Vladimir

What is Vladimir known for?


military influence

or military influence throughout the reign of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125), or his son Yury Dolgoruky ("long arms") (1154–1157). thumb left Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir Dormition Cathedral (File:Успенский собор-2 (by Hd Elen).jpg) was a venerated model for cathedrals all over Russia thumb left St. Demetrius' Cathedral, shown on this 1912 photo, is famous for its masterfully carved exterior, representing the Bible Biblical (File:Vladimir demetrios.jpg) story of King David (David). Under Dolgoruky's son, Andrey Bogolyubsky (1157–1175) (also known as Andrew the Pious), the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Vladimir-Suzdal). It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237. During this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the city's Golden Gates (Golden Gate (Vladimir)) and the Dormition Cathedral (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir). In 1164, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Patriarch of Constantinople (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople). Janet Martin, ''Medieval Russia: 980-1584'' (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995), 100. Scores of Russian, German (Germans), and Georgian (Georgians) masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today: the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and the Golden Gate. They are included among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During Andrey's reign, a royal palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, now considered one of the jewels of ancient Russian architecture. Andrey was assassinated at his palace at Bogolyubovo in 1175. Decline thumb 210px Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde (File:Vladimir mongols.jpg) outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city. Vladimir was besieged by the Mongol-Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. It was finally overrun on February 8, 1238. A great fire destroyed thirty-two limestone buildings on the first day alone, while the grand prince's family perished in a church where they sought refuge from the flames. The grand prince escaped, but was killed at the Battle of the Sit River the following month. After the Mongols, Vladimir never fully recovered. The most important Rus' (Rus' (region)) prince (usually the Prince of Moscow, but sometimes of Tver or another principality) was styled the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but the title had become an honorific symbol of majesty. From 1299 to 1325, the city was seat of the metropolitans (Metropolitan bishop) of Kiev and All Rus', until Metropolitan Peter moved the see to Moscow. The Grand Princes of Vladimir were originally crowned in Vladimir's Assumption Cathedral, but when Moscow superseded Vladimir in the 14th century as the seat of the Grand Prince, the Assumption Cathedral (Dormition Cathedral, Moscow) in the Moscow Kremlin became the site of their coronation. The Moscow cathedral was loosely copied by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti from Vladimir's original. After the rise of Moscow, Grand Princes of Moscow continued to build several new churches in Vladimir. Notable examples include the Annunciation Church at Snovitsy (ca. 1501), three kilometers northwest of the city, and a church in the Knyaginin nunnery (ca. 1505), with murals dating to 1648. Remains of the prince-saint Alexander Nevsky were kept in the ancient Nativity abbey of Vladimir until 1703, when Peter the Great had them transferred to the Monastery (now Lavra) of Aleksandr Nevsky in St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg). The Nativity church (built in 1191–1196) collapsed several years later, after workmen tried to fashion more windows in its walls in an effort to brighten the interior. In the years 1838-1840 Alexander Herzen exiled in Vladimir, passing through the city infamous "Vladimirka". In 1861, traffic on the route Moscow-Vladimir Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. Since December 1858 the city began to operate telegraph, in 1866 completed construction of water supply, with 1887 appeared telephone and on December 5, 1908 the first power. November 29, 1898 Vladimir provincial scientific archival commission was established. Soviet period After the establishment of Soviet power, many streets were renamed Vladimir, most of the parish churches were closed and condemned to be demolished. However, in the first decades of Soviet rule associated industrialization Vladimir. January 14, 1929 the city became part of the newly formed Ivanovo Industrial Region. August 14, 1944 Vladimir became the administrative center of the region . In December 1944, based Vladimir Regional Library Gorky. In 1950 on the basis of teachers' institute created Vladimir Pedagogical Institute. On November 5, 1952 the first trolleybus line began to operate in the city. In 1958 was created the Vladimir-Suzdal Historical -Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve, which is composed of a group of unique architectural monuments of Russian defense and church architecture, located in three cities - Vladimir, Suzdal and Gus-Khrustalny (Gus-Khrustalny (town)), as well as villages of Bogolyubovo and Kideksha. Architecture of the Soviet period is represented by such structures as building complexes and polytechnic colleges, stadium "Torpedo" (1952), reinforced concrete arch bridge over the river Klyaz'ma (1960), the hotel Vladimir (1956), Drama Theatre (1971) and others. In 1971 the city was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. Administrative and municipal status Vladimir is the administrative center of the oblast. Law #130-OZ Within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it is, together with seventeen rural localities, incorporated as the '''City (City of federal subject significance) of Vladimir'''—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (administrative divisions of Vladimir Oblast). As a municipal division (subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions), the City of Vladimir is incorporated as '''Vladimir Urban Okrug'''. Law #189-OZ Economy and military thumb Lenina Avenue in Vladimir (File:ProspektLenina.jpg) Vladimir is home to several electrical and chemical factories, several food processing plants and two large thermal power stations. Tourism related to the historical sites is a major contributor to the city economy. The headquarters of the 27th Guards Rocket Army of the Strategic Missile Troops is located in the city. During the Cold War, Vladimir was host to the Dobrynskoye air force base. Transport thumb right 200px Vladimir railway station, August 2008 (image:Vladimir railway station Russia1.jpg) thumb Trolleybus ZiU-9 (File:ЗиУ-682Г016.02 заводской номер 9028 во Владимире (№ 184).jpg) Since 1861, there has been a railway connection between Vladimir and Moscow. Train Station in Vladimir Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


architecture+location

, scientist References Notes * http


century+bright

from 17th century (built in 1644-49) presents another example of original Russian architecture. Apart from ''kokoshniki'', you will find a hip-roof bell tower, a typical feature of the 17th century-style. *

. Bright green color and huge building sharply contrast to the harmony of the ancient white-stone cathedrals. Still, the decoration of the church is remarkable. At present, the church is not functioning and houses a restoration workshop. *


style water

style water tower is likely one of the most impressive and unusual secular buildings in Vladimir. It was constructed in 1868 as a part of the first water-supply system and re-built in 1912. Presently, the tower houses an exhibition on the history of Vladimir. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


ancient buildings

important role for Russian Orthodox Church during the Middle Ages. None of the ancient buildings survived, but it is worth to see the stone walls and towers from 18th century. Though there was no real threat to Vladimir at that time, the walls imitate fortifications of ancient Russian monasteries. You will also find a church and several living houses with fine decorations from 17th century. Presently, the monastery is a home to the bishop of Vladimir region. * Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


called great

дім «Альтернативи» (1998), ISBN 9667217566 — с. 274. He styled (Style (manner of address)) himself «dux totius Rusiæ Minoris» in a letter to Dietrich von Altenburg, the Grand Master (Grand Master (order)) of the Teutonic Knights in 1335. The name was used by Patriarch Callistus I of Constantinople in 1361 when he created two metropolitan (metropolitan bishop) sees (Episcopal see): the one called Great Rus’ (Great Russia) in Vladimir


food open

, Mister Hamburger, ''Vo-Blin'', etc.) that work all day long. On the ground floor, there is a very budget dining hall with more adequate food (open Mon-Fri, 11.30-15.30). Mid-range *


century style

from 17th century (built in 1644-49) presents another example of original Russian architecture. Apart from ''kokoshniki'', you will find a hip-roof bell tower, a typical feature of the 17th century-style. *


religious family

. Early life Ivan Stragorodsky was born in the town of Arzamas near Nizhny Novgorod in a deeply religious family of an archpriest. Named Sergius after becoming a monk he studied in Nizhny Novgorod seminary and later in Saint Petersburg Theological Academy. In 1890 Sergius was sent with an Orthodox Christian mission to Japan and became fluent in Japanese (he already knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages). In 1899 he returned to Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy and was appointed its rector. In 1901 Sergius was appointed archbishop of Finland and Vyborg, and in 1911 he became member of the Russian Holy Synod. On August 10, 1917 he was transferred to the see of Vladimir and Shuya and on November 28 of the same year, Patriarch Tikhon (Tikhon of Moscow) elevated him to the rank of Metropolitan Bishop (Metropolitan bishop). Bolsheviks arrested Metropolitan Sergius in January 1921, after months in jail he was exiled from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod. From June 16, 1922 to August 27, 1923, Sergius participated in the so-called Living Church (or Renovationist schism (schism (religion))), but later publicly repented of his actions and was forgiven by Patriarch Tikhon. He was appointed the Metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) of Nizhny Novgorod on March 18, 1924. Later the Southern gates began to be called as the Grand Gates before the construction of the golden-dome ''Blahovist Church'' (known as Church of the Annunciation) which was established in the close proximity to the gates and easily seen from the outside of the city. Since that time the gates were known as the Golden Gates of Kiev. The passing part of the gates was about 40 feet high and 20 feet wide. For almost half of millennium they served as the Triumph Arch of the city and were considered the major pride of the city's residents. It was reputedly modeled on the Golden Gate (Golden Gate (Constantinople)) of Constantinople, from which it took its name. Later a similar name was given to the gates of Vladimir city where one of the Monomakh's descendants, Andrei I Bogolyubsky, established his own state, Grand Duch of Vladimir. In 1240 it was partially destroyed by Batu Khan's Golden Horde. The next day the Mongols surrounded the city, but they concentrated their catapults against Kiev's obvious weak point—the battlements that flanked the Polish Gate, the only part of the city walls constructed of wood. in: Thomas J. Craughwell . The Rise and Fall of the Second Largest Empire in History. 2010. page 184 It remained as a gate to the city (often used for ceremonies) through the eighteenth century, although it gradually fell into ruins. Vasily Stalin asked the new Soviet leaders, Nikita Khrushchev and Georgi Malenkov, for clemency but he was considered a dangerous person and he was judged in a behind-closed-doors trial and was not allowed legal representation. He was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment and disciplinary work period. He was imprisoned in the special penitentiary of Vladimir under the name '''Vasily Pavlovich Vasilyev'''. He was released from prison on January 11, 1960. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union decided to give him a pension of 300 rubles, a flat in Moscow, and a three-month treatment vacation in Kislovodsk. He was also granted permission to wear his general's uniform and all of his military medals. Russia Zasitino - M9 (Russian route M9) - Velikie Luki - M9 (Russian route M9) - Moscow - M7 (Russian route M7) - Vladimir - M7 (Russian route M7) - Nizhniy Novgorod - M7 (Russian route M7) - Kazan - M7 (Russian route M7) - Elabuga - M7 (Russian route M7) - Igra - P242 - Perm - P242 (Asia) - Ekaterinburg - P351 - Tyumen - P402 - Ishim thumb 200px View of the cathedral in 2008 (File:Владимир Успенский собор 2008.JPG). '''Dormition Cathedral in Vladimir''' (sometimes translated '''Assumption Cathedral''') used to be a mother church of medieval Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries. It is part of the World Heritage Site entitled White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal. The cathedral was commissioned by Andrew the Pious in his capital Vladimir and dedicated (consecration) to the Dormition of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus)), whom he promoted as the patron saint of his lands. Originally erected in 1158-1160, the 6-pillared 5-domed cathedral was expanded in 1185-1189 to reflect the augmented prestige of Vladimir. Embracing the area of 1178 sq. meters, it remained the largest of Russian churches for the following 300 or 400 years. The '''Golden Gate''' of Vladimir ( Wikipedia:Vladimir commons:Владимир (город)


unusual+white

, world heritage site. Suzdal supplements Vladimir in the UNESCO list and presents lots of architectural sights from 13th-17th centuries. *'''Yuryev-Polsky''' – another part of the Golden Ring, a very provincial town with a nice and unusual white-stone cathedral dating back to 13th century. *'''Gus-Khrustalny''' – the town at the crystal factory. The local crystalware is really remarkable and compares to the international brands. Additionally, the town is a gateway

Vladimir

'''Vladimir''' (

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal), with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the past, the city was also known as '''Vladimir-on-Klyazma''' ( ), to distinguish it from another Vladimir (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).

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