Vladimir

What is Vladimir known for?


white stone

, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople). Janet Martin, ''Medieval Russia: 980-1584'' (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995), 100. Scores of Russian, German (Germans), and Georgian (Georgians) masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior

Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165), one of the most famous Russian medieval churches. By the end of the 12th century the divide of the country fas final and new centers of power took the Kievan style and adopted it to their traditions. In the northern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal the local churches were built of white stone with help of Romanesque masters of Friedrich Barbarossa, whilst their wall statuary was elaborately carved by craftsmen from Georgia (country

) Georgia . Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


cathedral

or military influence throughout the reign of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125), or his son Yury Dolgoruky ("long arms") (1154–1157). thumb left Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir Dormition Cathedral (File:Успенский собор-2 (by Hd Elen).jpg) was a venerated model for cathedrals all over Russia thumb left St. Demetrius' Cathedral, shown on this 1912 photo, is famous for its masterfully carved exterior, representing the Bible Biblical (File:Vladimir demetrios.jpg) story

of King David (David). Under Dolgoruky's son, Andrey Bogolyubsky (1157–1175) (also known as Andrew the Pious), the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Vladimir-Suzdal). It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237. During this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the city's Golden Gates (Golden Gate (Vladimir)) and the Dormition Cathedral (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir). In 1164

was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today: the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and the Golden Gate. They are included among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During Andrey's reign, a royal palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, now considered one of the jewels of ancient Russian


century serving

) is a river in the Moscow (Moscow Oblast), Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast), Ivanovo (Ivanovo Oblast) and Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka River. The length of the river is 686 kilometres. The area of its drainage basin is 42,500 km². The Klyazma River freezes up in November and stays under the ice until mid-April. Its main tributaries are the Ucha (Ucha River), Vorya (Vorya River), Kirzhach (Kirzhach River), Peksha (Peksha River), Nerl (Nerl River (Klyazma's tributary)), Uvod (Uvod River), Teza (Teza River), Lukh (Lukh River), Sudogda (Sudogda River), and Suvoroshch (Suvoroshch River). The Klyazma is navigable within 120 km from its estuary and in the area of the Klyazminskoye Reservoir. The cities of Gorokhovets, Mendeleevo, Pavlovsky Posad, Vladimir, Kovrov, Shchyolkovo, Losino-Petrovsky, Noginsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Sobinka, and Vyazniki are located on the shores of the Klyazma River. According to Ken Alibek, who was deputy-director of Biopreparat, the Soviet biological weapons agency, and who defected to the USA in 1992, weapons were developed in labs in isolated areas of the Soviet Union including mobilization facilities at Omutininsk, Penza and Pokrov and research facilities at Moscow, Stirzhi and Vladimir. These weapons were tested at several facilities most often at "Rebirth Island" (Vozrozhdeniya) in the Aral Sea by firing the weapons into the air above monkeys tied to posts, the monkeys would then be monitored to determine the effects. According to Alibek, although Soviet offensive program was officially ended in 1992, Russia may be still involved in the activities prohibited by BWC. Mongol (Mongols)-Tatar (Tatars) Golden Horde forces led by Batu Khan, (a grandson of Genghis Khan), began attacking Europe in 1223, starting with Cumans, Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus (Kievan Rus'). They destroyed many Rus (Rus' (region)) cities including Kiev, The Destruction of Kiev Vladimir and Moscow in the process, sparing Novgorod and Pskov however. They originally planned to continue all the way to the shores of the "Great Sea" (Atlantic Ocean). However, upon learning of the death of Ögedei Khan (third son of Genghis Khan, uncle of Batu Khan) in 1241 they returned eastwards to their steppe homelands. This arguably could have saved the rest of Europe from suffering the catastrophes that befell the armies and towns of Poland, and Hungary, however the streched lines of communication and the lack of vast open tracts of pasture land might well have been the undoing of such a venture. * 1237: Ryazan devastated. * 1238: Vladimir and Moscow were devastated, Battle of the Sit River is fought shortly after * 1238-1239: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin (Kashin (town)), Ksnyatin (Sknyatino), Gorodets, Galich (Galich, Russia), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Yuriev (Yuriev-Polsky), Dmitrov, Volok (Volokolamsk), Tver and Torzhok were devastated. In the west, Chernigov (Chernihiv) and Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) were sacked. * 1278: Tatars pillaged Ryazan principality (Principality of Ryazan). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1283: Tatars ruined Vorgol (Principality of Vorgol), Rylsk (Principality of Rylsk) and Lipetsk (Principality of Lipetsk) principality, occupied Kursk and Vorgol. * 1285: The Tatar warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom. * 1293: The Tatar warlord Dyuden came to Russia and devastated 14 towns, including Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Mozhaysk, Volok (Volokolamsk), Dmitrov, Uglich. In the same summer ''Tatar tsarevitch'' Takhtamir looted Tver' principality and captured slaves in Vladimir principality. Monomakh Cathedral The first brick church on the spot was started by Vladimir Monomakh in 1101. The large 6-pillared edifice, quite similar to Monomakh's cathedral in Vladimir, took several decades to complete. It was finally consecrated during the reign of Vladimir's grandson Rostislav


played important

. Козлов вал). Other churches There are lots of churches in Vladimir, and one is unlikely to visit all of them. The following list includes several representative examples from various styles. *

important role for Russian Orthodox Church during the Middle Ages. None of the ancient buildings survived, but it is worth to see the stone walls and towers from 18th century. Though there was no real threat to Vladimir at that time, the walls imitate fortifications of ancient Russian monasteries. You will also find a church and several living houses with fine decorations from 17th century. Presently, the monastery is a home to the bishop of Vladimir region. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


long+building

specified above, visiting this museum may be a good option. There is a shop of crystalware as well. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


ancient family

p2002 22,704 p1989 25,431 The strategic height overlooking the Klyazma River was of great importance for defending approaches to the medieval Russian capital of Vladimir. Naturally, a fortress was established there some time in the 12th century, most likely in the 1130s. The Yaropolk fortress took its name from one prince named Yaropolk. It was situated about halfway between the nearest Klyazma ports: Starodub-on-the-Klyazma and Gorokhovets. The Zubovs were an ancient

family of good standing, first noticed in the service of Muscovite dukes in the 15th century. '''Nikolay Vasilievich Zubov''' (1699–1786) served in the Collegium of Economics, and his son '''Alexander Zubov''' (1727–1795) was reputed to have enriched himself serving as Vice-Governor of Vladimir. He had three daughters and four sons, of whom three—Nicholas, Platon, and Valerian—were made counts by Emperor Francis II (Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor): File:Bogolyubovo.jpg thumb 100px


complex including

Золотое кольцо url http: www.amaks-hotels.ru hotel8 center.htm email address ул. Чайковского, 27 lat long directions north-west from the historical centre phone tollfree fax hours price content A huge complex including a number of bars, a casino, a nightclub, bowling, billiard, and a strip club. *

centre, take trolleybus 8 from the Golden Gate of #10 from the train station phone +7 (4922)-400-800 (reservation), +7 (495)-975-75-34, +7 (4922)-24-88-07 (reception) tollfree fax hours price checkin checkout content A huge complex, including the hotel and entertainments (bars, disco, casino, etc). The location is very inconvenient and suits for organized tours rather than for individual travellers. The rooms are equipped with all the basic facilities, but the quality


huge complex

Золотое кольцо url http: www.amaks-hotels.ru hotel8 center.htm email address ул. Чайковского, 27 lat long directions north-west from the historical centre phone tollfree fax hours price content A huge complex including a number of bars, a casino, a nightclub, bowling, billiard, and a strip club. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


promoting development

was Alexander Nevsky's father, Grand Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (Yaroslav II of Russia) of Vladimir and Suzdal, who died suspiciously just after dining with Toregene Khatun. He left Vyshhorod in 1155 and moved to Vladimir. Promoting development of feudal relations, he relied on a team and on Vladimir’s townspeople; he connected to trading-craft business of Rostov and Suzdal. After his father’s death (1157), he became Knyaz (prince) of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal


personal quot

thumb left Returning to Vladimir (Image:suzdal-invasion2.jpg) by Yaroslav II of Vladimir after Mongol destruction. From the medieval Russian annals Ogedei Khan ordered Batu Khan to conquer Russia in 1235. The main force headed by the Jochi's sons, and their cousins, Mongke Khan and Güyük Khan, arrived at Ryazan in December 1237. Ryazan refused to surrender, and the Mongols sacked it and then stormed Suzdalia. Many Rus' armies were defeated: Grand Prince Yuri (Yuri II of Vladimir) was killed on the Sit River (Battle of the Sit River) (March 4, 1238). Major cities such as Vladimir, Torzhok, and Kozelsk were captured. Orthodoxy (and Christianity in general) in Ukraine date to the Christianization of Kievan Rus by Vladimir the Great as a Metropolitanate of the Patriarch of Constantinople.The sacking of Kiev itself in December 1240 during the Mongol Invasion (Mongol invasion of Rus) led to the ultimate collapse of the Rus' state. For many of its residents, the brutality of Mongol attacks sealed the fate of many choosing to find safe haven in the North East. In 1299, the Kievan Metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) Chair was moved to Vladimir by Metropolitan Maximus (Maximus, Metropolitan of all Rus), keeping the title ''of Kiev''. As Vladimir-Suzdal, and later the Grand Duchy of Moscow continued to grow unhindered, the Orthodox religious link between them and Kiev remained strong. The fall of Constantinople in 1453, allowed the once daughter church of North East, to become autocephalous, with Kiev remaining part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. From that moment on, the Churches of Ukraine and Russia went their own separate ways. The latter became central in the growing Russian Tsardom, attaining patriarchate in 1589, whilst the former became subject to repression and Polonization efforts, particularly after the Union of Brest in 1596. Eventually the persecution of Orthodox Ukrainians, led to a massive rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and united the Ukrainian Hetmanate with the Russian Tsardom, and in 1686, the Kievan Metropolia came under the Moscow Patriarchate. Ukrainian clergy, for their Greek training, held key roles in the Russian Orthodox Church until the end of the 18th century. Examples include Epifany Slavinetsky, one of the architects of the Patriarch Nikon's church reforms in the 17th century. Epifany Slavinetsky, locum tenens after Patriarch Adrian's death in 1700 and Metropolitan of Moscow

Vladimir

'''Vladimir''' (

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal), with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the past, the city was also known as '''Vladimir-on-Klyazma''' ( ), to distinguish it from another Vladimir (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).

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