Vitebsk

What is Vitebsk known for?


quot harsh

Army (Wehrmacht) Seventeenth Army in Ukraine. As its commander he called upon his men to understand the need for "harsh punishment of Jewry". The rise of the Wehrmacht: the German armed forces and World War II, Volume 1 Samuel W. Mitcham page 537 Praeger 2008 His army was driven back by the Russian offensives of early 1942 (see Second Battle of Kharkov). Although colleagues at the beginning of their careers, Tatlin and Malevich (Kazimir Malevich ) quarrelled fiercely and publicly at the time of the 'Zero-Ten' (0.10) exhibition in 1915 (long before the birth of Constructivism), also called "the last futurist exhibition", apparently over the 'suprematist (Suprematism )' works Malevich exhibited there. This led Malevich to develop his ideas further in the city of Vitebsk, where he found a school called UNOVIS (Champions of the new art). Pushkin region has a well-developed system of commuter trains and buses, with 24 municipal and 17 commercial bus routes. A major railway line St. Petersburg – Vitebsk passes through the city. г.Пушкин. Маршруты общественного транспорта Санкт-Петербурга и пригородов. 3sspb.ru. Retrieved on 2011-03-11. Saint Petersburg Ring Road and three major international highways run near Pushkin, namely M10 (M10 highway (Russia)) E105 (European route E105), M20 (M20 highway (Russia)) E95 (European route E95) and M11 (M11 highway (Russia)) E20 (European route E20). Pushkin is connected with St. Petersburg via Pulkovo, Moscow and Vitebsk highways. *


main art

2008 the city's main art museum was closed for renovations. There is a museum in the old town (between the Hotel Eridan and the river) that holds a few hundred lithographs by Chagall (entry 5000 rubles). There is a '''tram museum''' by the address: 5-Frunze street, 7. The entrance is free, but you have to contact the administration in advance. Tel.: +375 (212) 23-73-45 or +375 (29) 590-15-42, Petr Petrovich Ignatov, deputy head of tram and trolleybus administration of Vitebsk. There is a museum and a park at '''Zdravnevo''', former residence of a famous Russian painter '''Ilya Repin''' not far from Vitebsk. You can get there in ~1 hour by bus 26A from the city -- take off at the station right after the bridge, then walk eastwards about 1.5 km. Bus 26 is also OK, but its terminus is a couple of stations earlier, so you will have to walk some extra 1-2 km. Do Vitebsk is also home to the '''National Academic Dramatic Theatre named for Yakub Kolas'''. This company has seen considerable success internationally. It is especially notable for being one of the last two professional theatres in the world performing exclusively in the Belarusian language. Foreign travellers unable to understand Belarusian should not be afraid of attending a performance, however, given that much of the work directed by Artistic Director Vital Barkouski is both visually striking and frequently of such an avant garde nature that they can be appreciated without an understanding of the language. Traditional works with charismatic flair are frequently directed by Yuri Lizianhevich. In November, the city holds the '''International Festival of Modern Choreography''', which plays host to dance companies from around the world. Finally, Vitebsk is the home of the '''Slaviansky Bazaar''' a huge festival of music from across the Slavic-speaking world. It is hosted in a stunning amphitheatre near the center. Other cultural events and activities, such as exhibitions and traditional crafts also play a significant part in the festival, and guest theatre productions are hosted in the Yakub Kolas Theatre. Buy Traditional Belarusian handicrafts are available in the '''Univermag''' department store on ul. Zamkovaya or at the train station. They can also be purchased at the open market not far from the train station. Vodka of particularly high quality is available at shops around the city, and Vitebsk is home to a distillery which produces fine vodkas with "tourist-worthy" bottles. The best time to buy Belarusian arts and craft is the time of the aforementioned festival "Slaviansky Bazaar" when dozens of artists come to Vitebsk to sell hand-made crafts. Eat There is not a great deal of fine dining available in Vitebsk, nor a great deal of variety. *


related research

, and related research for the first 3 years of WWII. He contributed to the development of the Mark 32 and Mark 45 detonators, torpedoes, Naval gun control, and other top-secret ordnance work and he was recognized at the end of the War with the Naval Ordnance Development Award (December 10, 1945—with Symbol). Perhaps because of the highly classified nature of his work for the U.S. Navy (United States Navy) and the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Alpher's war time work has been somewhat obscured. From 1944 through 1955 he was employed at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. During the daytime he was involved in the development of ballistic missiles, guidance systems, and related subjects, in 1948 he earned his Ph.D. in Physics with a theory of Nucleosynthesis called neutron-capture, and from 1948 onward collaborated with Dr. Robert C. Herman, also at APL, on predictions of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Alpher was somewhat ambivalent about the nature of this work. source: Dr. Victor S. Alpher # Grodno State Medical University, Grodno (Belarus) # Medical University, Vitebsk (Belarus) # National University of Pharmacy, Charkow (Ukraine) thumb 300px German troops in a town near Mogilev (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-137-1032-14A, Russland, brennendes Dorf, deutsche Kavallerie.jpg) at the DnieperOn 10 July the Germans started their own offensive when Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group launched its surprise attack over the Dnieper. His forces literally overran the weak 13th Army, which opposed his forces. By 13 July Guderian had passed Mogilev, trapped several Soviet divisions there and his spearhead unit, the 29th Mot. Division (29th Infantry Division (Germany)), was already


extraordinary feature

. It is built of hewn limestone quadras, each row being separated by two rows of brick, covered with a thin layer of stucco so as to emulate large blocks of stone. This technique was widespread in Byzantium; but there are only two examples north of Crimea — one in Vitebsk and another, unfinished and long ruined church in Navahradak, probably by the same team of Byzantine builders. Another extraordinary feature of the church is that its bays are equal and the central nave is square in plan. The choir gallery occupies the western bay; it adjoins two secluded chapels over the lateral aisles. Stairs leading to the gallery are built into the western wall. russiancity.ru Churches from the Polish-Lithuanian period were likewise destroyed, although the Resurrection Church (1772–77) has been rebuilt. The Orthodox cathedral, dedicated to the Intercession of the Theotokos, was erected in 1760. There are also the town hall (1775); the Russian governor's palace, where Napoleon celebrated his 43rd birthday in 1812; the Neo-Romanesque Roman Catholic cathedral (1884–85); and an obelisk commemorating the centenary of the Russian victory over Napoleon. Vitebsk is also home to a lattice steel TV tower carrying a horizontal cross on which the antenna mast is guyed. This tower, which is nearly identical to that at Grodno (Grodno TV Tower), but a few metres shorter (245 metres in Vitebsk versus 254 metres at Grodno) was completed in 1983. The city is also home to the Marc Chagall Museum and the Vitebsk regional museum. Climate


great hits

of God''), which was promoted by the end of June 2000. The album brought some great hits, like "Nemir" ("Restless") (a duet with Karolina Gočeva), "Vo Kosi da ti Spijam" ("Sleeping in Your Hair"), "Izlaži me Ušte Ednaš" ("Lie to Me One More Time"), as well as "Iluzija" ("Illusion") (Grand Prix at the festival Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk) and "Tajno Moja" ("Secret of Mine"). Two songs


military achievements

January 1844 birth_place Vitebsk, Russia death_date


original appearance

Литовско–русское государство (''Litovsko–russkoye gosydarstvo'') in ''Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary'' Full style of Russian Sovereigns The full title of Russian emperors started with By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (Божию Милостию, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский ''Bozhiyu Milostiyu, Imperator i Samoderzhets Vserossiyskiy'' ) and went further to list all ruled territories. For example, according to the article 59 of the Russian Constitution of April 23, 1906, "the full title of His Imperial Majesty is as follows: We, ------ by the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir (Vladimir-Suzdal), Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland (Congress Poland), Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Tauric Chersonesos (Chersonesos Taurica), Tsar of Georgia (Georgia (country)), Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania (Grand Duchy of Lithuania), Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland (Grand Duchy of Finland), Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok (Białystok), Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), Bulgaria (Volga Bulgaria) and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria (Caucasian Iberia), Kartalinia (Kartli), and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories - hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg (Duchy of Oldenburg), and so forth, and so forth, and so forth." The partition treaty was ratified by its signatories on September 22, 1772. Frederick II of Prussia was elated with his success; Prussia took most of the Polish Royal Prussia that stood between its possessions in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, taking Ermland (Warmia), Royal Prussia without the city of Danzig (Gdańsk) (Gdańsk) (which in 1773 became a new province (Provinces of Prussia) called West Prussia), northern areas of Greater Poland along the Noteć River (the Netze District), and parts of Kuyavia, (also the Prussian city of Thorn (Toruń) Toruń ). Despite token criticism of the partition from Austrian Empress Maria Theresa (Maria Theresa of Austria), Austrian statesman Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz was proud of wresting as large a share as he did, with the rich salt mines of Bochnia and Wieliczka. To Austria fell Zator and Auschwitz (Oświęcim), part of Little Poland embracing parts of the counties of Kraków and Sandomir and the whole of Galicia, less the City of Kraków. Catherine II


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, and had been expecting soon to play in Saint Petersburg. The mourning for the tsar meant there would be no performances in the capital; in addition the political climate of Russia turned sharply against the Jews. Goldfaden's troupe soldiered on for a time—to Minsk, to Bobruisk where they played mainly to Russian soldiers, and to Vitebsk, where Jacob and the pregnant Sonya had to sue Goldfaden for their pay, and left to rejoin Rosenberg, playing in a tent theater in Nezhin. However, their fortunes soon proved even worse: provocateurs were traveling around the empire, stirring up pogroms, one of which soon swept through Nezhin. The troupe managed to avoid bodily harm by partly by convincing the rioters that they were a French (France) theater troupe and partly by making judicious use of the money the Adlers had won in court from Goldfaden. Adler, 1999, 172, 179-189, 192-197 Russia On July 26, 1951, during excavations in Novgorod, a Soviet (Soviet Union) expedition led by Artemiy Artsikhovsky found the first Russian birch bark writing in a layer dated to ca. 1400. Since then, more than 1,000 similar documents were discovered in Staraya Russa, Smolensk, Torzhok, Pskov, Tver, Moscow, Ryazan, although Novgorod remains by far the most prolific source of them. In Ukraine, birch bark documents were found in Zvenigorod, Volynia. In Belarus, several documents were unearthed in Vitebsk and Mstislavl. thumb left 250px Birch-bark letter no. '''202''' http: gramoty.ru index.php?no 202&act full&key bb contains spelling lessons and drawings made by a boy named Onfim; based on draftsmanship, experts estimate his age as between 6 and 7 at the time. (Image:Birch bark document 210.jpg) Reasons for the territorial changes Theoretically, the redistribution of lands after WWII was based on the ethnicity of local populations — some of the territories that had a clear non-Baltic majority were attached to other republics; this, however, also happened to some territories which had a clear Baltic majority (Baltic people) (many of them were enclaves in areas without a Baltic majority). In Latvia and Estonia, territories which had not belonged to the Governorate of Estonia, the Riga Governorate, Vitebsk or the Courland Governorate within the Russian Empire were detached. Unlike Soviet Socialist Republics, however, imperial gubernyas were not based on ethnicity, so this historical reasoning is not accepted by Latvians and Estonians. In Lithuania's case, the detaching did not have any historical foundation. Hussites 15px (Image:Herb Pogon Litewska.jpg) Eastern Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polotsk, Vitebsk, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia) 15px (Image:Den tyske ordens skjold.svg) Teutonic Knights Background When Operation Barbarossa had stalled and ended with the reassessment of the strategic goals by Hitler, the front line in the northern sector of the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (WWII)) had stabilized in the spring of 1942, and the Wehrmacht was left in control of the city of Velikiye Luki, which provided bridges over the Lovat River to the eastern bank. A major north-south rail line ran parallel to the river's west bank, at Novosokolniki behind the German lines, and another to Vitebsk, an important strategic German logistic centre. Marshy terrain extended to Lake Peipus from just north of the city defended by the German 16th Field Army, making attack there difficult for either side. The city itself was therefore a natural point for a Soviet counterattack, offering the possibility of eliminating the German bridges, and to establish a bridgehead on the western bank, denying the Germans use of the rail line that provided communications between Army groups North and Centre. In view of its strategic significance, the Germans heavily fortified the city over the course of 1942. After Christmas leave in England at the end of 1943, Jacob set out again with his wife for the Soviet Union in January 1944 on board a ship of the Arctic Convoy. They spent the remainder of the war in Moscow and covering the advances of the Red Army in Odessa, the Crimea and through Vitebsk, Minsk, Poland and on to the fall of Berlin. He published ''A Window in Moscow'' in 1945. Alaric Jacob '''A Window in Moscow''' Collins 1946 His experiences made him sympathetic towards the Soviet regime and he stayed in the Soviet Union, on and off, until the start of the cold war in late 1947. His wife Iris had become a Communist and her ideas strongly influenced him. He suspected that her membership of the Communist Party worked against him even when they were separated. Mark Hollingsworth and Richard Norton-Taylor ''Blacklist:The Inside Story of Political Vetting'' The Hogarth Press LONDON 1988 ISBN 0-7012-0811-2 Career Pelše was born into a peasant family, in "Mazie" farm near Zālīte, Iecava in Bauska District. As a worker in Riga, Pelše joined the Social-Democratic Party (Bolsheviks) of the Latvian Region in 1915. In 1916 he met Lenin in Switzerland. Who's Who in ''Russia Since 1900'', Martin McCauley Between 1914 and 1918, Pelše worked in the work-shops of Riga and Vitebsk, as a milling machine operator at the steam-engine making plant in Kharkov, as a punching worker in Petrograd and a loader in the port of Arkhangelsk. On behalf of the local committees he had joined the revolutionary propaganda. He was delegate of the sixth congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party of the Arkhangelsk party organization. Participated in February revolution in 1917, Pelše was also a member of the famous Petrograd Soviet. He was actively involved in the preparation and conducting of the October Revolution in 1917. In 1918 he joined the Cheka. In 1918, he was sent by Lenin to Latvia to prosecute the revolution there. In 1919 he was attached to the Red Army and later became a manager in the Construction Ministry of the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic. After the defeat of the Soviet Latvian régime he returned to Russia in 1919. Life and works Tadeusz Mostowicz was born August 10, 1898, at his family's village of Okuniewo, near Vitebsk in the Russian Empire, the son of a wealthy lawyer. After graduating from ''gimnazjum'' (high school) in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania), then Russian Empire in 1915 he embarked upon law studies at the University of Kiev. There he befriended numerous fellow members of the Polish diaspora and became involved in a local underground group of the ''Polska Organizacja Wojskowa'' (Polish Military Organization, abbreviated ''"P.O.W."'' in Polish). After Operation Citadel, personnel of the R.O.N.A. retreated to Belarus and were stationed in the Lepel area of Vitebsk, and were involved in anti-partisan activities and committed numerous atrocities against the civilian population. In March 1944, the unit was renamed '''Volksheer-Brigade ''Kaminski''''' (Peoples Brigade Kaminski) for a brief period, before it was absorbed as a part of the Waffen-SS in June 1944. With its transfer to the Waffen-SS, the brigade was renamed '''Waffen-Sturm-Brigade ''RONA''''', and Kaminski was given the rank of Waffen-Brigadeführer der SS (Brigadeführer). After Operation Bagration, personnel retreated again further west and by the end of July 1944 remains of the Kaminski unit (3-4 thousands some sources give 6-7 thousands were collected at the SS training camp Neuhammer. '''Natalia Hadjiloizou''' (


previous crime

svodka 41.html August 28 and Vitebsk, ''V Vitebske uchastilis popytki krazhi ordenov i medalei'' (В Витебске участились попытки кражи орденов и медалей у ветеранов войны) Site of Polatsk city administration, February 8, 2008 Belarus . The previous crime wave peaked between 2003 and 2006; most public cases include: Early years Antoni Ferdynand


international art

Vitebsk

'''Vitebsk''' or '''Vitsebsk''' ( ), is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, in 2004 it had 342,381 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth largest city. It is served by Vitebsk Vostochny Airport and Vitebsk air base (Vitebsk (air base)).

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