-lhjij² which translates as "The Great Xia State of the White and the Lofty" (白高大夏國), or called "mjɨ-njaa" or "khjɨ-dwuu-lhjij" (萬秘國). The region was known to the Tanguts and the Tibetans as Minyak. Dorje (1999), p. 444. "Western Xia" is the literal translation of the state's Chinese name. It is derived from its location on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (916–1125) and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties on its east and the Song in the southeast. The English term "Tangut" comes from the Mongolian (Mongolian language) name for the country, ''Tangghut'' (


large role

Dynasty and the Tangut (Tangut people) Western Xia. Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north. This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161. Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song. In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song Dynasty, the Tangut (Tangut people)s-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song Dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture. 1080s * 1080–1081: The Chinese statesman and scientist Shen Kuo is put in command of the campaign against the Western Xia, and although he successfully halts their invasion route to Yanzhou (modern Yan'an), another officer disobeys imperial orders and the campaign is ultimately a failure because of it. * 1084: the enormous Chinese historical work of the ''Zizhi Tongjian'' is compiled by scholars under Chancellor Sima Guang, completed in 294 volumes and included 3 million written Chinese characters * The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia gains independence after its founder, Prince Ruben, succeeds in establishing his authority in the mountainous regions of Cilicia (approximate date). * The Song Dynasty Chinese polymath scientist and statesman Shen Kuo begins his defensive military campaign against the Tanguts of the Western Xia Kingdom, successfully defending the invasion route to Yan'an. * Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (b. 1156) * Emperor Renzong of Western Xia, 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (b. 1124) * Richard de Redvers, 4th Earl of Devon Asia * The Western Xia declare their independence from Liao (Liao Dynasty) China. * Abad II succeeds his father to the throne of Sevilla. * Incursions by the Western Xia and the threat of further Liao Dynasty military actions against the Song Dynasty force an increase in tribute payments to the Liao. * The Almoravids, led by Abdullah Ibn Yasin, invade Morocco.


running high

;to stamp down Helan Pass (Helan Mountains)" is what led scholars to this conclusion. Helan Pass was in Western Xia territory, which was not a military target of Yue's armies. Liu suggests the "real author of the poem was probably Chao K'uan who engraved it on a tablet at Yueh Fei's tomb in 1502, in order to express the patriotic sentiments which were running high at that time, about four years after General Wang Yueh had scored a victory over the Oirats near the Ho-lan Pass in Inner Mongolia." James T. C. Liu. "Yueh Fei (1103-41) and China's Heritage of Loyalty." ''The Journal of Asian Studies''. Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1972), pp. 291-297 '''Temüge''' (1168 – 1246) was the youngest full-brother of Genghis Khan. As the youngest sibling, Temüge and his mother, by Mongol traditions, were allotted the most land and people by Genghis Khan during his coronation. Although he seems to have been the least warlike of the brothers, and was criticized by Genghis himself for being lazy and shiftless, Temüge proved himself to be a skilled politician and capable ruler, who, alongside his mother Hoelun, ruled the Mongol heartland in his eldest brothers' absence. He appears to have had intellectual leanings, first coming under the influence of the conquered Xia (Western Xia) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)) cultures and then taking an active interest in the other cultures encompassed in the vast Mongol empire.


music architecture

Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao

Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛


national title

Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong", and "Gouxiong", the character "Gao" (or "Mighty" or "Lofty") could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had traditionally been referred to as the "Mother River" of China, known as "Mu Qin He", that has nurtured their homeland. The early origins of the Tangut people were much debated in the 1930s, when a number of contradicting suggestions concerning the ethnic origin of the Tangut had been made. The discussion mostly involved the disputations concerning the meaning of the words "black headed" and "red faced" which were believed to represent two major ethnic groups within the Tangut tribes. The two words were also believed to imply two social strata or other social divisions within the Tangut society. The actual meaning of the name of the Tangut State "The Great State of White and Lofty" was previously attributed to the common mythology, which the Tangut shared with the Tibetans. A religious Tantric meaning of the state name has also been suggested but is extremely hard to prove. The recent interpretation of the "White" and "Lofty" is that they represented the founding ethnic group and the majority of the population. The term "White" was designated to the founding ethnic group, the Xianbei who are known as the "Monguor" in the West and "Tu" in China. They were historically known as the "White Mongols" in contrast to the Mongols who were referred to as the "Black Mongols". They migrated from the northeast to establish the Tuyühu (often misspelled as Tuyuhun (Tuyuhun Kingdom)) Empire (284–670), which was destroyed by the Tibetans in the seventh century. Their reference as "Tu" was abbreviated from the "Tuyühu people", the first record of which occurred in 1001 when the Northern Song officials discussed defense strategies against the Tangut. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. pp. 193–202. Their reference as "White" Mongols came from Murong Xianbei who had been historically referred to as "the White Section", or "Bai Bu", due to their lighter skin Liu, Xueyao 劉學銚 , 1994. Xianbei shi lun the Xianbei History 鮮卑史論. Taibei Shi 台北市 , Nan tian shu ju Nantian Press 南天書局, pp. 99. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. pp. 15–16. Wang, Zhongluo 王仲荦 , 2007. Wei jin nan bei chao shi History of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties 魏晋南北朝史. Beijing 北京 , Zhonghua shu ju China Press 中华书局, pp. 257. and from whom the Xianbei led by Tuyühu Khan (Khan (title)) separated. "Lofty" in the name of the Western Xia represented the majority of the population who were referred to as the "Qiang" and a small portion of the Miao (Miao people) Hmong (Hmong people). The "Qiang" referred to Western Xia as their "Gao (to mean 'Lofty' or 'Mighty') Mi Yao" Kingdom. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. p. 42. When "Mi Yao" is pronounced together, it is similar to "Miao (Miao people)". Since the autonyms of the Miao (Miao people) Hmong (Hmong people) include "Guoxiong", Cen, Xiuwen 岑秀文 (1993). Miaozu The Miao Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong", and "Gouxiong", the character "Gao" (or "Mighty" or "Lofty") could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had traditionally been referred to as the "Mother River" of China, known as "Mu Qin He", that has nurtured their homeland. In the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Tangut over a period of twenty-two years (1202, 1207, 1209–10, 1211–13, 1214–19, 1225–26). During the last round of the Mongol attacks, Genghis died in Western Xia. The official account of the Mongol history attributed his death to an illness, whereas legends accounted that he died from a wound inflicted in the battles. In 1227 the capital of Western Xia was overrun by the Mongols, who devastated its buildings and written records: all was burnt to the ground except its monastery. The last emperor was killed and tens of thousands of civilians massacred. However, many Tangut families joined the Mongol Empire. Some of them led Mongol armies, e.g. Cha'an, into the conquest of China. After the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) was established, the Tangut troops were incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. The Tangut were considered Semu under the Yuan class system, thus separting them from the North Chinese. As late as the Ming dynasty, there was evidence of small Tangut communities in Anhui and Henan provinces. The people including members of the royal clan emigrated to western Sichuan, northern Tibet, even possibly northeast India, in some instances becoming local rulers. 西夏法制地理—关于契丹、党项与女真遗裔问题(三) 党益民:党项羌文明与西夏湮灭之谜 《王族的背影》作者:唐荣尧 eds. Franke, Herbert & Twitchett, Denis (1995). ''The Cambridge History of China: Vol. VI: Alien Regimes & Border States, 907–1368''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 214. The Tangut people lived in Central China preserved their language until at least 16th century. Suchan (1998) traces the influence of the first several Karmapas upon the Yuan (Yuan Dynasty) and Ming (Ming Dynasty) courts as well as the Tangut Western Xia Kingdom, and mentions Desum Khyenpa: **Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (China, 420 AD – 960 AD), **Liao Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), Western Xia Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, and Ming Dynasty (China, 220 AD – 1644 AD) **Qing dynasty (China, 1644 AD – 1912 AD) Tangut Tuoba '''Tuoba''' is also the ruling clan of Western Xia Kingdom, but the king adopted the Chinese-style name Li. ''Tuoba Sigong'', or ''Li Sigong'' is an ancestor of Li Yuanhao, the first king of Western Xia Kingdom. History The first person named posthumously was said to be Ji Chang, named by his son Ji Fa of Zhou, as the "Civil King", though earlier and perhaps mythological rulers such as Emperor Yao are considered to have posthumous names. ''Yiwen Leiju'', vols. 014 (:zh:s:藝文類聚 卷014) All rulers of Shang Dynasty are already known only by their posthumous names, as the historical documents at the time strictly followed the rule. The use of posthumous names was stopped in the Qin Dynasty, because Qin Shi Huang proclaimed that it is disrespectful for the descendants, or "later emperors" to judge their elders, or the "prior emperors" (先帝). The practice was revived in the Han Dynasty after the demise of the Qin Empire. Posthumous names commonly made tracing linear genealogies simpler and kept a blood line apparent. The rule was also followed by non-Han Chinese rulers of Sixteen Kingdoms, Silla, Japan, Kingdom of Nanzhao, Liao Dynasty, Vietnam, Western Xia, Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265–420)), Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. King names of Hồng Bàng Dynasty and Mahan (List of legendary monarchs of Korea#Mahan) also followed the rule but they are thought to be later work. - 1227 rowspan "2" Emperor Aizong (Emperor Aizong of Jin) Genghis Khan died during the siege of the final Western Xia stronghold in 1227. His successor, Ögedei Khan, resumes the war against Jin in the same year. - - '''Western Xia''' Xingqing (Yinchuan) 1038—1227 - As a frontier town, Dunhuang was fought over and occupied at various times by non-Han Chinese nationalities. After the fall of Han Dynasty it was under the rule of various nomadic tribes such as the Xiongnu during Northern Liang and the Turkic Tuoba during Northern Wei. The Tibetans (Tibetan Empire) occupied Dunhuang when the Tang empire became weakened considerably after the An Lushan Rebellion; and even though it was later returned to Tang rule, it was under quasi-autonomous rule by the local general Zhang Yichao who expelled the Tibetans in 848. After the fall of Tang, Dunhaung was ruled by a local Cao family who formed alliances with the Uighurs and the Kingdom of Khotan. During the Song Dynasty, Dunhuang fell outside the Chinese borders. In 1037 it came under the rule of Shazhou Uighurs, then in 1068 the Tanguts (Tangut people) who founded the Xi Xia (Western Xia) Dyansty. It was conquered in 1227 by the Mongols who sacked and destroyed the town, and the rebuilt town became part of China again when Kublai Khan conquered the rest of China. Dunhuang went into a steep decline after the Chinese trade with the outside world became dominated by Southern sea-routes, and the Silk Road was officially abandoned during the Ming Dynasty. It was occupied again by the Tibetans in 1516, but retaken by China two centuries later ca. 1715 during Qing Dynasty. Others, such as Pelliot, suggested an alternative scenario, that the monks hurriedly hid the documents in advance of an attack by invaders, perhaps when Xi Xia (Western Xia) invaded in 1035. This theory was proposed in light of the absence of documents from Xi Xia and the disordered state Pelliot found the room in (perhaps a misinterpretation because the room was disturbed by Stein the year before). Another theory posits that the items were from a monastic library and hidden due to threats from Muslims who were moving eastward. This theory proposes that that the monks of a nearby monastery heard about the fall of the Buddhist kingdom of Khotan to Karakhanids (Kara-Khanid Khanate) invaders from Kashgar in 1006 and the destruction it caused, so they sealed their library to avoid them being destroyed. The Nature of the Dunhuang Library Cave and the Reasons for its Sealing The latest date recorded in the documents found in the cave is generally accepted to be 1002, and although other dates have been suggested, the cave was likely to have been sealed not long after that date. Comprehensive armor for horses might have been used in China as early as the Three Kingdoms period. It wasn't until the early 4th century however, that cataphracts came into widespread use among the Xianbei tribes of inner Mongolia and Liaoning, which led to the adoption of cataphracts by the Chinese armies during the Northern and Southern Dynasties era. Numerous burial seals, military figurines, murals, and official reliefs from this period testify to the great importance of armored cavalry in warfare. Later, the Sui Empire maintained the use of cataphracts, but the use of horse armor declined in the Tang Empire (becoming limited to ceremonial guards of honor) for reasons that remain unclear. The use of cataphracts was then revived in the Liao (Liao Dynasty), Western Xia, and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) dynasties - the super-heavy cataphracts of the Xia and Jin were especially effective and were known as ''Iron Sparrowhawks'' and ''Iron Pagodas'' respectively. The Song Empire also developed cataphract units to counter those of the Liao, Xia, and Jin, but the shortage of suitable grazing lands and horse pastures in Song territory made the effective breeding and maintenance of Song cavalry far more difficult, in addition to the Song's vulnerability to continual raids by the emerging Mongol Empire for over two decades, which eventually vanquished them in 1279 at the hands of Kublai Khan. The Yuan Dynasty, successors to the Song, which were a continuation of the Mongolian Empire seem to have all but forgotten the cataphract traditions of their predecessors, and the last remaining traces of cataphracts in East Asia seems to have died with the downfall of the Yuan in 1368. Genghis quickly came into conflict with the Jin Dynasty of the Jurchens and the Western Xia of the Tanguts in northern China. Towards the West, under the provocation of the Muslim Khwarezmid Empire, he moved into Central Asia as well, devastating Transoxiana and the eastern Persia (Persian Empire), then raiding into Kievan Rus' (a predecessor state of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and the Caucasus. Western Xia Empire The Western Xia Empire inherited the political and social structures of the Tang (Tang Dynasty) and further developed an outstanding civilization characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. the Xia army maintained a powerful stance in opposition to the Song (Song Dynasty), Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125), and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) (1115–1234) empires to its east, the last of which was founded by the Jurchens, who were the predecessors of the Manchus to found the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) later. The Xia territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Western Xia over a period of twenty two years. As Western Xia resisted vehemently, more and more of its people crossed the Qilian Mountains to join the earlier establishments in Qinghai and Gansu in order to avoid the Mongol assaults, which gave rise to the current settlements of the Monguor. During the last round of the Mongol attacks, Genghis died in Western Xia. The official account of the Mongol history attributed his death to an illness, whereas legends accounted that he died from a wound inflicted in the battles. After the Xia capital was overrun in 1227, the Mongols inflicted devastating destruction on its architecture and written records, killing the last emperor and massacring tens of thousands of civilians. The Xia troops were later incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. Due to the fierce resistance of the Xia against the Mongol attacks, especially in causing the death of Genghis, they were initially suppressed in the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). Toward the middle and later phases of the Yuan, they received equivalent treatment as the ruling Mongols and attained highest offices in the Central Court. After the Yuan fell, the Xia who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were immersed among and later classified into the "Mongols." Western Xia Empire The Western Xia Empire inherited the political and social structures of the Tang (Tang Dynasty) and further developed an outstanding civilization characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. the Xia army maintained a powerful stance in opposition to the Song (Song Dynasty), Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125), and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) (1115–1234) empires to its east, the last of which was founded by the Jurchens, who were the predecessors of the Manchus to found the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) later. The Xia territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Western Xia over a period of twenty two years. As Western Xia resisted vehemently, more and more of its people crossed the Qilian Mountains to join the earlier establishments in Qinghai and Gansu in order to avoid the Mongol assaults, which gave rise to the current settlements of the Monguor. During the last round of the Mongol attacks, Genghis died in Western Xia. The official account of the Mongol history attributed his death to an illness, whereas legends accounted that he died from a wound inflicted in the battles. After the Xia capital was overrun in 1227, the Mongols inflicted devastating destruction on its architecture and written records, killing the last emperor and massacring tens of thousands of civilians. The Xia troops were later incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. Due to the fierce resistance of the Xia against the Mongol attacks, especially in causing the death of Genghis, they were initially suppressed in the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). Toward the middle and later phases of the Yuan, they received equivalent treatment as the ruling Mongols and attained highest offices in the Central Court. After the Yuan fell, the Xia who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were immersed among and later classified into the "Mongols." Tangut-Xixia The English reference of "Tangut (Tangut people)-Xixia (Western Xia)" was derived from the combination of the Mongolian (Mongolian language) reference of "Tangut" and the Chinese reference as "Xixia" or "Western Xia." The Chinese reference was derived from the location of the empire on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) on its east. The Mongolian usage of "Tangut" most likely referred to the "Donghu people;" "-t" in Mongolian language means "people". The Mongols referred to the ethnic groups who were immersed among the Jurchens and Mongols as "Jāūqŭt," "Jaquit," and "Joyit." See Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京 , Zhongyang min zu da xue chu ban she Central Nationalities University Press 中央民族大学出版社. p. 179. All these terms end with "-t" and suggest that the Mongolian terms ending with "-t" in reference of ethnic groups mean "people. The Chinese transcription of "Tangut" was "Tang wu ti" 唐兀惕, which was interpreted to represent the "people of Western Xia." See Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 315. Whereas "Donghu" was a Chinese transcription, its Mongolian reference was "Tünghu". Hao, Weimin (郝维民) and Qimudedaoerji (齐木德道尔吉), 2007, Neimenggu tong shi gang yao Outline of Comprehensive History of Inner Mongolia 内蒙古通史纲要. Beijing (北京), Renmin chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社. p. 17). By the time that the Mongols emerged in the thirteenth century, the only "Donghu people" who existed were the "Tu" in Western Xia. Tangut-Xixia The English reference of "Tangut (Tangut people)-Xixia (Western Xia)" was derived from the combination of the Mongolian (Mongolian language) reference of "Tangut" and the Chinese reference as "Xixia" or "Western Xia." The Chinese reference was derived from the location of the empire on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) on its east. The Mongolian usage of "Tangut" most likely referred to the "Donghu people;" "-t" in Mongolian language means "people". The Mongols referred to the ethnic groups who were immersed among the Jurchens and Mongols as "Jāūqŭt," "Jaquit," and "Joyit." See Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京 , Zhongyang min zu da xue chu ban she Central Nationalities University Press 中央民族大学出版社. p. 179. All these terms end with "-t" and suggest that the Mongolian terms ending with "-t" in reference of ethnic groups mean "people. The Chinese transcription of "Tangut" was "Tang wu ti" 唐兀惕, which was interpreted to represent the "people of Western Xia." See Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 315. Whereas "Donghu" was a Chinese transcription, its Mongolian reference was "Tünghu". Hao, Weimin (郝维民) and Qimudedaoerji (齐木德道尔吉), 2007, Neimenggu tong shi gang yao Outline of Comprehensive History of Inner Mongolia 内蒙古通史纲要. Beijing (北京), Renmin chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社. p. 17). By the time that the Mongols emerged in the thirteenth century, the only "Donghu people" who existed were the "Tu" in Western Xia. That the Mongols referred to Western Xia as "Tangut" to represent the founding ethnic group, the Tuyühu Xianbei, is consistent with the theories of the Mongol origins postulated by the Outer Mongolian scholars, who have held that the Mongols had descended from the Xiongnu, more specifically the eastern Xiongnu who spoke proto-Mongolic language, as opposed to the western Xiongnu who spoke proto-Turkish language. In contrast, the Chinese scholars have characterized that the Mongols had descended from the Xianbei. The Mongols were recorded as "Mengwu Shiwei" in the Northern Dynasties: "Mengwu" was a variant Chinese transcription of "Menggu" designated to the Mongols, and "Shiwei" was a variant transcription of the Xianbei, as "Xianbei" was also recorded as "Sian-pie," "Serbi," "Sirbi" and "Sirvi". Zhang, Jiuhe 张久和 (1998). Yuan Menggu ren de li shi: Shiwei--Dada yan jiu History of the Original Mongols: research on Shiwei-Dadan 原蒙古人的历史: 室韦--达怛研究. Beijing 北京 , Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she High Education Press 高等教育出版社. p. 27–28. This equated the Mongols to be "Mongol Xianbei," which was likely associated with the submission of the Xiongnu under Xianbei. In 87 A.D., the Xianbei defeated the northern Xiongnu and killed their king, Chanyu Youliu, causing its thorough disintegration. Thereafter, the Xiongnu submitted under and self proclaimed to be Xianbei. Zhu, Hong 朱泓 (1994). "Ren zhong xue shang de xiong nu, xian bei yu qi dan The Xiongnu, Xianbei and Qidan in racial perspectives 人种学上的匈奴、鲜卑与契丹." Beifang wen wu Northern Cultural Relics 北方文物 38(2): 7-13. This resulted in a mix of the Xiongnu into Xianbei and made it difficult to differentiate the two groups in subsequent historical records. That the Mongolian term "Tangut" represented "the Donghu people," the Xianbei and their descendants who had founded the Tuyühu and Western Xia empires, would validate the theories of the Outer Mongolian scholars that the Mongols had descended from the Xiongnu. The fact that there were Wuhuan groups, who were part of the Donghu federation and followed Tuyühu Khan (Khan (title)) in the westward migration, would make the interpretation that "Tangut" represented "the Donghu people" stronger, not only from reflecting that the Wuhuan joined the Xianbei in the Tuyühu and Western Xia empires, but also contrasting that the Mongols had descended from the Xiongnu. If the Mongols had descended from the Xianbei, as the Chinese scholars characterized, the Mongols would have shared the same ethnic origins with the Xianbei of the Tuyühu Empire and not have called them as "the Donghu people" in reference of Western Xia. While the intimate associations between the two groups were manifested in the cross references of the Mongols as "Mengwu Shiwei" (or "Mongol Xianbei") from the first century and the Monguor as "Chaghan (or White) Monguor" in the thirteenth century, ethnically and culturally they remained different. As much as the prefix "Mengwu" (or "Mongol") in front of "Shiwei" (or "Xianbei") marked the difference between the Mongols and the Xianbei, the prefix "Chaghan" in front of "Monguor" indicated that the Monguor and their Xianbei predecessors were not the same as the Mongols. Culturally, the Mongols have retained a nomadic lifestyle, whereas the social organizations and religious lives of the Monguor are of far greater complexities. Xia title The full national title of Western Xia was "the Great Xia Kingdom of the White and Mighty," or "Bai Gao Da Xia Guo" (白高大夏国). The term "White" (or "Bai") was designated to the founding ethnic group, the Xianbei descendants of the Tuyühu Empire, which is consistent with their reference of "Chaghan" (or "White"), derived from their origins from the Murong Xianbei known as the "White Section." The term "Mighty" (or "Gao") was designated to the "Qiang" people (Qiang people) who formed the majority of the population. The "Qiang" were the native peoples who were subjugated by the Xianbei in the northwest. They initially rebelled but later their fate became intimately associated with the Xianbei, as they actively defended the empire when the enemies attacked. In addition to the Tibetans and authentic Han people, the "Qiang" comprised a portion of the Miao (Miao people) Hmong (Hmong people) who were relocated to the northwest from central China after their Three Miao Kingdom was destroyed by the legendary Chinese Emperor Yü the Great about four thousand years ago. Wu, Xinfu 伍新福 (1999). Zhongguo Miao zu tong shi A comprehensive history of the Chinese Hmong 中国苗族通史. Guiyang 贵阳市 , Guizhou min zu chu ban she Guizhou Nationalities Press 贵州民族出版社. p. 25–30. Schein, Louisa (2000). Minority rules: the Miao and the feminine in China's cultural politics. Durham, Duke University Press. p. 37–38. The "Qiang" referred to Western Xia as their "Gao (or ‘Mighty’) Mi Yao" Kingdom. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. p. 42. When "Mi Yao" is pronounced together, it is similar to "Miao." Since the autonyms of the Miao Hmong include "Guoxiong", Cen, Xiuwen 岑秀文 (1993). Miaozu The Miao Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong," and "Gouxiong," the character "Gao" (or "Mighty") in the Xia national title could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had traditionally been referred to as the "Mother River" of China, known as "Mu Qin He," that has nurtured their homeland. History In medieval China, Yan'an was once called ''Yanzhou'', a location of strategic military importance for the Chinese empire and Tangut (Tangut people)s of the Western Xia Dynasty. It was once successfully defended by the Song Dynasty (960–1279) era Chinese scientist, statesman, and general Shen Kuo (1031–1095 AD). However, it was eventually taken over by the Tanguts in 1082 once Shen's defensive victories were marginalized and sacrificed by the new Chancellor Cai Que (who handed the city over to the Tanguts as terms of a peace treaty). Yan'an and the whole of Shaanxi were taken over by the Mongols in the late 1220s, only after their leader Genghis Khan had died during the siege of the Western Xia capital in 1227. The city was maintained by the successive Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), as well as the Manchu Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the city fell into the hands of the newly-created Republic of China. W Wa people - Wade-Giles - Wah Yan College, Hong Kong - Wah Yan College, Kowloon - Walled villages of Hong Kong - Wan Chai district - Wan Hu - Wanfu Temple - Wang (Wang (surname)) - Wang Anshi - Wang An-shih - Wang Bi - Wang Changling - Wang Chien-shien - Wang Hongwen - Wang Jingwei - Wang Mang -Wang Meng (artist) - Wang Meng (author) - Wang Meng (figure skater) - Wang Meng (Former Qin) - Wang Meng (speed skater) - Wang Tao (19th century) - Wang Tao (footballer born 1970) - Wang Tao (table tennis) - Wang Tao (Three Kingdoms) - Wang Wei (8th century poet) - Wang Wei (17th century poet) - Wang Wei (baseball) - Wang Wei (fencer) - Wang Wei (Liang Dynasty) - Wang Wei (pilot) - Wang Yung-ching - Wang Zhaojun - Wang Zhen - Wang Zhizhi - Wangame Studios - Wangcheng County - Wangjing (Wangjing, Beijing) - Wanhua - Wanzhou - War of the Eight Princes - Warlord - Warring States Period - Wars of the three kingdoms - ''Water Margin'' - Wayne Wang - Wei Jingsheng - Wei Man - Wei Shuo - Wei Yan - Weifang -Weizhou Island - Weizhou, Haicheng District - Weizhou, Wenchuan County - Well-field system - Wen Chou - Wen Ho Lee - Wen Jiabao - Wen Tianxiang - Wen Tong - Wen Wei Du Shu Zhou Bao - Wen Wei Po - Wenhui-Xinmin United Press Group - Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture - Wenshui - Wen Zhenheng - Wenzhou - West Lake - West Rail, KCRC - Western Liáng - Western Xia - Wey Daw-ming - Whampoa Military Academy - Wheelbarrow - White Crane Kung Fu - White Deer Grotto Academy - White Horse Temple - White Jade River - William H. Hinton - William Hung - William Jardine (William Jardine (surgeon)) - William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier of Merchistoun - William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst - Wing Chun - WingTsun - Witness Lee - Wok - Wok with Yan - Wonch'uk - Wong - Wong Faye - Wong Fei Hung - Wong Kar-wai - Wong Tai Sin - Wong Tai Sin, Hong Kong - Wong Tai Sin Temple - Wong Wan Chau - Woo Tsin-hang - Work unit - WPS Office - Written Chinese - Wu - Wú (Wú (negative)) - Wu Bangguo - Wu Cheng'en - Wu Gorge - Wu Guanzheng - Wu Han (Han Dynasty) - Wu Han (PRC) - Wu Hu - Wu Chinese - Wu Ma - Wu Sangui - Wu Tao-Tzu - Wubi method - Wuchang District - Wuchang Uprising - Wuchang, Heilongjiang - Wudang Mountains - Wuer Kaixi - Wuhan - Wuhuan - Wulingyuan - Wuqiu Jian - Wushu (sport) - Wushu (term) - Wusun - Wutai Shan - Wuxi - Wuxia film - Wu Yi '''Yinchuan''' is the capital of the Ningxia Hui (Hui people) Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, and former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts. It has an area of 4,467 km² and a total population of 1.99 million. Its built up area is home to 1,290,170 inhabitants spread on 3 urban districts. The name of the city literally means "silver river"; the character for "river" (川) is the same as that in Sichuan, but not as those in, for example, the Yellow River (黄河) or Yangtze River (长江). ''Heqin'' was engaged in by most dynasties in Chinese history to some extent. By contrast to their contemporaries, such as the Liao (Liao Dynasty), Jin (Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234), Western Xia, Yuan (Yuan Dynasty) and the Northern Yuan (Northern Yuan Dynasty) dynasties, the Song (Song Dynasty) and Ming (Ming Dynasty) dynasties did not practice such alliances. Manchuria under the Mongol Empire In 1211, after the conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan mobilized an army to conquer the Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)). His general Jebe and brother Qasar were ordered to reduce the Jurchen cities in Manchuria. Tom Shanley- Dominion: Dawn of the Mongol Empire, p.144 They successfully destroyed the Jin forts there. The Khitans under Yelü Liuge declared their allegiance to Genghis Khan and established nominally autonomous state in Manchuria in 1213. However, the Jin forces dispatched a punitive expedition against them. Jebe went there again and the Mongols pushed out the Jins. The new Mongol Nation quickly moved to annex more territory. The first Mongol conquests were campaigns against the Xi Xia Empire (Western Xia) in western China. All Empires: Online History Community. "The Mongol Empire." Feb. 2007. Web. 22 November 2009 In 1209 the Mongols conquered the Xi Xia. Between 1213 and 1214 the Mongols conquered the Jin Empire (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)), and by 1214 the Mongols had captured most of the land north of the Yellow River. In 1221 Mongol generals Jebe and Subodei (Subutai) began their expedition around the Caspian Sea and into Rus'; Genghis Khan defeated Persian Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu at the Battle of Indus and the war with the Khwarezmian Empire (Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty) concluded the same year. In 1235 the Mongols invaded Korea (Mongol invasions of Korea). Two years later in 1237 Batu Khan and Subodei began their conquest of Rus' (Mongol invasion of Rus'), they conquered Poland (Mongol invasion of Poland) and Hungary (Mongol invasion of Europe#Invasion into Central Europe) in 1241. In 1252 the Mongols began their invasion of Southern China (Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty); they would seize the capital of Hangzhou in 1276. In 1258 Hulagu Khan captured Baghdad (Battle of Baghdad (1258)).

Western Xia

The '''Western Xia''' ( ), also known as the '''Tangut Empire''' and to the Tangut people and the Tibetans as '''Minyak''', Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 AD in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces (provinces of China) of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about eight hundred thousand square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen (Li Fanwen) 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社.

The state suffered from devastating destruction by the Mongols who founded the Mongol Empire, including most of its written records and architecture. Its founders and history therefore remained controversial until recent research conducted both in the West and within China. The Western Xia occupied the area of important trade route between North China and Central Asia, the Hexi Corridor. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, and architecture, which was characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. Their extensive stance among the other empires of the Liao (Liao dynasty), Song (Song dynasty), and Jin (Jin dynasty (1115–1234)) was attributable to their effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on land and water. Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50.

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