Jessica Spitalnic Brockman,culture Art TO_ArtOverview ArtHistory.htm A Brief History of Jewish Art on MyJewishLearning.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. as well as the Jewish catacombs (Catacombs of Rome) in Rome. Michael Schirber, Did Christians copy Jewish catacombs?, MSNBC, July 20, 2005. Accessed 12 February 2006. Jona Lendering,
, Glazunov (Alexander Glazunov) and Lyadov (Anatoly Lyadov) among his teachers. He published articles on music criticism in the Russian press and performed as a pianist and later a conductor. In 1909 he became a conductor at the Mariinsky Theatre and, six years later, the head conductor there. From 1909 he studied conducting in Munich under Felix Mottl. In 1918 he became the director of the conservatory in Vitebsk and from 1921 taught at the Moscow Conservatory. From 1921
studies in 1918 and moved to a small city in western Russia, Nevel (Pskov Oblast), where he worked as a schoolteacher for two years. It was at this time that the first "Bakhtin Circle" formed. The group consisted of intellectuals with varying interests, but all shared a love for the discussion of literary, religious, and political topics. Included in this group were Valentin Voloshinov and, eventually, P. N. Medvedev, who joined the group later in Vitebsk. German
an understanding of the language. Traditional works with charismatic flair are frequently directed by Yuri Lizianhevich. In November, the city holds the '''International Festival of Modern Choreography''', which plays host to dance companies from around the world. Finally, Vitebsk is the home of the '''Slaviansky Bazaar''' a huge festival of music from across the Slavic-speaking world. It is hosted in a stunning
-Yakhel 5755 , commentary on Exodus (Book of Exodus) 35:1 - 38:20. February 25, 1995. Accessed 12 February 2006. Velvel Pasternak, Music and Art, part of "12 Paths" on Judaism.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. It should be noted however, that despite fears by early religious communities of art being used for idolatrous purposes, Jewish ''sacred'' art is recorded in the Tanakh and extends throughout Jewish Antiquity (ancient history) and the Middle Ages. The Tabernacle and the two Temples in Jerusalem (Temple in Jerusalem) form the first known examples of "Jewish art". During the first centuries of the Common Era, Jewish religious art also was created in regions surrounding the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) such as Syria and Greece, including frescoes on the walls of synagogues, of which the Dura Europas Synagogue is the only survivor Jessica Spitalnic Brockman, A Brief History of Jewish Art on MyJewishLearning.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. as well as the Jewish catacombs (Catacombs of Rome) in Rome. Michael Schirber, Did Christians copy Jewish catacombs?, MSNBC, July 20, 2005. Accessed 12 February 2006. Jona Lendering, The Jewish diaspora: Rome. Livius.org. Accessed 12 February 2006. A Jewish tradition of illuminated manuscripts in at least Late Antiquity has left no survivors, but can be deduced from borrowings in Early Medieval Christian art. Middle Age (Jews in the Middle Ages) Rabbinical (Rabbinical literature) and Kabbalistic (Kabbalah) literature also contain textual and graphic art, most famously illuminated haggadahs such as the Sarajevo Haggadah, and other manuscripts like the Nuremberg Mahzor. Some of these were illustrated by Jewish artists and some by Christians; equally some Jewish artists and craftsmen in various media worked on Christian commissions. Roza Bieliauskiene and Felix Tarm, Brief History of Jewish Art, Jewish Art Network. Accessed January 14, 2010. Johnson again summarizes this sudden change from a limited participation by Jews in visual art (as in many other arts) to a large movement by them into this branch of European cultural life: Again, the arrival of the Jewish artist was a strange phenomenon. It is true that, over the centuries, there had been many animals (though few humans) in Jewish art: lions on Torah curtains, owls on Judaic coins, animals on the Capernaum capitals, birds on the rim of the fountain-basis in the 5th century Naro synagogue in Tunis; there were carved animals, too, on timber synagogues in eastern Europe - indeed the Jewish wood-carver (woodcarving) was the prototype of the modern Jewish plastic artist (Plastic arts). A book of Yiddish folk-ornament (Ornament (architecture)), printed at Vitebsk in 1920, was similar to Chagall's own bestiary. But the resistance of pious Jews to portraying the living image was still strong at the beginning of the twentieth century. Johnson, ''op.cit.'', p. 411. thumb ''The Fiddler'' by Marc Chagall (File:Image-Chagall Fiddler.jpg) Alpher was the son of a Russian Jewish immigrant, Samuel Alpher, from Vitebsk, Russia. His mother, Rose, died of stomach cancer in 1938 and his father later remarried. Ralph graduated at age 15 from Theodore Roosevelt High School (Theodore Roosevelt High School (Washington, D.C.)) in Washington, D.C., and was Major and Commander of his school's Cadet program (Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps). He worked in the high school theater as stage manager for two years, supplementing his family's Depression-era income. He also learned Gregg shorthand, and in 1937 began working for the Director of the American Geophysical Union as a stenographer. In 1940 he finally ended up at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Foundation, where he was working with Dr. Scott Forbush (Scott Forbush). They both were working for the U.S. Navy on contract to develop ship degaussing techniques, evaluation, and related research for the first 3 years of WWII. He contributed to the development of the Mark 32 and Mark 45 detonators, torpedoes, Naval gun control, and other top-secret ordnance work and he was recognized at the end of the War with the Naval Ordnance Development Award (December 10, 1945—with Symbol). Perhaps because of the highly classified nature of his work for the U.S. Navy (United States Navy) and the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Alpher's war time work has been somewhat obscured. From 1944 through 1955 he was employed at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. During the daytime he was involved in the development of ballistic missiles, guidance systems, and related subjects, in 1948 he earned his Ph.D. in Physics with a theory of Nucleosynthesis called neutron-capture, and from 1948 onward collaborated with Dr. Robert C. Herman, also at APL, on predictions of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Alpher was somewhat ambivalent about the nature of this work. source: Dr. Victor S. Alpher # Grodno State Medical University, Grodno (Belarus) # Medical University, Vitebsk (Belarus) # National University of Pharmacy, Charkow (Ukraine) thumb 300px German troops in a town near Mogilev (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-137-1032-14A, Russland, brennendes Dorf, deutsche Kavallerie.jpg) at the DnieperOn 10 July the Germans started their own offensive when Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group launched its surprise attack over the Dnieper. His forces literally overran the weak 13th Army, which opposed his forces. By 13 July Guderian had passed Mogilev, trapped several Soviet divisions there and his spearhead unit, the 29th Mot. Division (29th Infantry Division (Germany)), was already
) under Kazimir Malevich, founder of Suprematism, an early abstract art movement which developed a style based on 'non objective' geometric shapes in alignment. From 1920 the artist participated in exhibitions including those of the UNOVIS group (Vitebsk, 1920 and 1921; Moscow 1929, 1921 and 1922), Petrograd exhibitions, an International Exhibition of Decorative Art (held in Paris, 1925), the Exhibition of Soviet Porcelain (1926 and 1927), and the First Exhibition
polymath masters in the Renaissance mold, many with achievements in graphics, sculpture, product design, and architecture.
-Yakhel 5755 , commentary on Exodus (Book of Exodus) 35:1 - 38:20. February 25, 1995. Accessed 12 February 2006. Velvel Pasternak, Music and Art, part of "12 Paths" on Judaism.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. It should be noted however, that despite fears by early religious communities of art being used for idolatrous purposes, Jewish ''sacred'' art is recorded in the Tanakh and extends throughout
. Beer is easy to come by and cheap, though. Better beers available in Vitebsk include own brands of "Nikolayevskoe" and "Dvinskij Brovar". "Baltika", a Russian brand, and Minsk's "Olivariya" brand are the most advertised and easily found. Sleep Hotels in Vitebsk are seriously overpriced, but decent accommodation can nevertheless be found. Foreigners staying in Belarus should know that hotel prices are different for foreigners than they are for CIS citizens. In *"Eridan", the best located, continuously renovated hotel of 4 stars, an individual should expect to pay $60-$120 a night. *"Luchyosa" (opened in 2007) is also overpriced but the quality of service is similar to that of in Eridan. *Hotel "Vitebsk" is located by the river Dvina and, despite its Soviet entourage, provides guests with all necessary amenities (known up-to-date in Belarus). *Hotel "Vetraz", near the hotel "Luchyosa" on the banks of the Dvina river. The best way to experience the Soviet-style hospitality. Apart from the hotels mentioned above, there are a number of smaller private hotels spread across the city. Vitebsk Yellow Pages would be the best way to find more opportunities for accommodating yourself in this lovely city. Stay safe Belarusians are typically quite friendly to foreigners, sometimes too much, however. Some less scrupulous individuals intoxicate visitors to such a degree that it's easy to rob them. The best rule is to never accept a drink from a stranger but never refuse one from a trusted friend. Western men are advised that attentive females encountered in dancing clubs and bars are highly likely to be con artists. The typical ploy is that after you take her to a private location, her large "boyfriend" emerges to accept your "apology" for toying with his girl. Your apology will come in the form of cash. Registration is the single most important safety precaution. Admittedly, this is the means by which the government keeps track of the movement of foreigners under the guise of visitor safety. However, being caught with a registration older than three days can result in complicated situations. Hotel agents will automatically register when you check in. Registration for staying in a private residence, however, can be complicated and requires a long wait at a local office that can be exceedingly hard to find. Police in Belarus are well-known for being closed-minded. Given the largely homogenous fashion sense of people in Belarus, wild aberrations in clothes or hairstyle may single you out for suspicion of possession of narcotics. Again, have that registration with you at all times. Go next WikiPedia:Vitebsk Commons:Vitebsk Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus Localities Vitebsk
independent principality , following Polotsk, and at times, Smolensk and Kiev princes Its official founding year is 974, based on an anachronistic legend that it was founded by Olga of Kiev, but the first mention in historical record is from 1021, when Yaroslav the Wise (Yaroslav I the Wise) of Kiev gave it to Bryachislav Izyaslavich (Bryachislav of Polotsk), Prince of Polotsk. History, Vitebsk Regional
'''Vitebsk''' or '''Vitsebsk''' ( ), is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, in 2004 it had 342,381 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth largest city. It is served by Vitebsk Vostochny Airport and Vitebsk air base (Vitebsk (air base)).