* 1753 - Real Observatorio de Cádiz (Spain) * 1753 - Vilnius observatory at Vilnius University, Lithuania * 1758 - John Dollond reinvents the achromatic lens Other 1970s productions The first stage performance of ''Jesus Christ Superstar'' in Europe was performed on 25 December, Christmas, in Vilnius, Lithuania in 1971 . This was while Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union. The performance was banned
Kauno tunelis.jpg thumb Kaunas Railway Tunnel Kaunas is an important railway hub in Lithuania. First railway connection passing through Kaunas was constructed in 1859-1861 and opened in 1862.
and Vilnius in the north with Ukraine. Historical records suggest that Minsk contributed large sums to the treasury of the Grand Duchy. Kaevats holds a PhD from Vilnius State University in Lithuania. He served for many years (1989–1992, 1995–2000) as Editor-in-Chief of the ''Estonian Encyclopaedia'', the main national work of reference; earlier, he worked as a research fellow at the Estonian and the USSR Academies of Sciences (Academy of Sciences), mostly
are highly prominent within the Roman Catholic tradition, both at papal and popular levels. Pope Paul VI began his Apostolic Exhortation ''Marialis Cultus'' with this sentence: 14–17 September 2010 Fifth Meeting of the IGF in Vilnius, Lithuania - #::::*I can see where you got confused but this is actually an RfA about a particular editor - not a free-for-all Poland-bashing forum. - Haukur Þorgeirsson (User:Haukurth) 13:15, 18 November 2005 (UTC) #:::I'd take that comment seriously and reply to it. Me and DeirYassin were both involved in quite a serious dispute about the history of Vilnius, which is an extremely touchy subject to both Poles, Belarusians and Lithuanians. For all who would like to know I would reccomend the following articles: 1 (Vilnius), 2 (History of Vilnius), 3 (Central Lithuania), and perhaps 4 (History of Lithuania). Halibu (User:Halibutt)tt (User talk:Halibutt) #::::Cliff notes version: Vilnius was ocupied (?) by Poland in the interwar. Now Lithuania is extremely unhappy - Vilnius is its capital! Now the whole mess starts when trying to determine who did what, who broke what rules, who's guilty etc. There are some ultimatums and other very nasty political and nacionalistic stuff involved. EXTREMELY touchy subject. Another subject: Naming Vilnius Wilno, Vilnia, Vilna and so on. Renata3 (User:Renata3) 02:13, 19 November 2005 (UTC) #::::*I can see where you got confused but this is actually an RfA about a particular editor - not a free-for-all Poland-bashing forum. - Haukur Þorgeirsson (User:Haukurth) 13:15, 18 November 2005 (UTC) #:::I'd take that comment seriously and reply to it. Me and DeirYassin were both involved in quite a serious dispute about the history of Vilnius, which is an extremely touchy subject to both Poles, Belarusians and Lithuanians. For all who would like to know I would reccomend the following articles: 1 (Vilnius), 2 (History of Vilnius), 3 (Central Lithuania), and perhaps 4 (History of Lithuania). Halibu (User:Halibutt)tt (User talk:Halibutt) #::::Cliff notes version: Vilnius was ocupied (?) by Poland in the interwar. Now Lithuania is extremely unhappy - Vilnius is its capital! Now the whole mess starts when trying to determine who did what, who broke what rules, who's guilty etc. There are some ultimatums and other very nasty political and nacionalistic stuff involved. EXTREMELY touchy subject. Another subject: Naming Vilnius Wilno, Vilnia, Vilna and so on. Renata3 (User:Renata3) 02:13, 19 November 2005 (UTC) * Ólafur Elíasson, Vadim Fikin, Marko Peljhan, Eulàlia Valldosera – ... incommensurabilis – , Galerija Skuc, Ljubljana * Can You Hear Me? 2. Ars Baltica Triennale der Photokunst, Stadtgalerie im Sophienhof, Kiel; Rostock Art Gallery; Contemporary Art Centre, Vilnius; Kunst Haus Dresden; Bergens Kunstforening, Bergen; Galleria Otso, Espoo * German Open: Gegenwartskunst in Deutschland, Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg Michał Vituška was born in the city of Nesvizh (then part of the Russian Empire) and studied in Belarusian gymnasiums in Kletsk, Wilno (Vilnius). He graduated from a university in Prague and the Warsaw University of Technology. During his years of study Vituška was an active participant of Belarusian cultural and political organisations. - bgcolor #DFE7F2 1. 12 October 2005 Žalgiris Stadium, Vilnius, Lithuania WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
; An English-language album had also been announced for 2009,
Biadula and Maksim Haretski, wrote for a Belarusian language paper called ''Nasha Niva'', published in Vilnius. After (Eastern) Belarus was incorporated into the Soviet Union, the government took control of Belarusian culture, and until 1939 free development of literature occurred only in the territories incorporated into Poland (Western Belarus). Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus
''piliakalniai'' played a major role in conflicts with the Livonian Order (Livonian Brothers of the Sword) and the Teutonic Knights. During this period the number of ''piliakalniai'' decreased, but those that remained had stronger fortifications. Two main defense lines developed: one along the Neman River (against the Teutonic Order) and another along the border with Livonia. Two other lines started to form, but did not fully develop. One was to protect Vilnius, the capital
"pmc" University of Southern California: Polish Music Center Stanisław Moniuszko in 1819 on eastern fringe of Vilna Governorate of the Russian Empire, he displayed an early ability in music, and began private piano lessons with August Freyer Culture.pl Stanisław Moniuszko in 1827
, where Wilno and Lwów (now ''Vilnius'' and ''Lviv'') were recognised as two major centres for the arts, played a special role in the development of Polish architecture, with Catholic church architecture deserving special note. In Vilnius (Lithuania) there are about 40 baroque and Renaissance churches. In Lviv (Ukraine) there are also a number of Gothic (gothic architecture), Renaissance, and baroque religious buildings which
it was a part of the German states for centuries. The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town. Poland's ancient capital, Kraków, ranks among the best-preserved Gothic (Gothic architecture) and Renaissance urban complexes in Europe. Meanwhile, the legacy of the Kresy Marchlands of Poland's eastern regions with Wilno and Lwów (now Vilnius and Lviv) as two major centres for the arts, played a special role
and skilled people, had left Poland severely educationally lacking. As a result, the Communist program of free and compulsory school education for all, and the establishment of new free universities, received much support. Universities from the lost eastern territories were evacuated to the new western territories: from Wilno (Vilnius) to Toruń and from Lwów (Lviv) to Wrocław. Many new universities were founded, including the famous Film University of Łódź. In early March 1919, Polish units opened an offensive and forces under general Stanisław Szeptycki captured the cities of Słonim (March 2) and crossed the Neman River. Forces under gen A.Listowski took Pinsk (March 5) and secured passages through Jasiolda river and Oginski Canal. Northern units reached the outskirts of Lida and stopped for several weeks. Polish decisions regarding further action in the east were taken at the beginning of April, when Józef Piłsudski determined that Polish forces must maintain the initiative on the eastern front but should avoid tipping the balance of Russian Civil war in any direction. Both the Russian and Polish advances began around the same time in April, resulting in increasing numbers of troops being brought into the area. In April the Bolsheviks captured Grodno and Vilnius, but in the very same month were pushed out by a Polish counteroffensive. The newly-formed Polish Army had proved to be a far more difficult opponent than the Russians had assumed. Although the Soviet orders for Operation ''Target Vistula'' (advance west) were never rescinded, the early Russian plans would soon be made obsolete by growing Polish resistance and eventually, in April, a Polish counteroffensive. Unable to accomplish their objectives and facing strengthening offensives of White Russians, the Red Army withdrew from their positions and reorganized. Soon the Polish-Bolshevik War would begin in earnest. In the meantime, Polish-Lithuanian relations worsened as Polish politicians found it hard to accept Lithuanians demand for a complete independence and their territorial demands, especially on ceding the city of Vilnius, Lithuanian historical capital which had nonetheless a Polish ethnic majority. Thus Lithuanian nationalist leaned more and more towards the Soviet side. Polish negotiators made some more progress in negotiations with Latvian Provisional Government, and in early 1920 Polish and Latvian forces were conducting some joint operations against Soviets. '''Šalčininkai''' ( WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
'''Vilnius''' ( ; see also other names (Vilnius#Etymology and other names)) is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 539,939 (806,308 together with Vilnius County) as of 2014. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second biggest city of the Baltic states. Vilnius GDP was over 10 billion euros in 2014. Budget of Vilnius is planned to be almost 370 million euros in 2015.
Vilnius is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. The first known written record of Vilnius as the Lithuanian capital is known from Gediminas' letters in 1323.
Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for its Old Town (Old Town of Vilnius) of beautiful architecture, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In the year 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz.