West Germany

What is West Germany known for?


world award

. The collection is today housed at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (not to be confused with the Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek, the former library of Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel). His largest fame and first love has been the legitimate theater. He won the Theatre World Award for his performance in ''Long Day's Journey Into Night'' in 1971. He went on to star with Geneviève Bujold in ''Antigone'' which was later made into a film in 1974. He starred in the musical '' I


vocal works

had been developing concepts of spatialization (spatial music) in his works, not only in electronic music, such as the 5-channel ''Gesang der Jünglinge'' (1955–56) and ''Telemusik'' (1966), and 4-channel ''Kontakte (Kontakte (Stockhausen))'' (1958–60) and ''Hymnen'' (1966–67). Instrumental vocal works like ''Gruppen'' for three orchestras (1955–57) and ''Carré (Carré (Stockhausen))'' for four orchestras and choirs (1959–60) also exhibit this trait (Stockhausen ''Texte'' 2:71–72


detailed technical

January 1986, the Airbus Industrie Supervisory Board held a meeting in Munich, West Germany, after which board-chairman Franz Josef Strauß released a statement, "Airbus Industrie is now in a position to finalise the detailed technical definition of the TA9, which is now officially designated the A330, and the TA11, now called the A340, with potential launch customer airlines, and to discuss with them the terms and conditions for launch commitments". The designations were originally reversed because the airlines believed it illogical for a two-engine (Twinjet) jet airliner to have a "4" in its name, whilst a quad-jet would not. On 27 January 1986, the Airbus Industrie Supervisory Board held a meeting in Munich, West Germany. Afterwards, the board chairman, Franz Josef Strauß, released a statement that said, "Airbus Industrie is now in a position to finalise the detailed technical definition of the TA9, which is now officially designated the A330, and the TA11, now called the A340, with potential launch customer airlines, and to discuss with them the terms and conditions for launch commitments". The designations were originally reversed; they were switched so the quad-jet airliner would have a "4" in its name. Airbus hoped for five airlines to sign for both the A330 and A340, and on 12 May sent sale proposals to the most likely candidates, including Lufthansa and Swissair. Despite Cologne being the largest city in the region nearby, Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the newly set-up Federal State (States of Germany) North Rhine-Westphalia. With Bonn being chosen as the (provisional) capital of the Federal Republic, Cologne took benefit being sandwiched between the two important political centers of former West Germany. The city became home to a large number of Federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990 a new situation has been politically co-ordinated with the new federal capital city of Berlin. Film and television Freed also appeared in a number of pioneering rock and roll motion pictures during this period. These films were often welcomed with tremendous enthusiasm by teenagers because they brought visual depictions of their favorite American acts to the big screen, years before music videos would present the same sort of image on the small television screen. One side effect of these movies shown before mass audiences was that they sometimes presented an excuse for thugs to turn a fun event into a riot, in which cinemas in both West Germany and the United Kingdom were trashed. Rogge eventually became a Vizeadmiral (admiral) (vice-admiral--equivalent to a two star admiral during World War II) by the end of World War II, and, when the West German (West Germany) Bundesmarine was established after the war, returned to service as a Konteradmiral (counter admiral) (rear-admiral--a two star admiral). *After World War II — discharged *1 June 1957 — enters the post-World War II West German (West Germany) Bundesmarine with the rank of Konteradmiral **1 June 1957 – 29 September 1957 — delegated with the Command of Military Area Command I In 1960, Kristofferson graduated with a BPhil (Bachelor of Philosophy) in English literature and married an old girlfriend, Fran Beer. Kristofferson, under pressure from his family, ultimately joined the U.S. Army and achieved the rank of Captain (Captain (U.S. Army)). He became a helicopter pilot after receiving flight training at Fort Rucker, Alabama. He also completed Ranger School. During the early 1960s, he was stationed in West Germany as a member of the 8th Infantry Division (8th Infantry Division (United States)). http: ww2.epic-usa.org Default.aspx?tabid 346 It was during this time that he resumed his music career and formed a band. In 1965, when his tour of duty ended, Kristofferson was offered a position as a professor of English Literature at West Point (United States Military Academy). Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


power participating

power systems atomic powered vehicles ). * 28 March 1979 — The Three Mile Island accident occurs at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, dampening the enthusiasm of many in the United States for nuclear power. Participating nations A total of 32 nations sent athletes to Cortina d'Ampezzo. Along with the Soviet Union, Bolivia and Iran competed at the Winter Games for the first time. Korea, Liechtenstein, and Turkey returned after having missed the 1952 Winter Olympics, while Argentina, Denmark, New Zealand, and Portugal did not compete at these Games, Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano (1956), pp. 50–69 after having participated in the previous edition. Athletes from West Germany (FRG) and East Germany (German Democratic Republic) (GDR) competed together as the United Team of Germany, an arrangement that would continue for the following two Olympiads. Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


film theory

of the founding directors of the DEFA (Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft) studios, Dudow began adapting his play ''Der Weltuntergang'' for the screen. Despite the symbolic capital Dudow brought to DEFA as a renowned Weimar-era left-wing filmmaker, this first project was shelved by the authorities apparently because the film was deemed formalist (Formalist film theory). Dudow soon after produced a socialist realist (social realism) melodrama, ''Unser täglich Brot'' (1949), and with Kurt


acclaimed recording

; , article, ''The New York Times'', May 14, 1981, retrieved January 24, 2010 After spells conducting the New Orleans Symphony Orchestra and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra he returned to St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg). In 1992 he made an acclaimed recording of the Myaskovsky Cello Concerto with Julian Lloyd Webber and the London Symphony Orchestra for Philips Classics. Since 1979, the ''Bundesversammlung'' has traditionally met on May 23, the anniversary of the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the anniversary of the Basic Law (Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany) coming into force on this day in 1949. It is chaired by the President of the Bundestag (or one of the Vice Presidents, if the President stands as a candidate - as was the case with Karl Carstens in 1979). The ''Bundesversammlung'' is dissolved once the elected President declares that they accept their election, which decision may be delayed for up to two days (however, no would-be president-elect has ever done so). History Hof was originally called ''Rekkenze'' and established around the year 1080. The settlement was first mentioned 1214 and became a town in 1319. After a rather uneventful history, the town became Prussian in 1792, French in 1806 and finally Bavarian in 1810. In 1823, the town was virtually destroyed by a fire. In 1945, it suffered minor destruction due to aerial attacks. From 1945 to 1990 Hof lay very close to the border (Iron Curtain) between East Germany and West Germany. In 1989 thousands of East German citizens, who had demanded the right to travel or emigrate to West Germany and had been allowed to do so, first arrived on western soil at Hof's railroad station, having been placed on a special train and officially "expelled" by the East German government. Hof is located near the old Berlin-Munich autobahn, which was thought to be a possible invasion route by Warsaw Pact forces had the Cold War ever turned into armed combat Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


experimental recordings

Germany , in 1982 by Ralf Dörper (a member of the German industrial (industrial music) band Die Krupps). As a trio, with artist Andreas Thein and vocalist Susanne Freytag, they made initial recordings in Germany which were deemed for future release in UK, where Ralf Dörper's early experimental recordings had met critical acclaim. With the inclusion of classically trained musician and composer Michael Mertens (Michael Mertens (musician)) and singer Claudia Brücken (who had worked


breaking free

with Freytag in her previous band, The Tripolinas Breaking Free From The Past: An Interview With Claudia Brucken, by Nix Lowrey, April 7th, 2011 ), music-journalist Paul Morley signed the band to Trevor Horn's newly-formed ZTT Records label. ''Yorktown'' received the Atlantic Fleet's "Top Gun" award for outstanding naval gunfire support in 1987. During the second deployment from September 1987 to March 1988, ''Yorktown'' participated in numerous U.S. and NATO exercises, as well as multi-national exercises with Morocco, France, West Germany, Tunisia, and Turkey. It was on this Mediterranean deployment that ''Yorktown'' gained worldwide publicity from operations conducted in the Black Sea as part of Freedom of Navigation program. Campbell, "USS Caron's Black Sea Scrape Furthered International Law, National Interest", ''The Virginian-Pilot'' and the ''Ledger-Star'', 12 June 1988, at C3, col. 1. On 12 February 1988, while the Yorktown was exercising the "right of innocent passage" through Soviet territorial waters (a transit which, according to Richard L. Armitage (Richard Armitage (politician)), then Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, "from an operational standpoint" was "not necessary") Lieutenant Commander John W. Rolph, "Freedom of Navigation and the Black Sea Bumping Incident: How "Innocent" Must Innocent Passage Be?", ''Military Law Review'', Vol no. 136 (December 2005), pp. 146 the Soviet Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


running deep

reunification, the airports in the former GDR were sold off separately. The airline first offered regular scheduled service to West Germany in August 1989, from Leipzig to Düsseldorf, overflying Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) airspace. For years, similar to some other Communist countries' flag carriers, Interflug had been a financial liability for the GDR government, constantly running deep into debt. This was due in part to operating 1960s era aircraft, running the airline within


metal show

Festival in Düsseldorf, Germany, Tribe Tour 2004.jpg thumb Geoff Tate in Germany, Tribe Tour 2004. '''Geoff Tate''' (born '''Jeffrey Wayne Tate''', January 14, 1959, in Stuttgart, West Germany) is an American singer and musician, who rose to fame in the 1980s with the progressive metal band (band (music)), Queensrÿche. Tate is ranked fourteenth on ''Hit Parader's (Hit Parader)'' list of the 100 Greatest Metal Vocalists of All Time. He was voted #2 on That Metal Show top

West Germany

'''West Germany''' ( or ''BRD'' (BRD (Germany))) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990. This period is also referred to as the '''Bonn Republic''' by academic historians. The Bonn Republic — West German democracy, 1945-1990, Anthony James Nicholls, Longman, 1997

During this period NATO-aligned West Germany and Warsaw Pact-aligned East Germany were divided by the Inner German border. After 1961, West Berlin was physically separated from East Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall. This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and its five states joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany along with the reunified city-state of Berlin. With the reunification of West and East Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states, became known simply as "Germany".

The Federal Republic of Germany was established from eleven states (states of Germany) formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation (Allied occupation of Germany) held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France (the "Western Zones"). Its population grew from roughly 51 million in 1950 to more than 63 million in 1990. The city of Bonn was its ''de facto'' capital city (Berlin was symbolically named the ''de jure'' capital city in the West German Basic Law). The fourth Allied occupation zone (the East Zone, or ''Ostzone'') was held by the Soviet Union. The parts of this zone lying east of the Oder-Neisse were in fact annexed by the Soviet Union and communist Poland; the remaining central part around Berlin became the communist German Democratic Republic (abbreviated GDR; in German ''Deutsche Demokratische Republik'' or ''DDR'') with its ''de facto'' capital in East Berlin. As a result, West Germany had a territory about half the size of the interbellum democratic Weimar Republic.

At the onset of the Cold War, Germany (and, indeed, Europe) was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs. Germany was ''de facto'' divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland (Saar (protectorate)) and divided Berlin. The Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871-1945 German Reich. It took the line that the GDR was an illegally constituted puppet state. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not free and fair. For all practical purposes the GDR was a Soviet puppet state. From the West German perspective the GDR was therefore illegitimate.

Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, and the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial ''de facto'' 11th state. While legally not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin aligned itself politically with West Germany and was directly or indirectly represented in its federal institutions.

Relations with the Soviet bloc improved during the era of 'Neue Ostpolitik' around 1970, and West Germany began taking the line of "two German states within one German nation", but formally maintained the exclusive mandate. It recognised the GDR as a ''de facto'' government within a single German nation that in turn was represented ''de jure'' by the West German state alone. From 1973 onward, East Germany recognised the existence of two German countries ''de jure'', and the West as both ''de facto'' and ''de jure'' foreign country. The Federal Republic and the GDR agreed that neither of them could speak in the name of the other one.

The foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' (economic miracle) of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with the West rather than neutrality. He not only secured a membership in NATO but was also a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 G8 (G8) was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.

With the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990. Its five post-war states (''Länder'') were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional ''Land''. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like NATO and the European Union.

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