as "regulars," were similar in shape to a cigarette lighter, and dispensed an adult breath mint marketed as an alternative to smoking. They were invented by Oscar Uxa. Haas Food Manufacturing Corporation of Vienna, Austria, was the first to sell Pez products. In 1860 she gave concerts in Stockholm and Uppsala. After four years' study in Paris, she had her operatic début 1864 as Violetta in Giuseppe Verdi's opera ''La Traviata'' at the Théâtre Lyrique, Paris. After this success she sang at major opera houses in London, Saint Petersburg, Vienna and New York. She also appeared in the Metropolitan Opera's inaugural performance on October 22, 1883 in Gounod's ''Faust (Faust (opera))''. -valign top 1961 Vienna, Austria -valign top Pärt was born in Paide, Järva County, Estonia. A prolonged struggle with Soviet (Soviet Union) officials led him to emigrate with his wife and their two sons in 1980. He lived first in Vienna, Austria, where he took Austrian citizenship, and then re-located to Berlin, Germany. He returned to Estonia around the turn of the 21st century and now lives alternatively in Berlin www.swr.de swr2 ... swr2-musikstunde-20110427.pdf and in Tallinn. Kircher published his first book (the ''Ars Magnesia'', reporting his research on magnetism) in 1631, but the same year he was driven by the continuing Thirty Years' War to the papal University of Avignon in France. In 1633, he was called to Vienna by the emperor (Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) to succeed Kepler (Johannes Kepler) as Mathematician to the Habsburg court. On the intervention of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, the order was rescinded and he was sent instead to Rome to continue with his scholarly work, but he had already set off for Vienna. The city has a number of renowned facilities and institutions involving performing arts. The most prominent is the neobaroque theatre at the Avram Iancu Square (Avram Iancu Square, Cluj-Napoca). Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
in Vienna thumb UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria Center Vienna in front, taken from the Donauturm Danube Tower (File:Vereinte Nationen in Wien.jpg) in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work thumb Many international organisations and offices are located in Donaustadt (File:Donaucity_from_Danube_River_to_Northnorthwest_-_Vienna-.jpg) Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including
of this period was Adolf Loos, whose works include the Looshaus (1909), the Kärntner Bar or American Bar (1908) and the Steiner House (1910). The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche (Wotruba Church) by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive
building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). The 220-meter high DC Tower 1 (DC Towers) located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in 2013, is the talltest skyscraper in Vienna.
lasted till Prešeren's death in 1849. Prešeren also dedicated an ironic short poem to Auersperg, called ''Tri želje Anastazija Zelenca'' ("Three Wishes of the Green Anastasius"), in which he made fun of the friend's bohemian lifestyle (Bohemian style). After the Revolution of 1848 in Vienna he represented the district of Laibach in the German Frankfurt Parliament, to which he tried in vain to persuade his Slovene (Slovenes) compatriots to send representatives. After
known as the "grande genre". Paintings of Hans Makart are often larger than life historical dramas, and he combined this with a historicism (historicism (art)) in decoration to dominate the style of 19th century Vienna culture. Paul Delaroche is a typifying example of French history painting. Franz von Suppé died in Vienna on May 21, 1895, and is buried in the Zentralfriedhof. Concert Hall The Concert Hall, located on the south side of the Center, seats about 2,400 and has a seating arrangement more similar to that used in many European halls such as Musikverein in Vienna. The Hadelands crystal chandeliers, a gift from Norway, were repositioned to provide a clearer view. Located behind the stage is a 4,144-pipe organ. This was a gift from the Filene Foundation of Boston. The Concert Hall is the largest performance space in the Kennedy Center and is the home of the National Symphony Orchestra (National Symphony Orchestra (United States)). A 1997 renovation brought a high-tech acoustical canopy, accessible (accessibility) locations on every level, and new seating sections (onstage boxes, chorister seats, and parterre seats). The National Symphony Orchestra and the Kennedy Center announced that a new pipe organ will be installed in the concert hall beginning in 2012. The new organ is to be built by the Canadian organbuilder, Casavant Freres. Wakin, Daniel J.; in The new York Times: http: artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com 2011 09 27 kennedy-center-to-replace-its-pipe-organ The kurultai, however, required the presence of the senior members of the tribes participating, who were also in charge militarily. Thus, the deaths of Ögedei (Ögedei Khan) and Möngke (Möngke Khan) in 1241 and 1259, respectively, necessitated the withdrawal of Mongol leaders (and troops) from the outskirts of Vienna and Venice (in 1241) and from Syria (in 1259), hamstringing military operations against the Austrians and Mamluks that might otherwise have continued. Transport The main bus station of the town is in ulica Chemików in the east of town and local bus services are operated by PKS (Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Samochodowej) Oświęcim. The PKP (Polish State Railways) railway services from ulica Powstańców Śląskich are available to Kraków, Katowice and Czechowice-Dziedzice and internationally to Vienna and Prague. In August 1840, ''The Times'' reported that the British government was considering Jewish restoration. An important, though often neglected, figure in British support of the restoration of the Jews was William Hechler (1845–1931), an English clergyman of German descent who was Chaplain of the British Embassy in Vienna and became a close friend of Theodor Herzl. Hechler was instrumental in aiding Herzl through his diplomatic activities, and may, in that sense, be called the founder of modern Christian Zionism. Current work (2005–present) In 2005, Nurse with Wound returned to live performance after a 21-year absence. Stapleton, Potter, Waldron, Rogerson and Andrew Liles played three concerts at the Narrenturm (Narrenturm (hospital)) in Vienna, where they performed improvisations on the album ''Salt Marie Celeste''. These concerts were not billed as NWW appearances. The first official NWW appearances since 1984 were at the Great American Music Hall in San Francisco in June 2006. In December of the same year, the group played at the All Tomorrow's Parties (All Tomorrow's Parties (music festival)) festival organized by Thurston Moore. Stapleton continues to indicate that his long-promised hip-hop album featuring 5 or 6 female rap artists is forthcoming. During 2007, Stapleton gigged and DJ'ed with much greater regularity, including a set at experimental music night Stress!! in Galway City, Ireland and full live NWW sets is in Austria, Belgium, France, Barcelona, London, Moscow, Berlin and Venice. Ferrero looked fresher and healthier in 2005 and began to climb back up towards the top echelons of the game. He reached the semifinals of the Monte Carlo Masters, losing to Guillermo Coria, 2–6, 5–7, and Beijing, losing to Rafael Nadal, 4–6, 4–6. He reached the finals of the Open Seat Godo in Barcelona to Rafael Nadal, 1–6, 6–7, 3–6, in April, as well as the finals of Vienna, where he lost to Ivan Ljubičić. 2–6, 4–6, 6–7. He ended 2005 ranked world no. 17. Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
universities without an advanced degree. In 1882 he was signed on as a participant to the excavation of ancient Assus in Turkey, where Koldewey learned several excavation methods and how to best draw ancient remains. A practicing archaeologist for most of his life, he participated in and led many excavations in for example Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy. After he died the Koldewey Society was established to record and mark his architectural service. *'''Austria''' ** Vienna
of the Town Theatre Orchestra, taught stringed instruments at the Philharmonic Institute, and simultaneously wrote numerous compositions with his characteristic speed and ease. In 1860, his opera ''Amelia ossia Il Bandito'' was met with great success, though two years later, after a prolonged illness, Zajc chose to move to Vienna where opera and theatre were flourishing. His eight year stay there (1862–1870) was marked by further success, though he settled for composing
Vienna, Austria geo Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
and Franz Werfel, strictly spoke up for Austria and Austrian tradition and culture. Literary magazines and publishers ''Literatur und Kritik'' and ''Erostepost'' are published in Salzburg, ''Manuskripte'', ''Sterz'', ''Schreibkraft'' and ''Lichtungen'' in Graz, ''Wespennest'' and ''Kolik'' in Vienna, ''Cognac & Biskotten'' in Innsbruck, ''DUM'' in Lower Austria. They count among the most traditional and important literary magazines in contemporary Austria. After the dissolution of Wiblingen abbey in 1806 he removed with some of his confreres to Tyniec in Poland and taught theology at the neighbouring University of Cracow. When the Benedictines were forced to leave Tyniec in 1809 he was engaged as professor of church history at the Lyceum of Linz, 1809-15, and of theology at Vienna, 1815-22. On 2 February 1822, he became Bishop of the new diocese of Tyniec, but transferred his see (Episcopal see) to Tarnów, where he began the erection of a seminary and renovated the cathedral. On April 13, 1827, he was promoted to the diocese of Linz, where he remained until his death. In 1824, fifteen years after the suppression of his monastery (Suppression of the Monasteries), when there was no further hope of its restoration, he obtained dispensation from his religious vows in order to accept a canonry at Vienna. On April 24, 1824, he became Prince-Bishop of Seckau and administrator of the diocese of Leoben. These two dioceses, with a population of 800,000, had been without a bishop for twelve years, during which time the government had free scope to infuse Josephinistic ideas into the clergy and the laity. The monasteries, almost without exception, had relaxed in discipline; the clergy, both secular and regular, were for the most part worldly minded and exceedingly lax as pastors of the faithful. Despite governmental opposition, Zängerle inaugurated a thorough religious renovation in both dioceses, reformed the existing monasteries, introduced the Redemptorists, Jesuits, Carmelites and Vincentian Sisters (Vincentians), founded the School Sisters of the Third Order (1843), erected a boys' seminary for both dioceses at Leoben, thoroughly renovated the diocesan seminary religiously and educationally, introduced annual retreats for the clergy, and in many other ways provided for the welfare of both dioceses. His only work was ''Sha'are Torah'' a treatise on the principles of Talmudic law which shows the author's methodical mind and vast knowledge of Talmudic literature. Three parts of the work appeared in print (Vienna, 1821 and 1850; Sátoralja-Ujhely, 1872), while the 4th part is still in manuscript (as of 1906). Life Melissus was born in Mellrichstadt. He studied and attended school in Zwickau from 1557 to 1559, and studied philology in Erfurt and Jena. From 1560 to 1564 he lived in Vienna, where in 1561 he became poet laureate. He stayed in Prague, Wittenberg (Lutherstadt Wittenberg) and Leipzig, and was called to the court of the bishop of Würzburg and went on a campaign to Hungary with him. Other items of interest The University is part of the UN Regional Coordination of Activities in Basic Space Science for America, an aerospace consortium based in Vienna, Austria, and co-sponsored by the European Space Agency. His sermons attracted the favorable attention of the Infante Ferdinand (Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand), Governor of the Low Countries, while he was attached to the monastery of Dunes in Flanders, and in 1638 he was honored with the degree of Doctor of Theology by the University of Louvain (Catholic University of Leuven). When he was obliged to leave the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate), Philip IV of Spain made him his envoy to the court of Emperor Ferdinand III (Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor). He was in turn Abbot of Melrose, Scotland (Scotland), Abbot-Superior of the Benedictines (Benedictine order) of Vienna, and Grand-Vicar to the Archbishop of Prague. During 1908 to 1913 Wiesner studied at the Technical College and the Academy of Arts (taught by B. Ohmann) in Vienna. After the World War I he worked as an independent architect in the city of Brno, until 1939. Wiesner was a very active architect in the city between the World Wars. His work was greatly influenced by Adolf Loos and his pure constructions with their classicized balance and monumentality are amongst the best works to be constructed in Brno at that time. UFI was founded on April 15, 1925, in Milan, Italy, by 20 European international trade fairs from Bordeaux, Brussels, Budapest, Cologne, Danzig, Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig, Ljubljana, Lwów, Lyon, Milan, Nizhny Novgorod, Padua, Paris, Prague, Reichenberg, Utrecht (Utrecht (city)), Valencia (Valencia (city in Spain)), Vienna and Zagreb. Goldmark got his first exposure to television in 1926 while in graduate school in Vienna. He later hoped to work with John Logie Baird but was turned down for a job after meeting Baird for lunch in London. In 1936, Goldmark joined CBS Laboratories, and one year later he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Wodianer's son '''Samuel''', who, after the death of his father, kept a large warehouse in Szeged for tobacco, wool, and grain (cereal), was president of the community from 1812 to 1821. Later he settled in Pest (Pest (city)) (a part of Budapest), where he and his children were baptized. His son '''Albert''' (born at Szeged August 13, 1818; died in Budapest July 17, 1898) studied technology in Pest and Vienna, and was in 1867 appointed royal commissary of the Hungarian Northern Railroad. In 1869 he received the Iron Cross of the second class, and in 1870 the cross of the papal Order of St. George; and in 1886 he was elevated to the Hungarian nobility. Weiss was born in Sereď. Moving to Vienna, he studied mathematics and physics at the university, and later taught those subjects. Weiss learned to play chess at age 12, and his strength increased steadily throughout the 1880s. *1880, Graz, tied with Adolf Schwarz and Johannes von Minckwitz for first prize. *1882, Vienna, tenth, won two games from Johann Zukertort, and drew (draw (chess)) with Wilhelm Steinitz. *1883, Nuremberg, tenth. *1889, Breslau, third prize. *1890, Vienna, first prize, ahead of Johann Bauer (Johann Hermann Bauer) and Englisch. He officiated for some time as rabbi of the congregation of Sook-Szelocze (Selice) ((Sók)Szelőce, Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
of talent allowed Roma Pryma to try ever more innovative choreography, evoking modern Ukrainian themes such as the murder of outspoken musician Volodymyr Ivasiuk and the Chernobyl disaster. After developing the next generation of Ukrainian folk-stage dance instructors, establishing numerous schools and instructional intensives, choreographing hundreds of dances, and teaching thousands of students, Pryma-Bohachevsky died in 2004. birth_date Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
WHS Historic Centre of Vienna Image State Party Austria Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi ID 1033 Region Europe and North America (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 2001 Session Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 1033 '''Vienna ''' (
Apart from being regarded as the ''City of Music''
In a 2005 study of 127 world cities (Global city), the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada) for the world's most livable cities (World's most livable cities) (in the 2012 survey of 140 cities Vienna was ranked number two, behind Melbourne).
The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2011 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets.