Weimar Republic

What is Weimar Republic known for?


title dance

Through the Jukebox", a vitriolic screed attacking disco that was considered a punk call to arms. Mainstream rock pushed back as well: Bob Seger's " Old Time


competing+political

and disrupt the meetings of competing political parties, especially those of the Social Democrats (Social Democratic Party of Germany) and the Communists (Communist Party of Germany). Also known as the "brownshirts" or "stormtroopers", the SA became notorious for their street battles with the Communists. The violent confrontations between the two contributed to the destabilisation of Germany's inter-war experiment with democracy, the Weimar


heavy+series

at Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, he came up with several very successful race car designs. The heavy series of models equipped with superchargers that later culminated in the Mercedes-Benz SSK dominated its class of motor racing in the 1920s. Hostile to the Weimar Republic, and rejecting Marxism and Americanism (Americanization), Benn, like many Germans, was upset with ongoing economic and political instability, and sympathized for a short period with the Nazis


time taking

, the Republic claimed it could no longer afford the reparations (World War I reparations) payments required by the Versailles Treaty, and the government defaulted on some payments. In response, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr region (Occupation of the Ruhr), Germany's most productive industrial region at the time, taking control of most mining and manufacturing companies in January 1923. Strikes were called, and passive resistance was encouraged. These strikes lasted eight months, further damaging the economy and the social life. The strike prevented some goods from being produced, but one industrialist, Hugo Stinnes, was able to create a vast empire out of bankrupt companies. Because the production costs in Germany were falling almost hourly, the prices for German products were unbeatable. Stinnes made sure that he was paid in dollars, which meant that by mid-1923, his industrial empire was worth more than the entire German economy. By the end of the year, over two hundred factories were working full-time to produce paper for the spiralling bank note production. Stinnes' empire collapsed when the government-sponsored inflation was stopped in November 1923. In 1919, one loaf of bread cost 1 mark; by 1923, the same loaf of bread cost 100 billion marks. thumb 250px One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-00193, Inflation, Ein-Millionen-Markschein.jpg) Since striking workers were paid benefits by the state, much additional currency was printed, fuelling a period of hyperinflation. The 1920s German inflation started when Germany had no goods to trade. The government printed money to deal with the crisis; this meant payments within Germany were made with worthless paper money, and helped formerly great industrialists to pay back their own loans. This also led to pay raises for workers and for businessmen who wanted to profit from it. Circulation of money rocketed, and soon banknotes were being overprinted to a thousand times their nominal value and every town produced its own promissory notes; many banks & industrial firms did the same. The value of the ''Papiermark (German papiermark)'' had declined from 4.2 Marks per U.S. dollar in 1914 to one million per dollar by August 1923. This led to further criticism of the Republic. On 15 November 1923, a new currency, the ''Rentenmark (German rentenmark)'', was introduced at the rate of one trillion (1000000000000 (number)) (1,000,000,000,000) ''Papiermark'' for one ''Rentenmark'', an action known as redenomination. At that time, one U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 ''Rentenmark''. Reparation payments were resumed, and the Ruhr was returned to Germany under the Locarno Treaties, which defined the borders between Germany, France, and Belgium. Further pressure from the political right came in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch, also called the Munich Putsch, staged by the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler in Munich. In 1920, the German Workers' Party had become the National Socialist German Workers' Party (''NSDAP''), or Nazi Party, and would become a driving force in the collapse of Weimar. Hitler named himself as chairman of the party in July 1921. On 8 November 1923, the ''Kampfbund'', in a pact with Erich Ludendorff, took over a meeting by Bavarian prime minister Gustav von Kahr (Gustav Ritter von Kahr) at a beer hall in Munich. Ludendorff and Hitler declared that the Weimar government was deposed and that they were planning to take control of Munich the following day. The 3,000 rebels were thwarted by the Bavarian authorities. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason, a minimum sentence for the charge. Hitler served less than eight months in a comfortable cell, receiving a daily stream of visitors before his release on 20 December 1924. While in jail, Hitler dictated ''Mein Kampf'', which laid out his ideas and future policies. Hitler now decided to focus on legal methods of gaining power. Golden Era (1924–1929) Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


controversial stage

-total destruction of the town of Hanau as well as Heraeus production facilities. '''Hertha Thiele''' was a German (Germans) actress. She is noted for her starring roles in controversial stage plays and films produced during Germany's Weimar Republic and the early years of the Third Reich. Thiele later became a television star in East Germany (GDR). She is most widely remembered for her portrayal of Manuela in the groundbreaking 1931 lesbian-themed film ''Mädchen in Uniform (Mädchen in Uniform (1931 film))''. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


cultural criticism

letters 88 "writers", from ''Letters of Heinrich and Thomas Mann, 1900-1949, Volume 12 of Weimar and Now: German Cultural Criticism'', University of California Press 1998, ISBN 0-520-07278-2, p. 367-8 and later signed the ''Gelöbnis treuester Gefolgschaft'', the "vow of most faithful allegiance" to Adolf Hitler. 88 "writers", from ''Letters of Heinrich and Thomas Mann, 1900-1949, Volume 12 of Weimar and Now: German Cultural Criticism'', University of California Press 1998, ISBN 0-520-07278-2, p. 367-8 The Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire after its creation in 1871. However, the Treaty of Versailles following World War I restored West Prussia to Poland and made East Prussia an exclave of Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic), while the Memel Territory was detached and was annexed by Lithuania in 1923. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, war-torn East Prussia was divided at Joseph Stalin's insistence between the Soviet Union (the Kaliningrad Oblast in the Russian SFSR and the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region in the Lithuanian SSR) and the People's Republic of Poland (the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship). The Family Dönhoff, or the futility of revenge The capital city Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. The German population of the province was largely evacuated (Evacuation of East Prussia) during the war or expelled shortly thereafter in the expulsion of Germans after World War II. An estimated 300,000 (around one fifth of the population) died either in war time bombings raids or the battles to defend the province. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


numerous books

numerous books and essays on racial theory. Günther's ''Short Ethnology of the German People'' (1929) was a popular exposition of Nordicism. In 1931 he was appointed to a new chair of racial theory at Jena. He joined the Nazi Party in the following year . The war involved Latvia (its provisional government was supported by Estonia, Poland (Second Polish Republic), and the Western Allies, particularly the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland


free+interest

state (government)#Germany Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, and its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). Lending to a national government in the country's own sovereign currency is often considered "risk free" and is done at a so-called "risk-free interest rate."


design studies

-1939, though they were canceled within two months, due to the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. The other four were canceled without any work being done. Sturton, p. 48 ''Bismarck'', ''Tirpitz'', and ''Scharnhorst'' were sunk during the war and ''Gneisenau'' was scuttled in Gotenhafen in 1945. Gardiner & Chesneau, pp. 224–225 Further design studies were drawn up, culminating in the massive H-44 class, but they were


independent religious

of Prussia Frederick William III united —through a series of decrees— the Lutheran Church and the Reformed (Reformed churches) (Calvinist) Church in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). The church body (Landeskirche), which in 1817 emerged through this union became the biggest independent religious organisation in Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic) with about 18 million parishioners. Oppressions and interferences by various governments caused the church body to undergo two schisms (Schism (religion)) (one permanent since the 1830s, one temporary 1934–1948) – including the persecution of many parishioners. The majority of parishioners stayed in a state of unease with the changes and many were skeptical towards the democracy of the Weimar Republic. Authoritarian traditions competed with liberal and modern ones. The traditional affinity to the former princely holders of the summepiscopacy often continued. So when in 1926 the leftist parties successfully launched a plebiscite to the effect of the expropriation of the German former regnal houses (Expropriation of the Princes in the Weimar Republic) without compensation, the ''Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union'' called up for an abstention from the election, holding up the commandment Thou shalt not steal. Claus Wagener, "Die Vorgeschichte des Kirchenkampfes", p. 54. Thus the plesbiscite missed the minimum turnout and failed. A problem was the spiritual vacuum, which emerged after the church stopped being a state church. Otto Dibelius (F. K. Otto Dibelius), since 1925 general superintendent of Kurmark within the ''Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg'', published his book ''Das Jahrhundert der Kirche'' (''The century of the Church'' Otto Dibelius, ''Das Jahrhundert der Kirche: Geschichte, Betrachtung, Umschau und Ziele'', Berlin: Furche-Verlag, 1927. No ISBN. ), in which he declared the 20th century to be the era when the Evangelical Church may for the first time develop freely and gain the independence God would have wished for, without the burden and constraints of the state church function. He regarded the role of the church as even the more important, since the state of the Weimar Republic – in his eyes – would not provide the society with binding norms any more, thus this would be the task of the church. Claus Wagener, "Die Vorgeschichte des Kirchenkampfes", p. 65. The church would have to stand for the defense of the Christian culture of the Occident. In this respect Dibelius regarded himself as consciously anti-Jewish, explaining in a circular to the pastors in his general superintendency district of ''Kurmark'', "that with all degenerating phenomena of modern civilisation Judaism plays a leading role". In the German original:"… daß bei allen zersetzenden Erscheinungen der modernen Zivilisation das Judentum eine führende Rolle spielt". Published in his circular (Rundbrief; No. 2, 3 April 1928), recorded at the Evangelisches Zentralarchiv: 50 R 19. Here quoted after Ursula Büttner, "Von der Kirche verlassen", p. 37. His book was one of the most read on church matters in that period. Born in Königsberg, East Prussia, (now Kaliningrad, Russia), Hindenburg followed his father into the German Army. Initially, his career did not prosper, as Hindenburg's superiors considered him to be of low intelligence Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''

Weimar Republic

The '''Weimar Republic''' ( ) is a name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government (German Empire). It is named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. During this period, and well into the succeeding Nazi (Nazi Germany) era, the official name of the state was '''German Reich''' (''Deutsches Reich''), which continued on from the pre-1918 Imperial period.

Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–19) in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly (Weimar National Assembly) was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution (Weimar constitution) for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation (Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic), political extremists (with paramilitaries (Weimar paramilitary groups) – both left and right wing) and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I. However, the Weimar Republic successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies and the railway system and it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Marks, Sally, ''The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933'', St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.

The German government during the Weimar Republic era did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, and various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig (Free City of Danzig) in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy. General Hans von Seeckt (head of the ''Reichswehr'' command from 1920 to 1926) supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland (Second Polish Republic) between them to restore the German–Russian border of 1914. Christian Leitz. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War. p10. The ''Reichswehr'' Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, and remilitarization of the Rhineland.

The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed by 1930, when President Hindenburg (Paul von Hindenburg) assumed dictatorial emergency powers to back the administrations of Chancellors Brüning (Heinrich Brüning), Papen (Franz von Papen), Schleicher (Kurt von Schleicher), and finally Hitler (Adolf Hitler). Between 1930 and 1933 the Great Depression, even worsened by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. Ursula Büttner, ''Weimar: die überforderte Republik'', Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424 It led to the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party in 1933. The legal measures taken by the new Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as the ''Machtergreifung'' (seizure of power), meant that the government could legislate contrary to the constitution. The constitution became irrelevant, so 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).

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