Weimar Republic

What is Weimar Republic known for?


book design

innovation and change to the fields of typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim for his exhibition design. '''''Berlin''''' is the title of a comic book series (limited series) created by Jason Lutes and published by Black Eye Productions and then Drawn and Quarterly. Planned as a series of 24 magazines, it describes life in Berlin from 1928 to 1933, during the decline


contemporary social

thought might serve to clarify contemporary social conditions which Marx himself had never seen. Another key influence also came from the publication in the 1930s of Marx's ''Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts (Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844)'' and ''The German Ideology'', which showed the continuity with Hegelianism that underlay Marx's thought. nickname ''Otto der Schweigsame'' (Silent Otto) allegiance Weimar Republic (to 1933) br>


realistic depictions

Abel , who was arrested and convicted in New York City in the 1950s, and the 'Krogers' (i.e., Morris and Lona Cohen), who were arrested and convicted of espionage in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s. Both were found with physical one-time pads in their possession. '''Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix''' ( ; 2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar


writing numerous

in Freiburg) was a German (Germany) race (Race (classification of human beings)) researcher and eugenicist in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. He was also known as ''Race Günther'' (''Rassegünther'') or ''Race Pope'' (''Rassenpapst''). He is considered to be a major influence on National Socialist (Nazism) racialist thought. He taught at the universities of Jena (University of Jena), Berlin (University of Berlin), and Freiburg (University of Freiburg), writing

numerous books and essays on racial theory. Günther's ''Short Ethnology of the German People'' (1929) was a popular exposition of Nordicism. In 1931 he was appointed to a new chair of racial theory at Jena. He joined the Nazi Party in the following year Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


speed development

November 1920. In 1923 Reichs's chancellor Gustav Stresemann overthrew the SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany)-led Saxon government. The state maintained its name and borders during the National Socialist era as a Gau (Gau (administrative division)), but lost any quasi-autonomous status and its parliamentarian democracy. File:Stettin Wilhelmsdenkmal 1900.jpg right thumb upright Stettin was long Germany's largest Baltic port, a situation which greatly helped speed development


personal quot

a doctorate from the University of Freiburg. Bredow was, along with Schleicher, among Adolf Hitler's bitterest adversaries at the time of the Weimar Republic's downfall. Towards the end of this régime, Bredow, as the leader of Schleicher's personal "information service" was head of a number of coexisting secret service organizations, among them even the SS's Sicherheitsdienst, which was under Reinhard Heydrich's leadership. Background Johanna (or Hannah) Solf


opening years

socialist dictatorship. *The Great Depression seriously affects the economic, political, and social aspects of society across the world. However, not all countries enjoyed this prosperity. The Weimar Republic, like many other European countries, had to face a severe economic downturn in the opening years of the decade, because of the enormous debt caused by the war as well as the Treaty of Versailles. Such a crisis would culminate with a devaluation of the Mark (Mark (money)) in 1923, eventually leading to severe economic problems (Hyperinflation) and, in the long term, favour the rise of the Nazi Party. * Benito Mussolini of the National Fascist Party became Prime Minister of Italy (List of Prime Ministers of Italy), shortly thereafter creating the world's first fascist (Fascism) government. The Fascist regime establishes a totalitarian state led by Mussolini as a dictator. The Fascist regime restores good relations between the Roman Catholic Church and Italy with the Lateran Treaty which creates Vatican City. The Fascist regime pursues an aggressive expansionist agenda in Europe such as by raiding the Greek island (List of islands of Greece) of Corfu (Corfu incident) in 1923, pressuring Albania (Albanian Republic) to submit to becoming a ''de facto'' Italian protectorate in the mid-1920s, and holding territorial aims on the region of Dalmatia in Yugoslavia. * In Germany, the Weimar Republic suffers from economic crisis in the early 1920s and hyperinflation (Inflation in the Weimar Republic) of currency in 1923. From 1923 to 1925 the Occupation of the Ruhr takes place. The Ruhr was an industrial region of Germany taken over by the military forces of the French Third Republic and Belgium, in response to the failure of the Weimar Republic under Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno to keep paying the World War I reparations. The recently formed fringe National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) (a.k.a. Nazi Party) led by Adolf Hitler attempts a coup against the Bavarian and German governments in the Beer Hall Putsch which fails, resulting in Hitler being briefly imprisoned for one year in prison where he writes ''Mein Kampf''. * Turkish War of Independence (1919–23). Western In 1929, the Fascist Party in Italy (Italian Fascism) tightened its control. National education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


made free

, Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen and Frankfurt were once again made free cities. Frankfurt was annexed by Prussia in consequence of the part it took in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The three Hanseatic cities remained as constituent states of the new German Empire, and retained this role in the Weimar Republic and into the Third Reich, although under Hitler (Adolf Hitler) this status was purely notional. Due to Hitler's distaste for Lübeck


strength set

'', London: Macmillan, 1967 pages 93-94. In 1921, the German government founded the ''Arbeits-Kommandos'' (work squads) led by Major Bruno Ernst Buchrucker. Officially a labour group intended to assist with civilian projects, in reality they were used by Germany to exceed the limits on troop strength set by the Treaty of Versailles. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 92. Buchrucker's Black Reichswehr took its orders from a secret group in the German Army known as ''Sondergruppe R'' comprising Kurt von Schleicher, Eugen Ott (Eugen Ott (ambassador)), Fedor von Bock and Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 92. . Buchrucker's Black Reichswehr became infamous for its practice of murdering Germans suspected of working as informers for the Allied Control Commission. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 93. The killings perpetrated by the Black Reichswehr were justifed under the so-called ''Femegerichte'' (Vehmic court) (secret court) system. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 93. . These killings were ordered by the officers from ''Sondergruppe R'' Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 93. . Regarding the ''Femegerichte'' murders, Ossietzky wrote: "Lieutenant Schulz (charged with the murder of informers against the Black Reichswehr) did nothing but carry out the orders given him, and that certainly Colonel von Bock, and probably Colonel von Schleicher and General Seeckt, should be sitting in the dock beside him". Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 pages 93-94. From 1526 onwards the area on which Tychy is built was part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. This situation came to an end when Prussia forcibly took the land in 1742, before itself becoming the German Empire between 1871 and 1918. For a short period between 1918 and 1921 Tychy was just inside the border of the newly formed Weimar Republic and still a part of the German Province of Silesia, only securing its place within the Second Polish Republic after the armed Silesian Uprisings (1919 to 1921). Britannica.com, "Silesia", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Retrieved 2006-07-02 thumb left Cathedral of Opole (File:Opole - Cathedral 01.JPG) After the defeat of Imperial Germany in World War I, a plebiscite (Silesian Plebiscite) was held on 20 March 1921 in Oppeln to determine if the city would be in the Weimar Republic or become part of the Second Polish Republic. 20,816 (94.7%) votes were cast for Germany, 1,098 (5.0%) for Poland, and 70 (0.3%) votes were declared invalid. Voter participation was 95.9%. Results of the plebiscite in the Opole-Land county were different, with 30% of population voting for Poland. Cöslin became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. The railroad from Stettin (Szczecin) (Szczecin) through Cöslin and Stolp (Słupsk) (Słupsk) to Danzig (Gdańsk) (Gdańsk) was constructed from 1858-78. A military cadet school created by Frederick the Great in 1776 was moved from Kulm (Chełmno) (Chełmno) to Cöslin in 1890. In the 1920s during the Weimar Republic, the spelling of the city's name was changed from Cöslin to ''Köslin''. The city was detached from Köslin District on 1 April 1923, becoming an urban district (Urban districts of Germany). In 1919, Grünberg became part of the Province of Lower Silesia within Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic). On 1 April 1922 it became a district-free city, but this status was revoked on 1 October 1933 while part of Nazi Germany. Treaty of Rapallo (Treaty of Rapallo, 1922) Between the Weimar Republic and Bolshevist Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). - Early life Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing was born in Koblenz, Germany (Weimar Republic), during the French occupation of the Rhineland. He is the elder son of Jean Edmond Lucien Giscard d'Estaing (1894–1982), a civil servant, and his wife, Marthe Clémence Jacqueline Marie (May) Bardoux, who was a daughter of senator and academic Achille Octave Marie Jacques Bardoux (Jacques Bardoux) and a great-granddaughter of minister of state education Agénor Bardoux, also a granddaughter of historian Georges Picot and niece of diplomat François Georges-Picot, and also a great-great-great-granddaughter of King Louis XV of France by one of his mistress (Mistress (lover))es, Catherine Eléonore Bernard (1740–1769) through his great-grandfather Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet, and by whom Giscard d'Estaing was a multiple descendant of Charlemagne. World War II The Space Race can trace its origins to Nazi Germany, beginning in the 1930s and continuing during World War II when Germany researched and built operational ballistic missiles. Starting in the early 1930s, German (Weimar Republic) aerospace engineers experimented with liquid-fueled rockets, with the goal that one day they would be capable of reaching high altitudes and traversing long distances. Cornwell (2003), p. 147 The head of the German Army's Ballistics and Munitions Branch, Lieutenant Colonel Karl Emil Becker, gathered a small team of engineers that included Walter Dornberger and Leo Zanssen, to figure out how to use rockets as long-range artillery in order to get around the Treaty of Versailles' ban on research and development of long-range cannons. Cornwell (2004), p. 146 Wernher von Braun, a young engineering prodigy, was recruited by Becker and Dornberger to join their secret army program at Kummersdorf-West (Kummersdorf) in 1932. Cornwell (2003), p. 148 Von Braun had romantic dreams about conquering outer space with rockets, and did not initially see the military value in missile technology. Cornwell (2003), p. 150 Bloom's ''Closing of the American Mind'' is a critique of the contemporary university and how Bloom sees it as failing its students. In it, Bloom criticizes the modern movements in philosophy and the humanities. Philosophy professors involved in ordinary language analysis (ordinary language philosophy) or logical positivism disregard important "humanizing" ethical and political issues and fail to pique the interest of students. Bloom, Allan. 1987. ''Closing of the American Mind'', p.278. New York: Simon & Schuster Literature professors involved in deconstructionism promote irrationalism and skepticism of standards of truth and thereby dissolve the moral imperatives which are communicated through genuine philosophy and which elevate and broaden the intellects of those who engage with them. Bloom, Allan. 1987. ''Closing of the American Mind'', p.279. New York: Simon & Schuster To a great extent, Bloom's criticism revolves around his belief that the "great books" of Western thought have been devalued as a source of wisdom. Bloom's critique extends beyond the university to speak to the general crisis in American society. ''Closing of the American Mind'' draws analogies between the United States and the Weimar Republic. The modern liberal philosophy, he says, enshrined in the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment) thought of John Locke—that a just society could be based upon self-interest alone, coupled by the emergence of relativism in American thought—had led to this crisis. For Bloom, this created a void in the souls of Americans, into which demagogic radicals as exemplified by '60s student leaders could leap. (In the same fashion, Bloom suggests, that the Nazi (Nazism) brownshirts once filled the gap created in German society by the Weimar Republic.) In the second instance, he argued, the higher calling of philosophy and reason understood as freedom of thought, had been eclipsed by a pseudo-philosophy, or an ideology of thought. Relativism was one feature of modern liberal philosophy that had subverted the Platonic–Socratic teaching. ''The Closing of the American Mind'' is a critique of the contemporary university and how Bloom sees it as failing its students. In it, Bloom criticizes the modern movements in philosophy and the humanities. Philosophy professors involved in ordinary language analysis (ordinary language philosophy) or logical positivism disregard important "humanizing" ethical and political issues and fail to pique the interest of students. Bloom, Allan. "The Student and the University", p. 378. ''Closing of the American Mind''. New York: Simon & Schuster. Literature professors involved in deconstructionism promote irrationalism and skepticism of standards of truth and thereby dissolve the moral imperatives which are communicated through genuine philosophy and which elevate and broaden the intellects of those who engage with these imperatives. Bloom, Allan. "The Student and the University", p. 379. ''Closing of the American Mind''. New York: Simon & Schuster. To a great extent, Bloom's criticism revolves around his belief that the "great books" of Western thought have been devalued as a source of wisdom. Bloom's critique extends beyond the university to speak to the general crisis in American society. ''Closing of the American Mind'' draws analogies between the United States and the Weimar Republic. The modern liberal philosophy, he says, enshrined in the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment) thought of John Locke—that a just society could be based upon self-interest alone, coupled by the emergence of relativism in American thought—had led to this crisis. For Bloom, this created a void in the souls of Americans, into which demagogic radicals as exemplified by '60s student leaders could leap. (In the same fashion, Bloom suggests, that the Nazi (Nazism) brownshirts once filled the gap created in German society by the Weimar Republic.) In the second instance, he argued, the higher calling of philosophy and reason understood as freedom of thought, had been eclipsed by a pseudo-philosophy, or an ideology of thought. Relativism was one feature of modern liberal philosophy that had subverted the Platonic–Socratic teaching. The Luger was made popular from its use by Germany during World War I and World War II, along with the interwar Weimar Republic and the post war East German Volkspolizei. Although the Luger pistol was first introduced in 7.65×21 mm Parabellum, it is notable for being the pistol for which the 9×19 mm Parabellum (also known as the 9 mm Luger) cartridge was developed. thumb left 100px Royal Monogram (Image:Royal Monogram of Prince Claus of the Netherlands.svg) Prince Claus was born '''Klaus-Georg Wilhelm Otto Friedrich Gerd von Amsberg''', on his family's estate, Haus Dötzingen, near Hitzacker, Germany (Weimar Republic). His parents were Claus Felix von Amsberg and Baroness Gösta von dem Bussche-Haddenhausen. His father, a member of the untitled German nobility, operated a large farm in Tanganyika (formerly German East Africa) from 1928 until World War II. Claus and his six sisters grew up on their grandparents' manor in Lower Saxony; he also attended a boarding school in Tanganyika from 1936 to 1938. In the Weimar Republic, the university was widely recognized as a center of democratic (democracy) thinking, coined by professors like Karl Jaspers, Gustav Radbruch, Martin Dibelius and Alfred Weber. Unfortunately, there were also dark forces working within the university: Nazi (Nazism) physicist Philipp Lenard was head of the physical institute during that time. Following the assassination of Walther Rathenau, he refused to half mast the national flag on the institute, thereby provoking its storming by communist students. Life and work Sirk was born Hans Detlef Sierck in Hamburg, Germany to Danish parents. He was raised in Denmark, but later moved to Germany as a teenager. He spread his education over three universities. He started his career in 1922 in the theatre of the Weimar Republic, including the direction of an early production of ''The Threepenny Opera''. He joined UFA (Universum Film AG) (Universum Film AG) in 1934, but left Germany in 1937 because of his political leanings and Jewish wife. On arrival in the United States, he soon changed his German name. By 1942 he was in Hollywood, directing the stridently anti-Nazi ''Hitler's Madman''. As a reward for his dedication, when the Nazi Party was legalized again and re-organized in 1925 Streicher was appointed ''Gauleiter'' of the Bavarian region of Franconia (which included his home town of Nuremberg). In the early years of the party’s rise, ''Gauleiter'' were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, they became paramilitary commanders. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime itself, party ''Gauleiter'' like Streicher would wield immense power, and be in large measure untouchable by legal authority. The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor. The Weimar (Weimar Republic) habit of following the strictest letter of the law made prosecution for more serious crimes difficult. ''Der Stürmer's (Der Stürmer)'' infamous official slogan, ''Die Juden sind unser Unglück'' (the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed unactionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence. Nordicism thumb 200px ''Meyers Blitz-Lexikon'' ( Weimar Republic Leipzig, 1932 (Image:NordischNordic.JPG)) shows a famous German (Germany) war hero (Karl von Müller) as an example of the Nordic type. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


roles quot

Deutschlands'' (1919–20). Her pieces also commonly combine male and female into one being. During the era of the Weimar Republic, "mannish women were both celebrated and castigated for breaking down traditional gender roles." Her androgynous (androgyny) characters may also have been related to her bisexuality, and attraction to masculinity in women. That is, having the shape of woman (even if altered in Höch's work) with the society embraced attitude and outlook of stereo

Weimar Republic

The '''Weimar Republic''' ( ) is a name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government (German Empire). It is named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. During this period, and well into the succeeding Nazi (Nazi Germany) era, the official name of the state was '''German Reich''' (''Deutsches Reich''), which continued on from the pre-1918 Imperial period.

Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–19) in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly (Weimar National Assembly) was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution (Weimar constitution) for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation (Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic), political extremists (with paramilitaries (Weimar paramilitary groups) – both left and right wing) and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I. However, the Weimar Republic successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies and the railway system and it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Marks, Sally, ''The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933'', St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.

The German government during the Weimar Republic era did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, and various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig (Free City of Danzig) in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy. General Hans von Seeckt (head of the ''Reichswehr'' command from 1920 to 1926) supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland (Second Polish Republic) between them to restore the German–Russian border of 1914. Christian Leitz. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War. p10. The ''Reichswehr'' Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, and remilitarization of the Rhineland.

The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed by 1930, when President Hindenburg (Paul von Hindenburg) assumed dictatorial emergency powers to back the administrations of Chancellors Brüning (Heinrich Brüning), Papen (Franz von Papen), Schleicher (Kurt von Schleicher), and finally Hitler (Adolf Hitler). Between 1930 and 1933 the Great Depression, even worsened by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. Ursula Büttner, ''Weimar: die überforderte Republik'', Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424 It led to the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party in 1933. The legal measures taken by the new Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as the ''Machtergreifung'' (seizure of power), meant that the government could legislate contrary to the constitution. The constitution became irrelevant, so 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).

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