Vladimir

What is Vladimir known for?


food style

content This small cafe preserves soviet and pretty much fast-food style. However, the menu is rather diverse. The pancakes are very tasty and will certainly satisfy your hunger. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


founding year

than this. Scholars reinterpreted certain passages in the ''Hypatian Codex,'' which mentions that the region was visited by Vladimir the Great, the "father" of Russian Orthodoxy (Russian Orthodox Church), in 990, so as to move the city foundation date to that year. The defenders of the previously uncontested founding year of 1108 dispute the claims of those who support the new date, arguing that the new theory was fabricated in order to provide a reason to have a celebration


stone architecture

) Georgia . The Suzdal style is also known as "white-stone architecture" ("белокаменное зодчество"). The first white-stone church was the St. Boris and Gleb Church commissioned by Yuri Dolgoruky, a church-fortress in Kideksha near Suzdal, at the supposed place of the stay of knyazes Boris and Gleb on their pilgrimage to Kiev. The white-stone churches mark the highest point of pre-Mongolian (Mongol invasion of Rus) Rus' architecture


long+building

specified above, visiting this museum may be a good option. There is a shop of crystalware as well. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


fine stone

was constructed in 1194-97 as an in-house church of the Prince's court. Originally, galleries linked the cathedral to the palace, but they were removed during the reconstruction in 19th century. At present, St. Demetrius' Cathedral is a detached church, a unique monument of ancient Russian architecture. The bottom part of the walls is flat (here the galleries were attached), while the upper part is covered by fine stone carvings. These carvings depict stories from the life of King David and praise the harmony of the world. Yet the meaning of some carvings remains unknown. The cathedral hosts a small museum that presents enlarged images and detailed explanations for a number of carvings as well as a small piece of original frescos from late 12th century. The museum is open Wed-Mon, from 11 till 17 or 18. Don't forget to have a look from the nearby viewpoint! File:Vladimir golden gate.JPG thumb 250 px Golden Gate * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


personal quot

thumb left Returning to Vladimir (Image:suzdal-invasion2.jpg) by Yaroslav II of Vladimir after Mongol destruction. From the medieval Russian annals Ogedei Khan ordered Batu Khan to conquer Russia in 1235. The main force headed by the Jochi's sons, and their cousins, Mongke Khan and Güyük Khan, arrived at Ryazan in December 1237. Ryazan refused to surrender, and the Mongols sacked it and then stormed Suzdalia. Many Rus' armies were defeated: Grand Prince Yuri (Yuri II of Vladimir) was killed on the Sit River (Battle of the Sit River) (March 4, 1238). Major cities such as Vladimir, Torzhok, and Kozelsk were captured. Orthodoxy (and Christianity in general) in Ukraine date to the Christianization of Kievan Rus by Vladimir the Great as a Metropolitanate of the Patriarch of Constantinople.The sacking of Kiev itself in December 1240 during the Mongol Invasion (Mongol invasion of Rus) led to the ultimate collapse of the Rus' state. For many of its residents, the brutality of Mongol attacks sealed the fate of many choosing to find safe haven in the North East. In 1299, the Kievan Metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) Chair was moved to Vladimir by Metropolitan Maximus (Maximus, Metropolitan of all Rus), keeping the title ''of Kiev''. As Vladimir-Suzdal, and later the Grand Duchy of Moscow continued to grow unhindered, the Orthodox religious link between them and Kiev remained strong. The fall of Constantinople in 1453, allowed the once daughter church of North East, to become autocephalous, with Kiev remaining part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. From that moment on, the Churches of Ukraine and Russia went their own separate ways. The latter became central in the growing Russian Tsardom, attaining patriarchate in 1589, whilst the former became subject to repression and Polonization efforts, particularly after the Union of Brest in 1596. Eventually the persecution of Orthodox Ukrainians, led to a massive rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and united the Ukrainian Hetmanate with the Russian Tsardom, and in 1686, the Kievan Metropolia came under the Moscow Patriarchate. Ukrainian clergy, for their Greek training, held key roles in the Russian Orthodox Church until the end of the 18th century. Examples include Epifany Slavinetsky, one of the architects of the Patriarch Nikon's church reforms in the 17th century. Epifany Slavinetsky, locum tenens after Patriarch Adrian's death in 1700 and Metropolitan of Moscow


century serving

) is a river in the Moscow (Moscow Oblast), Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast), Ivanovo (Ivanovo Oblast) and Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka River. The length of the river is 686 kilometres. The area of its drainage basin is 42,500 km². The Klyazma River freezes up in November and stays under the ice until mid-April. Its main tributaries are the Ucha (Ucha River), Vorya (Vorya River), Kirzhach (Kirzhach River), Peksha (Peksha River), Nerl (Nerl River (Klyazma's tributary)), Uvod (Uvod River), Teza (Teza River), Lukh (Lukh River), Sudogda (Sudogda River), and Suvoroshch (Suvoroshch River). The Klyazma is navigable within 120 km from its estuary and in the area of the Klyazminskoye Reservoir. The cities of Gorokhovets, Mendeleevo, Pavlovsky Posad, Vladimir, Kovrov, Shchyolkovo, Losino-Petrovsky, Noginsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Sobinka, and Vyazniki are located on the shores of the Klyazma River. According to Ken Alibek, who was deputy-director of Biopreparat, the Soviet biological weapons agency, and who defected to the USA in 1992, weapons were developed in labs in isolated areas of the Soviet Union including mobilization facilities at Omutininsk, Penza and Pokrov and research facilities at Moscow, Stirzhi and Vladimir. These weapons were tested at several facilities most often at "Rebirth Island" (Vozrozhdeniya) in the Aral Sea by firing the weapons into the air above monkeys tied to posts, the monkeys would then be monitored to determine the effects. According to Alibek, although Soviet offensive program was officially ended in 1992, Russia may be still involved in the activities prohibited by BWC. Mongol (Mongols)-Tatar (Tatars) Golden Horde forces led by Batu Khan, (a grandson of Genghis Khan), began attacking Europe in 1223, starting with Cumans, Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus (Kievan Rus'). They destroyed many Rus (Rus' (region)) cities including Kiev, The Destruction of Kiev Vladimir and Moscow in the process, sparing Novgorod and Pskov however. They originally planned to continue all the way to the shores of the "Great Sea" (Atlantic Ocean). However, upon learning of the death of Ögedei Khan (third son of Genghis Khan, uncle of Batu Khan) in 1241 they returned eastwards to their steppe homelands. This arguably could have saved the rest of Europe from suffering the catastrophes that befell the armies and towns of Poland, and Hungary, however the streched lines of communication and the lack of vast open tracts of pasture land might well have been the undoing of such a venture. * 1237: Ryazan devastated. * 1238: Vladimir and Moscow were devastated, Battle of the Sit River is fought shortly after * 1238-1239: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin (Kashin (town)), Ksnyatin (Sknyatino), Gorodets, Galich (Galich, Russia), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Yuriev (Yuriev-Polsky), Dmitrov, Volok (Volokolamsk), Tver and Torzhok were devastated. In the west, Chernigov (Chernihiv) and Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) were sacked. * 1278: Tatars pillaged Ryazan principality (Principality of Ryazan). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), ruined vicinities of Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Tver and Torzhok. * 1282: Tatar attack on Vladimir and Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky). * 1283: Tatars ruined Vorgol (Principality of Vorgol), Rylsk (Principality of Rylsk) and Lipetsk (Principality of Lipetsk) principality, occupied Kursk and Vorgol. * 1285: The Tatar warlord Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and Murom. * 1293: The Tatar warlord Dyuden came to Russia and devastated 14 towns, including Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuryev (Yuryev-Polsky), Pereslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Mozhaysk, Volok (Volokolamsk), Dmitrov, Uglich. In the same summer ''Tatar tsarevitch'' Takhtamir looted Tver' principality and captured slaves in Vladimir principality. Monomakh Cathedral The first brick church on the spot was started by Vladimir Monomakh in 1101. The large 6-pillared edifice, quite similar to Monomakh's cathedral in Vladimir, took several decades to complete. It was finally consecrated during the reign of Vladimir's grandson Rostislav


white stone

, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople). Janet Martin, ''Medieval Russia: 980-1584'' (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995), 100. Scores of Russian, German (Germans), and Georgian (Georgians) masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior

Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1165), one of the most famous Russian medieval churches. By the end of the 12th century the divide of the country fas final and new centers of power took the Kievan style and adopted it to their traditions. In the northern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal the local churches were built of white stone with help of Romanesque masters of Friedrich Barbarossa, whilst their wall statuary was elaborately carved by craftsmen from Georgia (country

) Georgia . Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


quot featured

Jennifer Mills, The Hanseatic League in the Eastern Baltic, SCAND 344, May 1998. Retrieved 21 July 2007. Putin also is a subject of Russian jokes and chastushkas, such as a popular chastushka song " Before Putin There Was No Orgasm" featured in the comedy film ''The Day of Elections (:ru:День выборов (фильм))''. Частушки (Не было оргазма) There is a meta-joke, that since the coming of Putin to power, all the classic jokes (Russian_jokes#Vovochka) about a smart yet rude boy called ''Вовочка'' (''Vovochka'', diminutive from Vladimir) have suddenly become political jokes. * December 3 – Pope Anastasius IV * Iziaslav II of Kiev, Prince of Vladimir and Volyn (Volhynia), (b. c. 1097) * Vyacheslav of Kiev, prince of Smolensk (b. 1083) * Yelü Chucai, Mandarin statesman (d. 1243) * Yuri II (Yuri II of Vladimir), grand prince of Vladimir (d. 1238) * ''probable'' – Skule Bårdsson, Norwegian nobleman (d. 1240) * The Papal bull ''Laudabiliter'' gives the King of England lordship over Ireland. * Theotokos of Vladimir is taken to Vladimir from Suzdal. * June 27 – Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (d. 1425) * October 12 – Dmitri Donskoi, Grand Duke of Muscovy and Vladimir (d. 1389) * November 25 – Katherine Swynford, mistress of John of Gaunt (approximate date; d. 1403) * War continues between the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire and the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate in present-day southern India. Tens of thousands of civilians are massacred by each side. * Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow (Muscovy) & Vladimir, makes peace with Dmitri Konstantinovich, former ruler of Vladimir. * Abu Faris Abdul Aziz succeeds assassinated Abu Zayyan as Sultan of the Marinid Empire in Morocco. * During the Swedish power struggle, Boleslaw (Boleslaw Sverkerson) is killed, but his brother Kol (Kol Sverkerson) continues as king of Östergötland until 1173, in opposition to king Knut Eriksson (Canute I of Sweden) of Sweden. * Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy sacks Kiev and makes Vladimir the capital of Kievan Rus' * Cambro-Norman Knight, and vassal of Henry II of England, Richard fitzGilbert de Clare (Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke) makes an alliance with exiled Irish chief Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), to help him regain the throne of Leinster. This begins a period during which Irish politics are dominated by lords based in England (Norman Ireland). * May 15 – Nur ad-Din Zangi, ruler of Syria (b. 1118) * June 28 – Andrei Bogolyubsky, Prince of Vladimir (b. c. 1111) * July 11 – King Amalric I of Jerusalem (b. 1136) The Kievan church was originally a Metropolitanate (Metropolitan bishop) of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Byzantine patriarch (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople) appointed the metropolitan who governed the Church of Rus'. The Metropolitan's residence was originally located in Kiev. As Kiev was losing its political, cultural, and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion (Mongol invasion of Rus'), Metropolitan Maximus (Maximus, Metropolitan of all Rus) moved to Vladimir in 1299; his successor, Metropolitan Peter moved the residence to Moscow in 1325. In November 1237, Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir and demanded his submission. A month later, the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of bloody battle, the city was totally annihilated. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the invaders, but they were soundly defeated. Having burnt down Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimir on February 4, 1238. Three days later, the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal was taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was totally annihilated by the Mongols in the Battle of the Sit River on March 4. * 35px link European route E18 (File:Tabliczka E18.svg) – Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


religious family

. Early life Ivan Stragorodsky was born in the town of Arzamas near Nizhny Novgorod in a deeply religious family of an archpriest. Named Sergius after becoming a monk he studied in Nizhny Novgorod seminary and later in Saint Petersburg Theological Academy. In 1890 Sergius was sent with an Orthodox Christian mission to Japan and became fluent in Japanese (he already knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages). In 1899 he returned to Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy and was appointed its rector. In 1901 Sergius was appointed archbishop of Finland and Vyborg, and in 1911 he became member of the Russian Holy Synod. On August 10, 1917 he was transferred to the see of Vladimir and Shuya and on November 28 of the same year, Patriarch Tikhon (Tikhon of Moscow) elevated him to the rank of Metropolitan Bishop (Metropolitan bishop). Bolsheviks arrested Metropolitan Sergius in January 1921, after months in jail he was exiled from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod. From June 16, 1922 to August 27, 1923, Sergius participated in the so-called Living Church (or Renovationist schism (schism (religion))), but later publicly repented of his actions and was forgiven by Patriarch Tikhon. He was appointed the Metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) of Nizhny Novgorod on March 18, 1924. Later the Southern gates began to be called as the Grand Gates before the construction of the golden-dome ''Blahovist Church'' (known as Church of the Annunciation) which was established in the close proximity to the gates and easily seen from the outside of the city. Since that time the gates were known as the Golden Gates of Kiev. The passing part of the gates was about 40 feet high and 20 feet wide. For almost half of millennium they served as the Triumph Arch of the city and were considered the major pride of the city's residents. It was reputedly modeled on the Golden Gate (Golden Gate (Constantinople)) of Constantinople, from which it took its name. Later a similar name was given to the gates of Vladimir city where one of the Monomakh's descendants, Andrei I Bogolyubsky, established his own state, Grand Duch of Vladimir. In 1240 it was partially destroyed by Batu Khan's Golden Horde. The next day the Mongols surrounded the city, but they concentrated their catapults against Kiev's obvious weak point—the battlements that flanked the Polish Gate, the only part of the city walls constructed of wood. in: Thomas J. Craughwell . The Rise and Fall of the Second Largest Empire in History. 2010. page 184 It remained as a gate to the city (often used for ceremonies) through the eighteenth century, although it gradually fell into ruins. Vasily Stalin asked the new Soviet leaders, Nikita Khrushchev and Georgi Malenkov, for clemency but he was considered a dangerous person and he was judged in a behind-closed-doors trial and was not allowed legal representation. He was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment and disciplinary work period. He was imprisoned in the special penitentiary of Vladimir under the name '''Vasily Pavlovich Vasilyev'''. He was released from prison on January 11, 1960. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union decided to give him a pension of 300 rubles, a flat in Moscow, and a three-month treatment vacation in Kislovodsk. He was also granted permission to wear his general's uniform and all of his military medals. Russia Zasitino - M9 (Russian route M9) - Velikie Luki - M9 (Russian route M9) - Moscow - M7 (Russian route M7) - Vladimir - M7 (Russian route M7) - Nizhniy Novgorod - M7 (Russian route M7) - Kazan - M7 (Russian route M7) - Elabuga - M7 (Russian route M7) - Igra - P242 - Perm - P242 (Asia) - Ekaterinburg - P351 - Tyumen - P402 - Ishim thumb 200px View of the cathedral in 2008 (File:Владимир Успенский собор 2008.JPG). '''Dormition Cathedral in Vladimir''' (sometimes translated '''Assumption Cathedral''') used to be a mother church of medieval Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries. It is part of the World Heritage Site entitled White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal. The cathedral was commissioned by Andrew the Pious in his capital Vladimir and dedicated (consecration) to the Dormition of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus)), whom he promoted as the patron saint of his lands. Originally erected in 1158-1160, the 6-pillared 5-domed cathedral was expanded in 1185-1189 to reflect the augmented prestige of Vladimir. Embracing the area of 1178 sq. meters, it remained the largest of Russian churches for the following 300 or 400 years. The '''Golden Gate''' of Vladimir ( Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)

Vladimir

'''Vladimir''' (

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal), with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the past, the city was also known as '''Vladimir-on-Klyazma''' ( ), to distinguish it from another Vladimir (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).

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