What is Vladimir known for?

small food

floor) and a small food court (upper floor) * Supermarkets * '''SPAR''' – an international network of supermarkets. The shops are open

century serving

) is a river in the Moscow (Moscow Oblast), Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast), Ivanovo (Ivanovo Oblast) and Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka River. The length of the river is 686 kilometres. The area of its drainage basin is 42,500 km². The Klyazma River freezes up in November and stays under the ice until mid-April. Its main tributaries are the Ucha (Ucha River), Vorya (Vorya River), Kirzhach (Kirzhach River), Peksha (Peksha River), Nerl (Nerl River (Klyazma's tributary)), Uvod (Uvod River), Teza (Teza River), Lukh (Lukh River), Sudogda (Sudogda River), and Suvoroshch (Suvoroshch River). The Klyazma is navigable within 120 km from its estuary and in the area of the Klyazminskoye Reservoir. The cities of Gorokhovets, Mendeleevo, Pavlovsky Posad, Vladimir, Kovrov, Shchyolkovo, Losino-Petrovsky, Noginsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Sobinka, and Vyazniki are located on the shores of the Klyazma River. According to Ken Alibek, who was deputy-director of Biopreparat, the Soviet biological weapons agency, and who defected to the USA in 1992, weapons were developed in labs in isolated areas of the Soviet Union including mobilization facilities at Omutininsk, Penza and Pokrov and research facilities at Moscow, Stirzhi and Vladimir. These weapons were tested at several facilities most often at "Rebirth Island" (Vozrozhdeniya) in the Aral Sea by firing the weapons into the air above monkeys tied to posts, the monkeys would then be monitored to determine the effects. According to Alibek, although Soviet offensive program was officially ended in 1992, Russia may be still involved in the activities prohibited by BWC. Mongol (Mongols)-Tatar (Tatars) Golden Horde forces led by Batu Khan, (a grandson of Genghis Khan), began attacking Europe in 1223, starting with Cumans, Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus (Kievan Rus'). They destroyed many Rus (Rus' (region)) cities including Kiev, The Destruction of Kiev Vladimir and Moscow in the process, sparing Novgorod and Pskov however. They originally planned to continue all the way to the shores of the "Great Sea" (Atlantic Ocean). However, upon learning of the death of Ögedei Khan (third son of Genghis Khan, uncle of Batu Khan) in 1241 they returned eastwards to their steppe homelands. This arguably could have saved the rest of Europe from suffering the catastrophes that befell the armies and towns of Poland, and Hungary, however the streched lines of communication and the lack of vast open tracts of pasture land might well have been the undoing of such a venture. * 1237: Ryazan devastated. * 1238: Vladimir and Moscow were devastated, Battle of the Sit River is fought shortly after * 1238-1239: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin (Kashin (town)), Ksnyatin (Sknyatino), Gorodets, Galich (Galich, Russia), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Yuriev (Yuriev-Polsky), Dmitrov, Volok (Volokolamsk), Tver and Torzhok were devastated. In the west, Chernigov (Chernihiv) and Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) were sacked. * 1278: Tatars pillaged Ryazan principality (Principality of Ryazan). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1283: Tatars ruined Vorgol (Principality of Vorgol), Rylsk (Principality of Rylsk) and Lipetsk (Principality of Lipetsk) principality, occupied Kursk and Vorgol. * 1285: The Tatar warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom. * 1293: The Tatar warlord Dyuden came to Russia and devastated 14 towns, including Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Mozhaysk, Volok (Volokolamsk), Dmitrov, Uglich. In the same summer ''Tatar tsarevitch'' Takhtamir looted Tver' principality and captured slaves in Vladimir principality. Monomakh Cathedral The first brick church on the spot was started by Vladimir Monomakh in 1101. The large 6-pillared edifice, quite similar to Monomakh's cathedral in Vladimir, took several decades to complete. It was finally consecrated during the reign of Vladimir's grandson Rostislav

literary family

and a Vladimir Dragoon regiment were re-settled into the Northern Caucausus to build the Azov-Mozdok (Mozdok, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania) defence line. This marked the start of the Caucasus War, which would continue for almost 90 years. Taneyev was born in Vladimir, to a cultured and literary family of Russian nobility. A distant cousin, Alexander Taneyev, was also a composer, whose daughter, Anna Vyrubova, was highly influential at court. Alexander

Golden gate

of King David (David). Under Dolgoruky's son, Andrey Bogolyubsky (1157–1175) (also known as Andrew the Pious), the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Vladimir-Suzdal). It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237. During this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the city's Golden Gates (Golden Gate (Vladimir)) and the Dormition Cathedral (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir). In 1164

was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today: the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and the Golden Gate. They are included among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During Andrey's reign, a royal palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, now considered one of the jewels of ancient Russian architecture. Andrey was assassinated at his palace at Bogolyubovo in 1175. Decline thumb 210px Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde (File:Vladimir mongols.jpg) outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city. Vladimir was besieged by the Mongol-Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. It was finally overrun on February 8, 1238. A great fire destroyed thirty-two limestone buildings on the first day alone, while the grand prince's family perished in a church where they sought refuge from the flames. The grand prince escaped, but was killed at the Battle of the Sit River the following month. After the Mongols, Vladimir never fully recovered. The most important Rus' (Rus' (region)) prince (usually the Prince of Moscow, but sometimes of Tver or another principality) was styled the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but the title had become an honorific symbol of majesty. From 1299 to 1325, the city was seat of the metropolitans (Metropolitan bishop) of Kiev and All Rus', until Metropolitan Peter moved the see to Moscow. The Grand Princes of Vladimir were originally crowned in Vladimir's Assumption Cathedral, but when Moscow superseded Vladimir in the 14th century as the seat of the Grand Prince, the Assumption Cathedral (Dormition Cathedral, Moscow) in the Moscow Kremlin became the site of their coronation. The Moscow cathedral was loosely copied by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti from Vladimir's original. After the rise of Moscow, Grand Princes of Moscow continued to build several new churches in Vladimir. Notable examples include the Annunciation Church at Snovitsy (ca. 1501), three kilometers northwest of the city, and a church in the Knyaginin nunnery (ca. 1505), with murals dating to 1648. Remains of the prince-saint Alexander Nevsky were kept in the ancient Nativity abbey of Vladimir until 1703, when Peter the Great had them transferred to the Monastery (now Lavra) of Aleksandr Nevsky in St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg). The Nativity church (built in 1191–1196) collapsed several years later, after workmen tried to fashion more windows in its walls in an effort to brighten the interior. In the years 1838-1840 Alexander Herzen exiled in Vladimir, passing through the city infamous "Vladimirka". In 1861, traffic on the route Moscow-Vladimir Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. Since December 1858 the city began to operate telegraph, in 1866 completed construction of water supply, with 1887 appeared telephone and on December 5, 1908 the first power. November 29, 1898 Vladimir provincial scientific archival commission was established. Soviet period After the establishment of Soviet power, many streets were renamed Vladimir, most of the parish churches were closed and condemned to be demolished. However, in the first decades of Soviet rule associated industrialization Vladimir. January 14, 1929 the city became part of the newly formed Ivanovo Industrial Region. August 14, 1944 Vladimir became the administrative center of the region . In December 1944, based Vladimir Regional Library Gorky. In 1950 on the basis of teachers' institute created Vladimir Pedagogical Institute. On November 5, 1952 the first trolleybus line began to operate in the city. In 1958 was created the Vladimir-Suzdal Historical -Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve, which is composed of a group of unique architectural monuments of Russian defense and church architecture, located in three cities - Vladimir, Suzdal and Gus-Khrustalny (Gus-Khrustalny (town)), as well as villages of Bogolyubovo and Kideksha. Architecture of the Soviet period is represented by such structures as building complexes and polytechnic colleges, stadium "Torpedo" (1952), reinforced concrete arch bridge over the river Klyaz'ma (1960), the hotel Vladimir (1956), Drama Theatre (1971) and others. In 1971 the city was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. Administrative and municipal status Vladimir is the administrative center of the oblast. Law #130-OZ Within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it is, together with seventeen rural localities, incorporated as the '''City (City of federal subject significance) of Vladimir'''—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (administrative divisions of Vladimir Oblast). As a municipal division (subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions), the City of Vladimir is incorporated as '''Vladimir Urban Okrug'''. Law #189-OZ Economy and military thumb Lenina Avenue in Vladimir (File:ProspektLenina.jpg) Vladimir is home to several electrical and chemical factories, several food processing plants and two large thermal power stations. Tourism related to the historical sites is a major contributor to the city economy. The headquarters of the 27th Guards Rocket Army of the Strategic Missile Troops is located in the city. During the Cold War, Vladimir was host to the Dobrynskoye air force base. Transport thumb right 200px Vladimir railway station, August 2008 (image:Vladimir railway station Russia1.jpg) thumb Trolleybus ZiU-9 (File:ЗиУ-682Г016.02 заводской номер 9028 во Владимире (№ 184).jpg) Since 1861, there has been a railway connection between Vladimir and Moscow. Train Station in Vladimir Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)

white stone

, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople). Janet Martin, ''Medieval Russia: 980-1584'' (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995), 100. Scores of Russian, German (Germans), and Georgian (Georgians) masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior

Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165), one of the most famous Russian medieval churches. By the end of the 12th century the divide of the country fas final and new centers of power took the Kievan style and adopted it to their traditions. In the northern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal the local churches were built of white stone with help of Romanesque masters of Friedrich Barbarossa, whilst their wall statuary was elaborately carved by craftsmen from Georgia (country

) Georgia . Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


'' Takhtamir looted Tver' principality and captured slaves in Vladimir principality. Monomakh Cathedral The first brick church on the spot was started by Vladimir Monomakh in 1101. The large 6-pillared edifice, quite similar to Monomakh's cathedral in Vladimir, took several decades to complete. It was finally consecrated during the reign of Vladimir's grandson Rostislav of Smolensk (Rostislav I of Kiev) in 1150. In the course of the following 500 years, the church survived numerous

unusual feature

. * Museums The two important museums

unusual white

, world heritage site. Suzdal supplements Vladimir in the UNESCO list and presents lots of architectural sights from 13th-17th centuries. *'''Yuryev-Polsky''' – another part of the Golden Ring, a very provincial town with a nice and unusual white-stone cathedral dating back to 13th century. *'''Gus-Khrustalny''' – the town at the crystal factory. The local crystalware is really remarkable and compares to the international brands. Additionally, the town is a gateway

century style

from 17th century (built in 1644-49) presents another example of original Russian architecture. Apart from ''kokoshniki'', you will find a hip-roof bell tower, a typical feature of the 17th century-style. *

food style

content This small cafe preserves soviet and pretty much fast-food style. However, the menu is rather diverse. The pancakes are very tasty and will certainly satisfy your hunger. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


'''Vladimir''' (

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal), with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the past, the city was also known as '''Vladimir-on-Klyazma''' ( ), to distinguish it from another Vladimir (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).

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