Western Xia

What is Western Xia known for?


military sports

;ref Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. Name The full title of the Western Xia as named by their own state is "90px (File:Western Xia 2.svg)" reconstructed as *phiow¹-bjij²-lhjij-lhjij² which translates as "The Great Xia State of the White and the Lofty" (白高大夏國), or called "mjɨ-njaa" or "khjɨ-dwuu-lhjij" (萬秘國). The region was known to the Tanguts and the Tibetans as Minyak. Dorje (1999), p. 444. "Western Xia" is the literal translation of the state's Chinese name. It is derived from its location on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (916–1125) and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties on its east and the Song in the southeast. The English term "Tangut" comes from the Mongolian (Mongolian language) name for the country, ''Tangghut'' (


large role

Dynasty and the Tangut (Tangut people) Western Xia. Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north. This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161. Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song. In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song Dynasty, the Tangut (Tangut people)s-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song Dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture. 1080s * 1080–1081: The Chinese statesman and scientist Shen Kuo is put in command of the campaign against the Western Xia, and although he successfully halts their invasion route to Yanzhou (modern Yan'an), another officer disobeys imperial orders and the campaign is ultimately a failure because of it. * 1084: the enormous Chinese historical work of the ''Zizhi Tongjian'' is compiled by scholars under Chancellor Sima Guang, completed in 294 volumes and included 3 million written Chinese characters * The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia gains independence after its founder, Prince Ruben, succeeds in establishing his authority in the mountainous regions of Cilicia (approximate date). * The Song Dynasty Chinese polymath scientist and statesman Shen Kuo begins his defensive military campaign against the Tanguts of the Western Xia Kingdom, successfully defending the invasion route to Yan'an. * Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (b. 1156) * Emperor Renzong of Western Xia, 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (b. 1124) * Richard de Redvers, 4th Earl of Devon Asia * The Western Xia declare their independence from Liao (Liao Dynasty) China. * Abad II succeeds his father to the throne of Sevilla. * Incursions by the Western Xia and the threat of further Liao Dynasty military actions against the Song Dynasty force an increase in tribute payments to the Liao. * The Almoravids, led by Abdullah Ibn Yasin, invade Morocco.


character quot

Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong", and "Gouxiong", the character "Gao" (or "Mighty" or "Lofty") could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had traditionally been referred to as the "Mother River" of China, known as "Mu Qin He", that has nurtured

of the Miao (Miao people) Hmong (Hmong people) include "Guoxiong", Cen, Xiuwen 岑秀文 (1993). Miaozu The Miao Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong", and "Gouxiong", the character "Gao" (or "Mighty" or "Lofty") could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had

;Cen, Xiuwen 岑秀文 (1993). Miaozu The Miao Nationality 苗族. Beijing 北京 , Min zu chu ban she Nationalities Press 民族出版社. p. 5. "Gaoxiong," and "Gouxiong," the character "Gao" (or "Mighty") in the Xia national title could have derived as a variant abbreviation. "Bai Gao" in the national title was in turn used it to refer to the Yellow River, which had traditionally been referred to as the "Mother River" of China, known


running high

;to stamp down Helan Pass (Helan Mountains)" is what led scholars to this conclusion. Helan Pass was in Western Xia territory, which was not a military target of Yue's armies. Liu suggests the "real author of the poem was probably Chao K'uan who engraved it on a tablet at Yueh Fei's tomb in 1502, in order to express the patriotic sentiments which were running high at that time, about four years after General Wang Yueh had scored a victory over the Oirats near the Ho-lan Pass in Inner Mongolia." James T. C. Liu. "Yueh Fei (1103-41) and China's Heritage of Loyalty." ''The Journal of Asian Studies''. Vol. 31, No. 2 (Feb., 1972), pp. 291-297 '''Temüge''' (1168 – 1246) was the youngest full-brother of Genghis Khan. As the youngest sibling, Temüge and his mother, by Mongol traditions, were allotted the most land and people by Genghis Khan during his coronation. Although he seems to have been the least warlike of the brothers, and was criticized by Genghis himself for being lazy and shiftless, Temüge proved himself to be a skilled politician and capable ruler, who, alongside his mother Hoelun, ruled the Mongol heartland in his eldest brothers' absence. He appears to have had intellectual leanings, first coming under the influence of the conquered Xia (Western Xia) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)) cultures and then taking an active interest in the other cultures encompassed in the vast Mongol empire.


quot people

from Chinese ''Donghu (Donghu people)''; the "-t" suffix in the Mongolian language means "people". The Mongols referred to the ethnic groups who were immersed among the Jurchens and Mongols as "Jāūqŭt", "Jaquit", and "Joyit", all ending with "-t" and suggesting that the Mongolian terms ending with "-t" in reference of ethnic groups mean "people. See Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi

ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京 , Zhongyang min zu da xue chu ban she Central Nationalities University Press 中央民族大学出版社. p. 179. The Chinese transcription of "Tangut" was "Tang wu ti", which was interpreted to represent the "people of Western Xia". See Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social

on its east. The Mongolian usage of "Tangut" most likely referred to the "Donghu people;" "-t" in Mongolian language means "people". The Mongols referred to the ethnic groups who were immersed among the Jurchens and Mongols as "Jāūqŭt," "Jaquit," and "Joyit." See Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京


historical people

(historical people) Dangxiang Qiang submitted to the Tang, which "bestowed" upon him the royal name of Li (李). Towards the end of the Tang, the Tuoba brought troops to suppress the Huang Chao Rebellion (874–884) on behalf of the Tang court and took control of the Xia State, or Xia Zhou, in northern Shaanxi in 881. After the Tang fell in 907, the Tuoba descendants formally declared resistance against the expanding Northern Song (Song dynasty#Northern Song, 960–1127) in 982


music architecture

Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao

Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. It became the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛


historical setting

, and the inherent bond that underlies the struggles of each. The novel examines the cause and effect that forms and breaks these bonds on five uniquely corresponding levels: self, family, society, ethnic group, and country (dominion). The novel's historical setting is in the Northern Song Dynasty, and includes the non-Han Chinese empires of Liao (Liao Dynasty), Dali (Kingdom of Dali), Western Xia and Tubo (Tufan). *'''County of Tripoli''' - Bohemond IV (Bohemond IV of Antioch) (1219–1233) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Emirate of Yemen''' - Al-Mas'ud Yusuf (Al-Mas'ud Yusuf of Yemen) (1215–1229) *'''County of Tripoli''' - Bohemond IV (Bohemond IV of Antioch) (1219–1233) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xianzong (Emperor Xianzong of Western Xia) (1223–1226) *'''Emirate of Yemen''' - Al-Mas'ud Yusuf (Al-Mas'ud Yusuf of Yemen) (1215–1229) *'''County of Tripoli''' - Bohemond IV (Bohemond IV of Antioch) (1219–1233) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xianzong (Emperor Xianzong of Western Xia) (1223–1226) *'''Emirate of Yemen''' - Al-Mas'ud Yusuf (Al-Mas'ud Yusuf of Yemen) (1215–1229) In his career as a scholar-official (Scholar-bureaucrats) for the central government, Shen Kuo was also an ambassador to the Western Xia Dynasty and Liao Dynasty, Steinhardt (1997), 316. a military commander, a director of hydraulic works, and the leading chancellor of the Hanlin Academy. Needham (1986), Volume 1, 135. By 1072, Shen was appointed as the head official of the Bureau of Astronomy. With his leadership position in the bureau, Shen was responsible for projects in improving calendrical science, Bowman (2000), 105. and proposed many reforms to the Chinese calendar alongside the work of his colleague Wei Pu. Sivin (1995), III, 18. With his impressive skills and aptitude for matters of economy and finance, Shen was appointed as the Finance Commissioner at the central court. *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206 *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206 *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xiangzong (Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia) (1206–1211) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xiangzong (Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia) (1206–1211) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xiangzong (Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia) (1206–1211) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Xiangzong (Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia) (1206–1211) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Vietnam'''-Lý Huệ Tông, List of Vietnamese monarchs *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) *'''Mongol Empire''' - Genghis Khan (1206–1227) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Shenzong (Emperor Shenzong of Western Xia) (1211–1223) By the time of the Song Dynasty, China's northern borders were met by the Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)), and the Tangut Western Xia. After being threatened by these northern states and realizing the possible effects of a war to the country and people, the Song Dynasty rulers invented a false concept of kinship with the Jurchens in an attempt to improve relations. The Mongols divided Chinese citizens into two types during the Yuan Dynasty: those of the south, and those of the north. When the Ming Dynasty expelled the Mongols and reunited China under Han rule, the concept of ''tianxia'' returned largely as it was during the Han Dynasty. One possible reason behind its weakness is its interpretation of its own foreign policy. The official policy of the Song Dynasty at the time was one of pacifism and this caused the weakening of the military (Military history of China (pre-1911)). Western Xia took advantage of this deterioration and waged small scale wars against Song China near the borders. When Renzong came into power, he issued decrees to strengthen the military and paid massive bribes to the Liao (Liao Dynasty) government, an adversary of Western Xia, in the hope that this would ensure the safety of Song China. *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) Song Dynasty thumb upright The Northern Song Dynasty (Image:China 11a.jpg) (960-1127), with neighboring Western Xia and Liao (Liao Dynasty) dynasties to the north. The Chinese political theory of China being the center of world diplomacy was largely accepted in East Asia, except in periods of Chinese weakness such as the Song Dynasty (960-1279). With powerful sinicized kingdoms to its north such as the Tangut (Tangut people)-led Western Xia, the Song Dynasty Chinese were forced to engage in skillful diplomacy. The famous statesmen and scientists Shen Kuo (1031–1095) and Su Song (1020–1101) were both sent as Song ambassadors to the Liao Dynasty in order to settle border disputes. Shen Kuo asserted Song China's rightful borders in the north by dredging up old archived court documents and signed agreements between the Song and Liao dynasties. Su Song asserted Song China's rightful borders in a similar way, only he used his extensive knowledge of cartography and maps to solve a heated border dispute. thumb upright Painting of Kublai Khan (Image:Liu-Kuan-Tao-Jagd.JPG) on a hunting expedition, by artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280 AD. The Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) of China was the easternmost part of the vast Mongol Empire (stretching from East Asia to East Europe), which became politically separated into four khanates beginning with the succession war in 1260. The Mongol leaders Genghis Khan, Ögedei Khan, Mongke Khan, and Hulagu Khan were able to conquer the Tangut Western Xia and the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234) in northern China, as well as invaded Korea (Mongol invasions of Korea) under the Goryeo Dynasty, turning it into a vassal state that was ruled indirectly. The Mongols withdrew after Korean monarchs agreed to move its capital back to the mainland from Ganghwa Island. *'''Khmer Empire''' - Jayavarman VII (''Mahaparamasangata''?) (1181-1220?) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Sinjong (Sinjong of Goryeo) (1197–1204) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *# Sinjong (Sinjong of Goryeo) (1197–1204) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huanzong (Emperor Huanzong of Western Xia) (1193–1206) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo)(1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo)(1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *# Myeongjong (Myeongjong of Goryeo) (1170–1197) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo)(1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo)(1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo)(1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *#Euijong (Euijong of Goryeo) (1146–1170) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Western Xia) (1139–1193) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Mosul''' - Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul (1127–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Injong (Injong of Goryeo) (1122–1146) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Thần Tông, King of Vietnam (1127–1138) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) **Lý Thần Tông, King of Vietnam (1127–1138) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') – Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) ** Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) **'''Sultanate of Rûm''' - Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Daozong (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (1055–1101) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Sultanate of Rûm''' Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (1077–1086) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Huizong (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia) (1067–1086) *'''Great Seljuq Empire'''- Malik-Shah I (1072–1092) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Great Seljuq Empire'''- Malik-Shah I (1072–1092) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Great Seljuq Empire'''- Malik-Shah I (1072–1092) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Great Seljuq Empire'''- Malik-Shah I (1072–1092) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Persia''' - Melek Sha Leader of the Buyi dinasty *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Vietnam''' - Lý Nhân Tông, King of Vietnam (History of Vietnam) (1072–1127) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Chongzong (Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia) (1086–1139) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *#Alp Arslan (1063–1072) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Thaton Kingdom''' - Manuha, King of Thaton (c. 1035-1057) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Great Seljuq Empire''' - Tughril (1037–1063) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Yizong (Emperor Yizong of Western Xia) (1048–1067) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajadhiraja Chola (1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Chola Empire (Tamil Nadu) (Chola Dynasty)''' - Rajendra Chola & Rajadhiraja Chola (1012–1044 & 1018–1054) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Ziyarid''' - Anushiravan Manouchehr (Anushirvan Sharaf al-Ma'ali), Ziyarid Amir (Ziyarid) (1031–1043) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Emperor Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Monarch of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia), Duke of Western Xia (1032–1048), Emperor after 1038 *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Emperor of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia), Duke of Xia (Table of Chinese monarchs) (1032–1048, Emperor after 1038) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Emperor of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia), Duke of Xia (Table of Chinese monarchs) (1032–1048, Emperor after 1038) *#Jeongjong (Jeongjong, 10th Emperor of Goryeo) (1034–1046) *'''Western Xia''' - Jingzong, Duke of Xia (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia) (1032–1048, Emperor after 1038) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Deokjong (Deokjong of Goryeo) (1031–1034) *'''Western Xia''' - Jingzong (Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia), Duke of Xia (Table of Chinese monarchs) (1032–1048, Emperor after 1038) **'''Kingdom of Dali''' - Duan Suying (986-1009) **'''Western Xia''' - Li Jiqian, King of Xia (984-1004) *'''Chola''' - Raja Raja Chola I, King of Chola (985-1012) '''Emperor Renzong''' (1124–1193), born '''Li Renxiao''', was the 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (reigned 1139–1193). Throughout its history, Hezhou often was the crossing of important trade routes: one of the alternative paths of the east-way Silk Route, connecting China's heartland with Central Asia, and the north-south route linking Mongolia and Tibet. During parts of the Song Dynasty period, when the Western Xia took control of the more northerly path of the Silk Route, the more southerly Didao (Lintao County)-Hezhou-Xining alternative path of the Silk Route may have become particularly important, making all three cities important commercial centers. Historians think that it was then, during the Song Dynasty, that the Muslims of Hezhou probably built their first mosque.


defensive military

of Cilicia (approximate date). * The Song Dynasty Chinese polymath scientist and statesman Shen Kuo begins his defensive military campaign against the Tanguts of the Western Xia Kingdom, successfully defending the invasion route to Yan'an. * Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general (b. 1156) * Emperor Renzong of Western Xia, 5th emperor of the Western Xia dynasty (b. 1124) * Richard de Redvers, 4th Earl of Devon Asia * The Western Xia declare


white quot

attributed to the common mythology, which the Tangut shared with the Tibetans. A religious Tantric meaning of the state name has also been suggested but is extremely hard to prove. The recent interpretation of the "White" and "Lofty" is that they represented the founding ethnic group and the majority of the population. The term "White" was designated to the founding ethnic group, the Xianbei who are known as the "Monguor" in the West and "Tu"

officials discussed defense strategies against the Tangut. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. pp. 193–202. Their reference as "White" Mongols came from Murong Xianbei who had been historically referred to as "the White Section", or "Bai Bu", due to their lighter skin Liu, Xueyao 劉學銚 , 1994. Xianbei shi lun the Xianbei

society. The actual meaning of the name of the Tangut State "The Great State of White and Lofty" was previously attributed to the common mythology, which the Tangut shared with the Tibetans. A religious Tantric meaning of the state name has also been suggested but is extremely hard to prove. The recent interpretation of the "White" and "Lofty" is that they represented the founding ethnic group and the majority of the population. The term "White&quot

Western Xia

The '''Western Xia''' ( ), also known as the '''Tangut Empire''' and to the Tangut people and the Tibetans as '''Minyak''', Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 AD in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces (provinces of China) of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about eight hundred thousand square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen (Li Fanwen) 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社.

The state suffered from devastating destruction by the Mongols who founded the Mongol Empire, including most of its written records and architecture. Its founders and history therefore remained controversial until recent research conducted both in the West and within China. The Western Xia occupied the area of important trade route between North China and Central Asia, the Hexi Corridor. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, and architecture, which was characterized as "shining and sparkling". Zhao, Yanlong 赵彦龙 (2005). "Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体." Xibei min zu yan jiu Northwest Nationalities Research 西北民族研究 45(2): 78-84. Their extensive stance among the other empires of the Liao (Liao dynasty), Song (Song dynasty), and Jin (Jin dynasty (1115–1234)) was attributable to their effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on land and water. Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50.

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