first in Wilno (Vilnius), than in Łódź. Having a pretext of regular family life made their accommodation safer from suspicion. The Russian law also protected the wife from prosecution of illegal activities of the husband. "Piłsudski: A Life For Poland", Wacław Jędrzejewicz, Hipocremne Books, New York, 1982, ISBN 978-0-87052-747-0, p. 27-28 The marriage deteriorated when, several years later, Piłsudski began an affair with a younger socialist, ref name
: www.economist.com node 3104407 date 2004-08-14 title Czeslaw Milosz, a Polish émigré poet, died on August 14th, aged 93 accessdate 2011-04-06 quote In pre-war Poland Mr Milosz felt stifled by the prevailing Catholic-nationalist ethos; he was sacked from a Polish radio station for being too pro-Lithuanian. Miłosz wrote all his poetry, fiction and essays in Polish and translated the Old Testament ''Psalms'' into Polish. * Estonia is represented in the Vatican through a non resident
The Soviets annexation included all Polish (Poland) territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa (Pisa River), Narew, Bug (Bug River), and San (San River), except for western part of the Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania (see map (:File:Lithuania territory 1939-1940.svg)), and the Suwałki region, which was annexed by Nazi Germany. Following the start of the Polish-Bolshevik War in 1919, it was occupied by the Red Army, which was pushed back by the Polish Army. In 1920, it was again occupied by the Red Army, but Soviets officially recognized the sovereignty of Lithuanian Republic (Lithuania) over the city immediately after defeat during Battle of Warsaw (Battle of Warsaw (1920)). During their retreat, the Bolsheviks passed the sovereignty over the area to Lithuania
, but it often proved incapable of restoring peace and order. On April 9, 1989, the army, together with MVD units, killed 20 demonstrators in Tbilisi in Georgia. The next major crisis occurred in Azerbaijan, when the Soviet army forcibly entered Baku on January 19–20, 1990, resulting in the death of 137 people. On January 13, 1991 Soviet forces stormed the State Radio and Television Building and the television retranslation tower in Vilnius, Lithuania, both under opposition control, killing 14 people and injuring 700. This action was perceived by many as heavy-handed and achieved little. Overview The town was built on the main road leading from Vilnius to Minsk. It is divided into two sections: the "lower neighborhood" along the river and the "upper neighborhood" toward the hills. Half of the town square is framed by the remains of 12th century buildings, including a bell tower, a palace, and a monastery. Most of the other remaining impressive buildings in the town are from the 19th century. Pre-WWII images of old Valozhyn On the "Belarus Travel" website Following the Partitions of Poland, the area was annexed by Imperial Russia and the palace was abandoned soon afterwards. The castle was also neglected. During the final stages of Napoleon's invasion of Russia it was there that the Grande Armée made its last stand in former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In early November 1812 Napoleon Bonaparte gave his last orders to his marshals there, after which he left for Vilnius. On November 21 of that year the Polish-born Russian general Yefim Chaplits arrived at the French camp there and defeated the already-routed French forces led by Marshal Victor (Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno). In the effect of the fights the town was completely demolished, as were the monastery and the castle. Because of that, in mid-19th century the town had not more than 500 inhabitants. thumb 300px Hans von Luck's map of 7th Panzer Division 7th Panzer (Image:Moskau1941vonLuckJackroma.jpg)'s advance to Jachroma, North of Moscow on the Moscow-Volga Canal (Moscow Canal) On 22 June 1941 the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) began. Luck, now a Hauptmann, was attached to the Division HQ, and the division was attached to 3rd Panzer Group under Army Group Center. 3rd Panzer Group captured Vilnius, Lithuania before advancing on Minsk. During this advance Luck had a narrow escape, when he and his adjutant in a Mercedes cabriolet stumbled into a large group of Russian infantry along a narrow wooded track. The adjutant firing wildly, they managed to escape. Luck. ''Panzer Commander'', p. 68. After the capture of Minsk the armored spearhead continued east towards Vitebsk. After Vitebsk, Luck was again assigned as commander of the Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion, after the previous commander was killed in action. Kazimierz became Podczaszy of Lithuania since 1699, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania in 1707–1709, nominated by King Stanisław Leszczyński. He was also Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania in 1712–1724. Castellan of Vilnius since 1724 and starost of Krzemieniec, Wieliż and Uświaty. Scientific work He often traveled to London where he ordered astronomical equipment from Jesse Ramsden and John Dollond: a 4-foot transit telescope in 1765, 3.5-foot achromatic telescope in 1770, 8-foot mural quadrant in 1777, and meridian circle in 1788. Other purchases included octant (Octant (instrument)), equatorial (Equatorial mount), two theodolites, 10-foot sextant (Sextant (astronomical)). The observatory was expanded by architect Marcin Knackfus in 1782–1788 to accommodate the new equipment. Poczobutt observed solar and lunar eclipses, comets and asteroids (including Ceres (1 Ceres), Pallas (2 Pallas), Juno (3 Juno)), and calculated geographic coordinates of settlements in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (including Vilnius and Hrodna). In addition, he made measurements of Mercury (Mercury (planet)) to compute its orbit; later this data was used by Jérôme Lalande. He described 16-star constellation, which he named Taurus Poniatovii in honor of King Poniatowski (it is now obsolete and considered to be part of the Ophiuchus). His recorded observations amounted to 34 volumes. In 1770 he became the first in Lithuania to systematically measure and record weather temperature (continuous records survive since 1777). Poczobutt was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1771 and a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1778. He was awarded the Order of Saint Stanislaus in 1785 and Order of the White Eagle (Order of the White Eagle (Poland)) in 1793. On January 5, 1919, the Red Army entered Minsk almost unopposed, thus putting an end to the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic. At the same time the Polish and Belarusian self-defence units sprung up across Western Belarus. Ill-equipped and composed mostly of local recruits, they were determined to defend their homes from what the newspapers described as a ''Red menace''. Similar Bolshevik groups were operating in the sector and a series of skirmishes ensued. The Polish-Soviet struggle over Vilna (Vilnius) in the first week of 1919 was a sign of the things to come, as Polish militia was forced to withdraw after first organised units of the Soviet Western Army entered the city. In response, the Polish Army started sending the units eastwards to help the self-defence, while the Soviets did the same, but in the opposite direction. The open conflict seemed inevitable. '''Kazys Boruta''' (Kūlokai, near Marijampolė, 6 January 1905 – Vilnius, 9 March 1965) was a Lithuanian writer and poet. After the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, his student Antanas Sniečkus propagated Mickevičius' personality cult. In his honor the city of Marijampolė was renamed ''Kapsukas'' (1956–1989) and Vilnius University (1955–1990) bore his name. Two large sculptures of Mickevičius were erected in Vilnius: one in front of the Vilnius Town Hall (1962) and another, depicting Mickevičius with Lenin, in Antakalnis (1979). legislature Council of People's Commissars capital Vilnius, Minsk, Smolensk national_motto Litbel's capital was initially Vilnius. In April it was moved to Minsk, after Vilnius was seized by the Polish Army during the Vilna offensive. Soviet premier Vladimir Lenin hoped to start peace negotiations with Poland via Polish communist Julian Markhlevski and officially liquidated Litbel on 17 July 1919. Minsk was lost during the Operation Minsk, thus the government of Litbel – which in fact no longer existed – evacuated to Smolensk in August 1919. By late July 1919, almost the entire territory of Litbel was occupied by foreign armies. death_date WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
Northedge 1986 p 78 On 9 October 1920, General Lucjan Żeligowski, commanding a Polish military force in contravention of the Suwałki Agreement, took the city and established the Republic of Central Lithuania. WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
;!-- Deleted image removed: thumb right Cover of Foje album "Žodžiai į Tylą" (Image:FOJE virselis ZodziaiITyla MC.jpg) -- '''Foje''' was one of the most successful and best known Lithuanian rock bands. It was formed in the present-day Antakalnis Secondary School in Vilnius by Andrius Mamontovas, Arnoldas Lukošius and Darius Tarasevičius in 1983 under the name of "Sunki Muzika"(with a literal meaning of "heavy music"), few months later Algis
1 lat 54.6893 long 25.2784 directions Centre, near the Green Bridge (Žaliasis tiltas) phone (+370 5) 262 07 27 tollfree fax hours price From €3 to €35 content beautiful ornate building. Three or four weekly performances. *
H3llBot Paparizou returned to the stage of MAD Secret Concerts on 26 May, the eighth edition of the series, featuring acts like 15.50, De Niro, Dimos Anastasiadis, Giorgos Sabanis, and Mironas Stratis, with a video release
, though a few of the songs on their demos were in English. The band currently refers their music style as "heathen war heavy metal." League teams * Vilnius „Statyba“ (BC Statyba) * Vilnius „Š. Marčiulionio krepšinio akademija“ (BC Akademija) * Vilnius „Statyba“ (BC Statyba) * Vilnius „Š. Marčiulionio krepšinio akademija“ (BC Akademija) * Vilnius „Perlas-MRU“ (BC Perlas-MRU) * Vilnius „Š. Marčiulionio krepšinio akademija“ (BC Akademija) * Vilnius
-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He soon developed a highly personal vision and painting technique. thumb Aleksander Krzyżanowski (Image:Aleksander Krzyzanowski.jpg), ''Armia Krajowa'' commandant of the Wilno region Although Lithuanian (Resistance in Lithuania during World War II) and Polish resistance movements had in principle the same enemies – Nazi Germany and Soviet Union – they started cooperating only in 1944-1945, after the Soviet re-occupation, when
thumb Vilnius railway station (File:Vilnius railway station 2008.jpg) Lietuvos Geležinkeliai operates trains from major destinations. There are daily train connections with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad and Minsk. The line between Vilnius and Warsaw closed in September 2013 for track works, expected to be complete by the end of 2015. The train station in Vilnius is located just south of downtown. By car Motorways serve Vilnius from Klaipeda via Kaunas and from Panevezys. The modern four-lane motorways and main roads are in a very good state, however, in the winter smaller roads are not cleared. The speed-limit is 130 km h on the motorways (110 km h in winter), but 100 km h on the Vilnius-Kaunas sector, 90 km h outside towns and 50 km h in built up areas. By bus The bus station is located across the street from the main train station. A schedule of all regional buses is posted near the ticket window. '''Eurolines''' and '''Ecolines''' operate service between Vilnius and Kaunas, Kaliningrad, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Warsaw, with further connections all over Europe. You can find some schedules for regional buses and trains here. Get around WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
'''Vilnius''' ( ; see also other names (Vilnius#Etymology and other names)) is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 539,939 (806,308 together with Vilnius County) as of 2014. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second biggest city of the Baltic states. Vilnius GDP was over 10 billion euros in 2014. Budget of Vilnius is planned to be almost 370 million euros in 2015.
Vilnius is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. The first known written record of Vilnius as the Lithuanian capital is known from Gediminas' letters in 1323.
Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for its Old Town (Old Town of Vilnius) of beautiful architecture, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In the year 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz.