. It is built of hewn limestone quadras, each row being separated by two rows of brick, covered with a thin layer of stucco so as to emulate large blocks of stone. This technique was widespread in Byzantium; but there are only two examples north of Crimea — one in Vitebsk and another, unfinished and long ruined church in Navahradak, probably by the same team of Byzantine builders. Another extraordinary feature of the church is that its bays are equal and the central nave is square in plan. The choir gallery occupies the western bay; it adjoins two secluded chapels over the lateral aisles. Stairs leading to the gallery are built into the western wall. russiancity.ru Churches from the Polish-Lithuanian period were likewise destroyed, although the Resurrection Church (1772–77) has been rebuilt. The Orthodox cathedral, dedicated to the Intercession of the Theotokos, was erected in 1760. There are also the town hall (1775); the Russian governor's palace, where Napoleon celebrated his 43rd birthday in 1812; the Neo-Romanesque Roman Catholic cathedral (1884–85); and an obelisk commemorating the centenary of the Russian victory over Napoleon. Vitebsk is also home to a lattice steel TV tower carrying a horizontal cross on which the antenna mast is guyed. This tower, which is nearly identical to that at Grodno (Grodno TV Tower), but a few metres shorter (245 metres in Vitebsk versus 254 metres at Grodno) was completed in 1983. The city is also home to the Marc Chagall Museum and the Vitebsk regional museum. Climate
Emancipation Emancipation Jewish culture was dominated by religious tradition. As most Rabbinical authorities believed that the Second Commandment (Ten Commandments#Jewish interpretation) prohibited much visual art that would qualify as "graven images", Jewish artists were relatively rare until they lived in assimilated European communities beginning in the late 18th century. Ismar Schorsch, Shabbat Shekalim Va
manuscripts like the Nuremberg Mahzor. Some of these were illustrated by Jewish artists and some by Christians; equally some Jewish artists and craftsmen in various media worked on Christian commissions. Roza Bieliauskiene and Felix Tarm, Brief History of Jewish Art, Jewish Art Network. Accessed January 14, 2010. Johnson again summarizes this sudden change from a limited participation by Jews in visual art (as in many other arts) to a large movement by them into this branch of European cultural life: Again, the arrival of the Jewish artist was a strange phenomenon. It is true that, over the centuries, there had been many animals (though few humans) in Jewish art: lions on Torah curtains, owls on Judaic coins, animals on the Capernaum capitals, birds on the rim of the fountain-basis in the 5th century Naro synagogue in Tunis; there were carved animals, too, on timber synagogues in eastern Europe - indeed the Jewish wood-carver (woodcarving) was the prototype of the modern Jewish plastic artist (Plastic arts). A book of Yiddish folk-ornament (Ornament (architecture)), printed at Vitebsk in 1920, was similar to Chagall's own bestiary. But the resistance of pious Jews to portraying the living image was still strong at the beginning of the twentieth century. Johnson, ''op.cit.'', p. 411. thumb ''The Fiddler'' by Marc Chagall (File:Image-Chagall Fiddler.jpg) Alpher was the son of a Russian Jewish immigrant, Samuel Alpher, from Vitebsk, Russia. His mother, Rose, died of stomach cancer in 1938 and his father later remarried. Ralph graduated at age 15 from Theodore Roosevelt High School (Theodore Roosevelt High School (Washington, D.C.)) in Washington, D.C., and was Major and Commander of his school's Cadet program (Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps). He worked in the high school theater as stage manager for two years, supplementing his family's Depression-era income. He also learned Gregg shorthand, and in 1937 began working for the Director of the American Geophysical Union as a stenographer. In 1940 he finally ended up at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Foundation, where he was working with Dr. Scott Forbush (Scott Forbush). They both were working for the U.S. Navy on contract to develop ship degaussing techniques, evaluation, and related research for the first 3 years of WWII. He contributed to the development of the Mark 32 and Mark 45 detonators, torpedoes, Naval gun control, and other top-secret ordnance work and he was recognized at the end of the War with the Naval Ordnance Development Award (December 10, 1945—with Symbol). Perhaps because of the highly classified nature of his work for the U.S. Navy (United States Navy) and the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Alpher's war time work has been somewhat obscured. From 1944 through 1955 he was employed at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. During the daytime he was involved in the development of ballistic missiles, guidance systems, and related subjects, in 1948 he earned his Ph.D. in Physics with a theory of Nucleosynthesis called neutron-capture, and from 1948 onward collaborated with Dr. Robert C. Herman, also at APL, on predictions of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Alpher was somewhat ambivalent about the nature of this work. source: Dr. Victor S. Alpher # Grodno State Medical University, Grodno (Belarus) # Medical University, Vitebsk (Belarus) # National University of Pharmacy, Charkow (Ukraine) thumb 300px German troops in a town near Mogilev (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-137-1032-14A, Russland, brennendes Dorf, deutsche Kavallerie.jpg) at the DnieperOn 10 July the Germans started their own offensive when Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group launched its surprise attack over the Dnieper. His forces literally overran the weak 13th Army, which opposed his forces. By 13 July Guderian had passed Mogilev, trapped several Soviet divisions there and his spearhead unit, the 29th Mot. Division (29th Infantry Division (Germany)), was already
Vladimir Mayakovsky and Vladimir Lebedev. Early Life and Academic Career Gross was born and raised in London’s East End, Patricia Craig “How an East End boy became a man of letters”, ''The Independent'', March 21, 2001). to Abraham Gross, a Jewish immigrant from the Polish-Jewish town of Gorokhov, Remembering the lost Jewish world of Gorokhov http: www.jewishgen.org yizkor gorokhov gore003.html from where Gross’s family escaped before the entire Jewish population was killed in the Holocaust, and to Muriel Gross, also of East European Jewish origin, whose parents came from Vitebsk, an area later made famous by the paintings of Chagall. Tony Gross, who founded Cutler and Gross, an eyewear business, is his brother. Among his cousins was the composer Lionel Bart. *
menu and reasonably attractive dining area. Closer to midnight, the cafe hosts show-girls performances. * There are numerous other smaller cafes around. Kiosks sell fast foods like hot dogs, "home-style" pizza slices, and 'Tchebureks', a student favorite of meat in fried
) under Kazimir Malevich, founder of Suprematism, an early abstract art movement which developed a style based on 'non objective' geometric shapes in alignment. From 1920 the artist participated in exhibitions including those of the UNOVIS group (Vitebsk, 1920 and 1921; Moscow 1929, 1921 and 1922), Petrograd exhibitions, an International Exhibition of Decorative Art (held in Paris, 1925), the Exhibition of Soviet Porcelain (1926 and 1927), and the First Exhibition
studies in 1918 and moved to a small city in western Russia, Nevel (Pskov Oblast), where he worked as a schoolteacher for two years. It was at this time that the first "Bakhtin Circle" formed. The group consisted of intellectuals with varying interests, but all shared a love for the discussion of literary, religious, and political topics. Included in this group were Valentin Voloshinov and, eventually, P. N. Medvedev, who joined the group later in Vitebsk. German
alone. Bergström 2007, p. 48. The Belarusian authorities promote folk or "Slavic" music at the country's top musical event -- the state-sponsored Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, an annual pop and folk music festival in Vitebsk. The biggest festival of Belarusian rock music takes place outside of Belarus, in Gródek ( ), northeastern Poland, a small town some 40 kilometers east of Białystok -- the center of Podlaskie
, and had been expecting soon to play in Saint Petersburg. The mourning for the tsar meant there would be no performances in the capital; in addition the political climate of Russia turned sharply against the Jews. Goldfaden's troupe soldiered on for a time&mdash;to Minsk, to Bobruisk where they played mainly to Russian soldiers, and to Vitebsk, where Jacob and the pregnant Sonya had to sue Goldfaden for their pay, and left to rejoin Rosenberg, playing in a tent theater in Nezhin. However, their fortunes soon proved even worse: provocateurs were traveling around the empire, stirring up pogroms, one of which soon swept through Nezhin. The troupe managed to avoid bodily harm by partly by convincing the rioters that they were a French (France) theater troupe and partly by making judicious use of the money the Adlers had won in court from Goldfaden. Adler, 1999, 172, 179-189, 192-197 Russia On July 26, 1951, during excavations in Novgorod, a Soviet (Soviet Union) expedition led by Artemiy Artsikhovsky found the first Russian birch bark writing in a layer dated to ca. 1400. Since then, more than 1,000 similar documents were discovered in Staraya Russa, Smolensk, Torzhok, Pskov, Tver, Moscow, Ryazan, although Novgorod remains by far the most prolific source of them. In Ukraine, birch bark documents were found in Zvenigorod, Volynia. In Belarus, several documents were unearthed in Vitebsk and Mstislavl. thumb left 250px Birch-bark letter no. '''202''' http: gramoty.ru index.php?no 202&act full&key bb contains spelling lessons and drawings made by a boy named Onfim; based on draftsmanship, experts estimate his age as between 6 and 7 at the time. (Image:Birch bark document 210.jpg) Reasons for the territorial changes Theoretically, the redistribution of lands after WWII was based on the ethnicity of local populations — some of the territories that had a clear non-Baltic majority were attached to other republics; this, however, also happened to some territories which had a clear Baltic majority (Baltic people) (many of them were enclaves in areas without a Baltic majority). In Latvia and Estonia, territories which had not belonged to the Governorate of Estonia, the Riga Governorate, Vitebsk or the Courland Governorate within the Russian Empire were detached. Unlike Soviet Socialist Republics, however, imperial gubernyas were not based on ethnicity, so this historical reasoning is not accepted by Latvians and Estonians. In Lithuania's case, the detaching did not have any historical foundation. Hussites 15px (Image:Herb Pogon Litewska.jpg) Eastern Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polotsk, Vitebsk, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia) 15px (Image:Den tyske ordens skjold.svg) Teutonic Knights Background When Operation Barbarossa had stalled and ended with the reassessment of the strategic goals by Hitler, the front line in the northern sector of the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (WWII)) had stabilized in the spring of 1942, and the Wehrmacht was left in control of the city of Velikiye Luki, which provided bridges over the Lovat River to the eastern bank. A major north-south rail line ran parallel to the river's west bank, at Novosokolniki behind the German lines, and another to Vitebsk, an important strategic German logistic centre. Marshy terrain extended to Lake Peipus from just north of the city defended by the German 16th Field Army, making attack there difficult for either side. The city itself was therefore a natural point for a Soviet counterattack, offering the possibility of eliminating the German bridges, and to establish a bridgehead on the western bank, denying the Germans use of the rail line that provided communications between Army groups North and Centre. In view of its strategic significance, the Germans heavily fortified the city over the course of 1942. After Christmas leave in England at the end of 1943, Jacob set out again with his wife for the Soviet Union in January 1944 on board a ship of the Arctic Convoy. They spent the remainder of the war in Moscow and covering the advances of the Red Army in Odessa, the Crimea and through Vitebsk, Minsk, Poland and on to the fall of Berlin. He published ''A Window in Moscow'' in 1945. Alaric Jacob '''A Window in Moscow''' Collins 1946 His experiences made him sympathetic towards the Soviet regime and he stayed in the Soviet Union, on and off, until the start of the cold war in late 1947. His wife Iris had become a Communist and her ideas strongly influenced him. He suspected that her membership of the Communist Party worked against him even when they were separated. Mark Hollingsworth and Richard Norton-Taylor ''Blacklist:The Inside Story of Political Vetting'' The Hogarth Press LONDON 1988 ISBN 0-7012-0811-2 Career Pelše was born into a peasant family, in "Mazie" farm near Zālīte, Iecava in Bauska District. As a worker in Riga, Pelše joined the Social-Democratic Party (Bolsheviks) of the Latvian Region in 1915. In 1916 he met Lenin in Switzerland. Who's Who in ''Russia Since 1900'', Martin McCauley Between 1914 and 1918, Pelše worked in the work-shops of Riga and Vitebsk, as a milling machine operator at the steam-engine making plant in Kharkov, as a punching worker in Petrograd and a loader in the port of Arkhangelsk. On behalf of the local committees he had joined the revolutionary propaganda. He was delegate of the sixth congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party of the Arkhangelsk party organization. Participated in February revolution in 1917, Pelše was also a member of the famous Petrograd Soviet. He was actively involved in the preparation and conducting of the October Revolution in 1917. In 1918 he joined the Cheka. In 1918, he was sent by Lenin to Latvia to prosecute the revolution there. In 1919 he was attached to the Red Army and later became a manager in the Construction Ministry of the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic. After the defeat of the Soviet Latvian régime he returned to Russia in 1919. Life and works Tadeusz Mostowicz was born August 10, 1898, at his family's village of Okuniewo, near Vitebsk in the Russian Empire, the son of a wealthy lawyer. After graduating from ''gimnazjum'' (high school) in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania), then Russian Empire in 1915 he embarked upon law studies at the University of Kiev. There he befriended numerous fellow members of the Polish diaspora and became involved in a local underground group of the ''Polska Organizacja Wojskowa'' (Polish Military Organization, abbreviated ''"P.O.W."'' in Polish). After Operation Citadel, personnel of the R.O.N.A. retreated to Belarus and were stationed in the Lepel area of Vitebsk, and were involved in anti-partisan activities and committed numerous atrocities against the civilian population. In March 1944, the unit was renamed '''Volksheer-Brigade ''Kaminski''''' (Peoples Brigade Kaminski) for a brief period, before it was absorbed as a part of the Waffen-SS in June 1944. With its transfer to the Waffen-SS, the brigade was renamed '''Waffen-Sturm-Brigade ''RONA''''', and Kaminski was given the rank of Waffen-Brigadeführer der SS (Brigadeführer). After Operation Bagration, personnel retreated again further west and by the end of July 1944 remains of the Kaminski unit (3-4 thousands some sources give 6-7 thousands were collected at the SS training camp Neuhammer. '''Natalia Hadjiloizou''' (
Ratusha url email address lat long directions phone tollfree fax hours price content With its renowned clock tower, it is a beautiful piece of 18th century architecture. * As of 30 May
polymath masters in the Renaissance mold, many with achievements in graphics, sculpture, product design, and architecture.
'''Vitebsk''' or '''Vitsebsk''' ( ), is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, in 2004 it had 342,381 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth largest city. It is served by Vitebsk Vostochny Airport and Vitebsk air base (Vitebsk (air base)).