What is Vologda known for?


but not severe and lasts for five months. Spring and autumn are cool, summer is warm, the coldest months are December and January, the warmest month is July. Rain is most frequent in the summer and autumn. *Mean-annual temperature: *Mean-annual speed of wind: 3.0 m s *Mean-annual humidity of air: 80%

traditional national

, management of the commercial real estate *Open joint stock company "Trans-alpha" (former "Vologda mechanical factory") — produces trolleybuses and buses *Opened joint-stock company "Vologda building designs and road machines factory" — produces mobile buildings for household, public, and industrial use *Closed joint-stock company "SoyuzLesMontazh" — produces a wide range of equipment for wood processing and equipment for the paper industry Traditional national crafts are presented by the closed joint-stock company «Snowflake» (lace), limited liability company "Hope" and other enterprises. Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda

young years

Previously, it was located on the territory of Savinsky Selsoviet, with the center in Savinsky (Savinsky, Arkhangelsk Oblast). A short stretch of a highway connecting Vologda and Medvezhyegorsk via Vytegra and Pudozh runs along the Andoma, crossing it over a bridge in the village of Sorokopolye. * Novgorod group * Vologda-Kirov (Kirov, Kirov Oblast) group * Vladimir-Volga group Young years Savinkov was born in Kharkov (Kharkiv), the son of a judge in Warsaw. In 1897 he entered the law department of St. Petersburg University but was expelled in 1899 because of participation in students' riots. Later he studied in Berlin and Heidelberg (Heidelberg University). Since 1898 he was a member of various socialist organizations. In 1901 he was arrested and sent to exile to Vologda. He served the exile with some prominent Russian intellectuals including Nikolai Berdyaev and Anatoly Lunacharsky. However he became disappointed with Marxism and shifted to terrorism. In 1903 Savinkov escaped abroad and joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, where he soon became Deputy Head of its Combat Organization (SR Combat Organization) under Yevno Azef. birth_date Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda


of the Russian Railway – produces various trains, makes repair and reconstruction of old carriages *Open joint stock company "Byvalovsky machinery plant" — the leading enterprise of the Northwest of Russia (Northwestern Federal District) that produces cranes *Open joint stock company "ElectroTechMash" — produces electric household and technological products *Limited liability company "Central operating company" — building, designing, management of dwellings, management of the commercial real estate *Open joint stock company "Trans-alpha" (former "Vologda mechanical factory") — produces trolleybuses and buses *Opened joint-stock company "Vologda building designs and road machines factory" — produces mobile buildings for household, public, and industrial use *Closed joint-stock company "SoyuzLesMontazh" — produces a wide range of equipment for wood processing and equipment for the paper industry Traditional national crafts are presented by the closed joint-stock company «Snowflake» (lace), limited liability company "Hope" and other enterprises. Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda

wooden architecture

people. The reason is that Vologda is not only a big city but also the administrative center of Vologda Oblast. Culture and art Vologda is one of the best preserved big cities of Russia combining traditional wooden architecture and stone monuments. In Vologda, 193 monuments of architecture and history are designated as cultural monuments of federal significance.

bridge and of the Revolyutsii Square Of 116 historical cities of Russia only 16 have monuments of wooden architecture. Vologda is among them. Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda

major scientific

- *Select a proper name for category, before categorizing Vologda, Salekhard, and 400 more. * What to do with *Venerable Ephraim the Syrian (Ephrem the Syrian) (373) *Venerable Theodosius of Totma in Vologda, abbot (1568) *Saint Isaac of Nineveh, bishop in Syria (7th century) Transport Paved roads connect Totma with Vologda via Kadnikov (southwest), Veliky Ustyug via Nyuksenitsa(northeast), and Nikolsk (Nikolsk, Vologda Oblast) via Imeni Babushkina (east). Before the road between Totma and Veliky Ustyug along the Sukhona was completed in 2000s, the only connection between the towns was via Nikolsk. Transport A114 highway (A114 highway (Russia)), connecting Vologda to Cherepovets and Saint Petersburg, passes north of Ustyuzhna. There is a road connecting Ustyuzhna with the highway. Ustyuzhna is also connected by roads with Tver via Vesyegonsk, Bezhetsk via Sandovo, and Borovichi via Pestovo. There are also local roads. *Martyr Peter Damascene (743) *Saint Nicephorus of Vazheozersk in Vologda, monk (1550) *Saint Gennadius of Vazheozersk in Vologda, monk *Saint Anna, wife of Yaroslav I the Wise, of Novgorod and Kiev (1051) *Saint Longinus of Koryazhemsk in Vologda, monk (1540) *New martyr Anatole of Odessa, Metropolitan bishop (1938) *Martyr Pancharius at Nicomedia *Saint Innocent of Komel in Vologda, disciple of Saint Nilus of Sora *Saint Bassa of Pskov, nun Transport Kirillov is connected by all-seasonal roads with Vologda, Cherepovets, Belozersk, and Vytegra. There are also local roads. Transport Sukhona railway station on the railway connecting Vologda and Arkhangelsk is located in Sokol. He was conscripted into the Soviet Army in 1942. He was seriously wounded fighting the Germans during the German-Soviet War and after his discharge (discharge (military)) in 1945 he lived in different regions of Russia including Urals (Ural (region)), Chusovoy near Perm and Vologda doing various jobs such as locksmith and smelter. *Saint Gregory (Gregory of Assa), Bishop of Assa near Ephesus (1150) *Saint Gerasimus, monk of Vologda (1178) *Venerable Iosaph of Snetogorsk (1299) In 1721, the convent was renovated on behest of Peter I of Russia Peter

century main

;Spectrum", fitness centers, regional athletic spots. Vologda is a home to: *the male soccer team "Dynamo (FC Dynamo Vologda)" *the female basketball team "Chevakata" Twin towns and sister cities thumb The Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery in the early 19th century (File:Prilutsky.jpg) Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda

arts architecture

.html Tracing Russia's Past and Present in Vologda *PKFHSPKFHS arts architecture vologda 000070 report.htm Detailed information on Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery *Russia

scientific contributions

. Grigory S. Landsberg is a co-discoverer of inelastic ''combinatorial scattering of light'' used now in Raman spectroscopy. His major scientific contributions were in the fields of optics and spectroscopy. While the Swedish statesmen envisaged the creation of a Trans-Baltic dominion extending northwards to Archangelsk and eastwards to Vologda, De la Gardie and other Swedish soldiers, still holding Novgorod and Ingria, saw the war as a reaction for their forces not receiving payment for their succour during the De la Gardie Campaign. A portion of the himation was also brought to Georgia, but it was placed in the treasury of the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, where it remained until the seventeenth century. Then the Persian Shah Abbas I, when he invaded Georgia, carried off the robe. In order to ingratiate himself with Tsar Michael Feodorovich (Michael of Russia), the Shah sent the robe as a gift to Patriarch Philaret (1619–1633) and Tsar Michael in 1625. The authenticity of the robe was attested by Nectarius, Archbishop of Vologda, by Patriarch Theophanes of Jerusalem and by Joannicius the Greek. Reports also circulated at that time of miraculous signs (miracle) being worked through the relic. After studying law at the Moscow University, he became a prosecutor's assistant in 1867 and served in various positions in the Ministry of Justice. He served as assistant prosecutor in the Vladimir circuit court and as prosecutor in Vologda. In 1876 he was appointed assistant prosecutor of the Warsaw Chamber of Justice, and - in 1879 - prosecutor of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Justice. term_end December 8, 1958 birth_place Afimskoye, Kadnikov Uyezd, Vologda Governorate, Russian Empire birth_date August 13, 1905 Early life and military career Serov was born on August 13, 1905, in Afimskoe, a village in the Vologda province of the Russian Empire. Major changes in Russia occurred during his childhood, culminating in the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917. In 1923 (when he was 18) he joined the Red Army, shortly after the end of the Russian Civil War; in 1926, he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and graduated from the Artillery Officers School of Leningrad in 1928. Jeanne Vronskaya, Vladimir Chuguev, A biographical dictionary of the Soviet Union 1917-1988, 1989 A major step in his career as a Red Army officer was the attendance of Higher Academic Courses in the prestigious Frunze Military Academy H.W. Wilson Company, Current biography yearbook, vol 17, 1957 from which he graduated in 1939. Later that year, he entered the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), in a major capacity. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1905 PLACE OF BIRTH Afimskoye, Kadnikov Uyezd, Vologda Governorate, Russian Empire DATE OF DEATH July 1, 1990 thumb 200px left Chudes etc. (File:Muromian-map.png) tribes.in the 9th century. The mytho-poetical tradition of the Komi the word chud' can also designate (1) Komi heroes and heathens; (2) Old Believers; (3) another people different from the Komi; (4) robbers—the latter two are the typical legends in Sámi (Sami people) folklore. In fact, the legends about Chudes (Čuđit) cover a large area in northern Europe from Scandinavia to the Urals, bounded by Lake Ladoga in the south, the northern and eastern districts of the Vologda province, and passing by the Kirov (Kirov Oblast) region, further into Komi-Permyak Okrug. It has from this area spread to Trans-Ural region through mediation of migrants from European North. In mid-April 1919, Sir Keith Price, a head of production at the Ministry of Munitions, wrote to the War Office urging the use of new variants of gas against the Bolsheviks in the North Russian theatre. Winston Churchill, then Secretary of State for War and Air, was enthusiastic in his support but was concerned at revealing the new gas in the course of a relatively small campaign. Kinvig, Clifford, ''Churchill's Crusade The British Invasion of Russia 1918-1920'', Hambledon Continuum, London, 2006 p. 183 Churchill's concerns having been addressed, massive preparations for the use of the new gas were undertaken. As a trial of the new weapon Kelly, who was now in command of a very mixed outfit on the railway front as part of the Vologda Force, was ordered to carry out a raid on the Bolsheviks under cover of a large ground discharge of gas. Kelly objected less against the gas as against the raid itself whose purposes in his view could be achieved by other methods. ibid., p. 244 The gas raid, due on 17 August 1919, never took place. Kelly was then replaced as commanding officer of his unit and sent back to Britain; the formal reason for his removal was that he had "remarked adversely on matters of military import", criticised his superiors and divulged military secrets in a letter to a friend in England; the contents of the letter constituted a court martial offence. ibid., p. 245 Physical geography The river basin of the Sukhona comprises vast areas in the central and eastern parts of Vologda Oblast, in the south of Arkhangelsk Oblast, and in the north of Kostroma Oblast. In particular, the city of Vologda is located in the river basin of the Sukhona. The basin also includes Lake Kubenskoye, one of the biggest lakes of Vologda Oblast. The river basin is bounded from the south by the western part of the Northern Ridge, which separates the basins of the Sukhona and the Kostroma (Kostroma River). From the north, the Sukhona river basin is bounded in the western part by the Kharovsk Ridge hill chain which separates it from the river basin of the Vaga (Vaga River). He quickly captured Karachev, Bryansk, and other towns, was reinforced by the Poles, and in the spring of 1608 advanced upon Moscow, routing the army of Tsar Vasily Shuisky (Vasily IV of Russia) at Bolkhov. Promises of the wholesale confiscation of the estates of the boyars drew many common people to his side. The village of Tushino, twelve versts from the capital, was converted into an armed camp where Dmitry gathered his army. His force initially included 7000 Polish soldiers, 10,000 Cossacks and 10,000 other rag-tag soldiers, including former members of the failed rokosz of Zebrzydowski. His forces soon exceeded 100,000 men. He raised to the rank of patriarch another illustrious captive, Philaret Romanov (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), and won the allegiance of the cities of Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Vologda, Kashin (Kashin (town)) and several others. thumb 275px Dmitry's camp at Tushino. (Image:Tushino.jpg) In 1480, Akhmat Khan suffered a fatal defeat during the great standing on the Ugra river. Ghali did not participate in Akhmat's raid, but some Nogays did. In 1482 Ivan III sent an army to Kazan. For the first time in the history of Muscovy the army had cannon. When the army reached Nizhny Novgorod, Ghali asked for peace. Two years later another army was dispatched to Kazan. This time Ghali was deposed, and Möxammädämin became khan. He appeared to be too young for an effective ruler. A year later he was replaced with Ghali again. The internal disaccord between nobility and the khan continued to grow. A group of Kazan nobles sent a letter to Ivan III: ''We released Mahmet-Amin to you in case if Aleham does us foul, you would let Mahmet-Amin back to us. When Aleham found out of this, he asked as to a feast where tried to slay us, but we ran to the steppe''. Ivan III sent another army to Kazan. In April 1487 it besieged the city. On July 9 Kazan fell. Ghali was arrested and exiled to Vologda, where soon died. His wife and children were sent to Beloozero (Belozersk). A number of nobles were executed. Möxammädämin became khan again. Although formally Kazan Khanate remained independent, Ivan III started to use the title ''Duke of Bulgaria (Volga Bulgaria)'' among his other titles. '''Nikolay Alekseyevich Gulyayev''' ( Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda

military production

. According to the same decision, districts of former Cherepovets Okrug of Leningrad Oblast were attached to Vologda Oblast. These districts currently make for the western part of Vologda Oblast. Thereby the current borders of Vologda Oblast were determined. In the 1930s, a flax factory, a coach-repair factory, and a sawmill, "Northern Communard," were constructed. During World War II, martial law was declared in Vologda, and its industrial enterprises shifted to military

production. In the fall of 1941, Finnish troops crossed the borders of Vologda Oblast, and Vologda thus became a front city. The inhabitants were mobilized to dig trenches. In the city, bomb-proof shelters and elementary shelters were under construction, systems of air defense which protected the railway junction and the military-industrial enterprises were developed. As a result, though attempts of bombardments were numerous, no bombs fell on the city. To commemorate these events, a monument to the air defense forces was later erected on Zosimovskaya Street in Vologda. The monument has the shape of an anti-aircraft gun. In addition, Vologda was a railway hub used to supply the army and to evacuate equipment. It also served as a large hospital center. Residents of Vologda donated blood, money, and jewellery. The tank detachment "Vologda Collective Farmer" was funded by these donations. To commemorate these events the monument to the tank T-34 was built on Mira Street. Between 1961 and 1985, Anatoly Drygin was the first secretary of the CPSU Vologda Oblast Committee and the head of the oblast. During this period, notable changes in many aspects of economy both of the city and of the oblast occurred. In particular, a bearing (bearing (mechanical)) plant, a mechanical plant, and an optical-mechanical factory were built in Vologda. A polytechnical university was opened. A large-scale poultry farm was established. A major construction initiative was carried out, and, in particular, the first buildings higher than five floors were constructed. The city expanded, with new residential areas built; in particular, Byvalovo, GPZ, the 5th and the 6th Microdistricts. In 1976, the Vologda trolleybus system opened. Post-Soviet period In November 1991, the city administration was formed and the reform of local governments began. In October 1993, the Soviets of People's Deputies of all levels were abolished. After the dissolution of the Vologda Soviet, the City Duma was established. The first Duma elections took place on March 20, 1994. This first Duma only had six seats, but in 1995, after the next elections, it was expanded to thirty deputies. On July 25, 1996, the City Duma adopted the main city document: the Charter of Vologda. On October 6, 1996, the first mayoral elections in the history of Vologda took place. Alexey Yakunichev was elected and became the head of the city. His term ended in 2008. In 2003, the construction of a ring road started. Before that, the М8 (M8 highway (Russia)) highway connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk run through the city center causing congestion. After the completion, the ring road connects the highways А114 (Vologda – Novaya Ladoga), Р5 (Vologda – Medvezhyegorsk), and М8 (Moscow – Arkhangelsk). On August 25, 2005, the City Duma approved the new Charter of Vologda. Even though the deputies introduced more than four hundred amendments and the document increased more than twice in volume as compared with the Charter of 1996, the changes were relatively minor. On October 12, 2008, Yevgeny Shulepov was elected to be the new City Head. Administrative and municipal status Vologda is the administrative center of the oblast Law #371-OZ and, within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it also serves as the administrative center of Vologodsky District, Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda


'''Vologda''' (

The city serves as a major transport hub of the Northwest (Northwestern Federal District) of Russia. Vologda has been classified by the Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation as a historical city, one of the forty-one in Russia and one of only three in Vologda Oblast. 224 buildings in Vologda have been officially recognized as cultural heritage monuments. Culture in the Vologda region: Vologda city

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