for communication. *
The Soviets annexation included all Polish (Poland) territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa (Pisa River), Narew, Bug (Bug River), and San (San River), except for western part of the Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania (see map (:File:Lithuania territory 1939-1940.svg)), and the Suwałki region, which was annexed by Nazi Germany. Following the start of the Polish-Bolshevik War in 1919, it was occupied by the Red Army, which was pushed back by the Polish Army. In 1920, it was again occupied by the Red Army, but Soviets officially recognized the sovereignty of Lithuanian Republic (Lithuania) over the city immediately after defeat during Battle of Warsaw (Battle of Warsaw (1920)). During their retreat, the Bolsheviks passed the sovereignty over the area to Lithuania
, but it often proved incapable of restoring peace and order. On April 9, 1989, the army, together with MVD units, killed 20 demonstrators in Tbilisi in Georgia. The next major crisis occurred in Azerbaijan, when the Soviet army forcibly entered Baku on January 19–20, 1990, resulting in the death of 137 people. On January 13, 1991 Soviet forces stormed the State Radio and Television Building and the television retranslation tower in Vilnius, Lithuania, both under opposition control, killing 14 people and injuring 700. This action was perceived by many as heavy-handed and achieved little. Overview The town was built on the main road leading from Vilnius to Minsk. It is divided into two sections: the "lower neighborhood" along the river and the "upper neighborhood" toward the hills. Half of the town square is framed by the remains of 12th century buildings, including a bell tower, a palace, and a monastery. Most of the other remaining impressive buildings in the town are from the 19th century. Pre-WWII images of old Valozhyn On the "Belarus Travel" website Following the Partitions of Poland, the area was annexed by Imperial Russia and the palace was abandoned soon afterwards. The castle was also neglected. During the final stages of Napoleon's invasion of Russia it was there that the Grande Armée made its last stand in former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In early November 1812 Napoleon Bonaparte gave his last orders to his marshals there, after which he left for Vilnius. On November 21 of that year the Polish-born Russian general Yefim Chaplits arrived at the French camp there and defeated the already-routed French forces led by Marshal Victor (Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno). In the effect of the fights the town was completely demolished, as were the monastery and the castle. Because of that, in mid-19th century the town had not more than 500 inhabitants. thumb 300px Hans von Luck's map of 7th Panzer Division 7th Panzer (Image:Moskau1941vonLuckJackroma.jpg)'s advance to Jachroma, North of Moscow on the Moscow-Volga Canal (Moscow Canal) On 22 June 1941 the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) began. Luck, now a Hauptmann, was attached to the Division HQ, and the division was attached to 3rd Panzer Group under Army Group Center. 3rd Panzer Group captured Vilnius, Lithuania before advancing on Minsk. During this advance Luck had a narrow escape, when he and his adjutant in a Mercedes cabriolet stumbled into a large group of Russian infantry along a narrow wooded track. The adjutant firing wildly, they managed to escape. Luck. ''Panzer Commander'', p. 68. After the capture of Minsk the armored spearhead continued east towards Vitebsk. After Vitebsk, Luck was again assigned as commander of the Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion, after the previous commander was killed in action. Kazimierz became Podczaszy of Lithuania since 1699, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania in 1707–1709, nominated by King Stanisław Leszczyński. He was also Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania in 1712–1724. Castellan of Vilnius since 1724 and starost of Krzemieniec, Wieliż and Uświaty. Scientific work He often traveled to London where he ordered astronomical equipment from Jesse Ramsden and John Dollond: a 4-foot transit telescope in 1765, 3.5-foot achromatic telescope in 1770, 8-foot mural quadrant in 1777, and meridian circle in 1788. Other purchases included octant (Octant (instrument)), equatorial (Equatorial mount), two theodolites, 10-foot sextant (Sextant (astronomical)). The observatory was expanded by architect Marcin Knackfus in 1782–1788 to accommodate the new equipment. Poczobutt observed solar and lunar eclipses, comets and asteroids (including Ceres (1 Ceres), Pallas (2 Pallas), Juno (3 Juno)), and calculated geographic coordinates of settlements in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (including Vilnius and Hrodna). In addition, he made measurements of Mercury (Mercury (planet)) to compute its orbit; later this data was used by Jérôme Lalande. He described 16-star constellation, which he named Taurus Poniatovii in honor of King Poniatowski (it is now obsolete and considered to be part of the Ophiuchus). His recorded observations amounted to 34 volumes. In 1770 he became the first in Lithuania to systematically measure and record weather temperature (continuous records survive since 1777). Poczobutt was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1771 and a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1778. He was awarded the Order of Saint Stanislaus in 1785 and Order of the White Eagle (Order of the White Eagle (Poland)) in 1793. On January 5, 1919, the Red Army entered Minsk almost unopposed, thus putting an end to the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic. At the same time the Polish and Belarusian self-defence units sprung up across Western Belarus. Ill-equipped and composed mostly of local recruits, they were determined to defend their homes from what the newspapers described as a ''Red menace''. Similar Bolshevik groups were operating in the sector and a series of skirmishes ensued. The Polish-Soviet struggle over Vilna (Vilnius) in the first week of 1919 was a sign of the things to come, as Polish militia was forced to withdraw after first organised units of the Soviet Western Army entered the city. In response, the Polish Army started sending the units eastwards to help the self-defence, while the Soviets did the same, but in the opposite direction. The open conflict seemed inevitable. '''Kazys Boruta''' (Kūlokai, near Marijampolė, 6 January 1905 – Vilnius, 9 March 1965) was a Lithuanian writer and poet. After the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, his student Antanas Sniečkus propagated Mickevičius' personality cult. In his honor the city of Marijampolė was renamed ''Kapsukas'' (1956–1989) and Vilnius University (1955–1990) bore his name. Two large sculptures of Mickevičius were erected in Vilnius: one in front of the Vilnius Town Hall (1962) and another, depicting Mickevičius with Lenin, in Antakalnis (1979). legislature Council of People's Commissars capital Vilnius, Minsk, Smolensk national_motto Litbel's capital was initially Vilnius. In April it was moved to Minsk, after Vilnius was seized by the Polish Army during the Vilna offensive. Soviet premier Vladimir Lenin hoped to start peace negotiations with Poland via Polish communist Julian Markhlevski and officially liquidated Litbel on 17 July 1919. Minsk was lost during the Operation Minsk, thus the government of Litbel – which in fact no longer existed – evacuated to Smolensk in August 1919. By late July 1919, almost the entire territory of Litbel was occupied by foreign armies. death_date WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
in Vilna, becoming one of its youngest students. In 1939 the Nazis initiated the annihilation process of the Jewish population. The most notable persons of the community, about 6,000, were sent to the Dachau (Dachau concentration camp) and Buchenwald concentration camps. The main concentration camp in Austria was the Mauthausen Concentration Camp (Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp), which was located next to the city Linz. Many other Jews were sent to the concentration camps in Theresienstadt and Łódź and from there to the Auschwitz concentration camp. In the summer of 1939 hundreds of factories and Jewish stores were shut down by the Austrian government. In October 1941 Jews were forbidden to exit the boundaries of Austria. The total number of Jews who managed to exit Austria is about 28,000. Part of the Vienna Jews was sent to the transit camp Nisko in Nazi occupied Poland. In the end of the winter of 1941, an additional 4,500 Jews were sent from Vienna to different concentration and extermination camps on the territories of Nazi occupied Poland (mainly to Izbica Kujawska and to other ghettos in the Lublin area). In June 1941, a direct delivery exited the city to the Sobibor extermination camp, which had around one thousand Jews. In the fall of 1942, the Nazis sent more Jews to the ghettos to the towns of the cities they occupied in the Soviet Union: Riga, Kaunas, Vilnius and Minsk. Those Jews were murdered by Nazi soldiers mainly by gunshots. right thumb 250px Liberation of the Mauthausen concentration camp (Image:KZ Mauthausen.jpg) by the American forces. '''Lithuanian National Radio and Television''' (Lithuanian (Lithuanian language): WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
: www.basketnews.lt news-5038-puntukas-jarimpeksas-laimejo-nkl-pirmenybiu-bronza.html ''(Lithuanian)'' - The Center's other archival and preservations projects include features and documentaries from around the globe; early American silent film comedies and features; rare early Russian films; pre–World War II home movies of Yurburg, Horodok, Novogrudok, and Berlin; travelogues of Bialystok, Krakow, Warsaw, Vilnius, and Lviv; industrial and fundraising films
produced by Jewish agencies; early documentary footage of Palestine Israel. NCJF’s most recent restorations include the Yiddish feature films The Cantor’s Son and The Living Orphan, the preservation of rare home movies documenting the way of life in several small communities of Eastern Europe, Jewish chicken farmers in New Jersey, and merchants in Massachusetts, and film of President Harry S.Truman addressing the issue of Middle East politics at an Israel Bonds (State of Israel Bonds) dinner in 1956. West Belarus in its entirety was incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR (BSSR). It was initially planned to move the capital of the Byelorussian SSR to Vilnius. However, the same year Joseph Stalin ordered that the city and surrounding region be transferred to Lithuania, which some months later was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a new Soviet Republic. Minsk therefore was proclaimed the capital of the enlarged BSSR. The borders of the BSSR were again altered somewhat after the war (notably the area around the city of Białystok (Belastok Voblast was returned to Poland) but in general they coincide with the borders of the modern Republic of Belarus. Zarakowski was born to a local landowner in Svolna village ( WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
. Both parents encouraged religiosity and Christian piety in the young Josaphat. In the school at Volodymyr Josaphat — ''Ioann'' (John) was his baptismal name — gave evidence of unusual talent; he applied himself to the study of the Church Slavonic language, and learned almost the entire horologion by heart, which from this period he began to read daily. From this source he drew his early religious education, because the clergy seldom preached or gave catechism catechetical
musical accomplishments as well as his defense of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. . Retrieved on August 15, 2008. * Finland recognised Lithuania's independence de facto on November 14, 1919 and de jure on October 14, 1921. * Finland has an embassy in Vilnius and an honorary consulate in Klaipėda. * Lithuania
Outdoor Cafe url http: www.belmontas.lt en email address Belmonto str. 17 lat 54.68457 long 25.35751 directions Belmontas suburb within Pavilniai Regional Park, east of both Old Town and centre. phone tollfree fax hours price €25 content A recreation area with folk-themed eateries near an old French mill and beautiful waterfall. Beautiful setting suitable for various events. A 15 minute drive from the center of Vilnius. * WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
by the Holy Roman Emperor. The Radziwiłł family is a directly descended branch of the extinct Lithuanian noble (Lithuanian nobility) Astikai family line. Its
of Lithuania in 1521, castellan of Trakai from 1522, castellan of Vilnius from 1527, Marshal of the Court from 1528, Grand Hetman of Lithuania from 1531, Starost of Hrodna, Namiestnik of Vilnius, Maišiagala, Mereck, Utena (Utena, Lithuania), Mozyrsk, Lida, Skidal, Bielica, Kryńsk (Krynki) and Oziersk (Azyory). He was a progenitor of the Biržai-Dubingiai (also known as Protestant (Protestantism)) Radziwiłł family line. He was Deputy Cup-Bearer (Podczaszy) of Lithuania from 1510, voivode of Kiev Voivodeship from 1510, Field Hetman of Lithuania in 1521, castellan of Trakai from 1522, castellan of Vilnius from 1527, Marshal of the Court from 1528, Grand Hetman of Lithuania from 1531, Starost of Hrodna, Namiestnik of Vilnius, Maišiagala, Mereck, Utena (Utena, Lithuania), Mozyrsk, Lida, Skidal, Bielica, Kryńsk (Krynki) and Oziersk (Azyory). He was a progenitor of the Biržai-Dubingiai (also known as Protestant (Protestantism)) Radziwiłł family line. *'''Lithuania''' **Vilnius - Vilnius International Airport *'''Netherlands''' Lida was in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the second half of the 14th century, after the Christianization of Lithuania the Catholic parish was established in former pagan (Lithuanian mythology) lands and a Church was built by Jogaila (ruins are still preserved). Subsequently in 15th century town became a centre of production by craftsmen and trade. Lida was connected with Vilnius, Navahrudak and Minsk. At that time the town had a market square and four streets ''Wielenska'', ''Zamkowa'', ''Kamieńska'' and ''Krivaya''. WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
date 1520 12 6 mf y birth_place Vilnius, Lithuania death_date WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius
'''Vilnius''' ( ; see also other names (Vilnius#Etymology and other names)) is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 539,939 (806,308 together with Vilnius County) as of 2014. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second biggest city of the Baltic states. Vilnius GDP was over 10 billion euros in 2014. Budget of Vilnius is planned to be almost 370 million euros in 2015.
Vilnius is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. The first known written record of Vilnius as the Lithuanian capital is known from Gediminas' letters in 1323.
Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for its Old Town (Old Town of Vilnius) of beautiful architecture, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In the year 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz.