being the most important artistic centres at the turn of the century. Technical developments and the emergence of new media profoundly changed the art of the region. These included printmaking (using woodcuts or copperplate engraving) and other innovations borrowed from France and southern Italy. Kemperdick, in "van Eych to Durer". 55 A consolidating change in approach came with van Eyck's manipulation of paint using the oil medium, a technique quickly adopted and developed by Campin and van der Weyden. These three artists are considered the first rank and most influential of the first generation of Early Netherlandish painters, although there were other less immediate responses in other parts of northern Europe, from Bohemia and Poland in the east to Austria and Swabia in the south. Prior to the determination of Petar II's (Petar II Petrović-Njegoš) successor, after making peace between the Crmnica and Katunjani tribes, and being recognized by all of the Serb clans except for the Bjelopavlići, Danilo traveled to Vienna, Austrian Empire and then to the Russian Empire, supposedly to be ordained as ''Vladika'', not Prince. After Danilo returned from Russia in 1852, he took Pero and his supporters by surprise, bringing with him the endorsement from Nicholas I of Russia to become the Prince of Montenegro (Rulers of Montenegro). Thus somewhat unexpectedly, Danilo became prince and Pero conceded defeat by returning to his position as president of the Senate. '''Ernst Streeruwitz''', originally '''Ernst ''Ritter'' Streer von Streeruwitz''' (September 23, 1874, Mies, Austria-Hungary (present-day Stříbro, Czech Republic) - October 19, 1952, Vienna) was an Austrian political figure. He served as the Chancellor of Austria in 1929. thumb 200px Gustav Struve (Image:Gustav struve.jpg) '''Gustav Struve''', known as '''Gustav von Struve''' until he gave up his title, (11 October 1805 in Munich, Bavaria – 21 August 1870 in Vienna, Austria), was a German (German people) politician, lawyer and publicist, and a revolutionary during the German revolution (The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states) of 1848-1849 in Baden (Baden Germany). He also spent over a decade in the United States and was active there as a reformer. The film picks up the story in ''Before Sunrise'' where a young American man (Hawke) and a young French woman (Delpy) meet on a train and spend one night in Vienna. Nine years later in ''Before Sunset'', their paths intersect again. It plays out in real time (Real time (media)) as they spend one afternoon together in Paris. Biography Through pressure from his parents, Helfritz originally began an apprenticeship as a banker, a career path which he then soon after gave up in order to start studying music and composition in Berlin and Vienna. Inspired by his teacher Erich von Hornbostel in 1930 he travelled to Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Iraq to collect samples of folk music, in order to research and develop understanding of musical ethnology. In 1935 he continued his travels to India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, the Republic of China and Singapore. When OPEC set up its office in Geneva in 1961 before moving to Vienna Rouhani was elected the organization's first secretary general, an administrative post that also involved mediating between conflicting factions. He served for three years, the only Iranian to do so. Currently, Iran is demanding that an Iranian be chosen to fill the current opening. During the Conclave of 1878 he succeeded, by negotiations with Cardinal Pecci (afterwards Leo XIII (Pope Leo XIII)), in inducing the Sacred College to remain in Rome, and, after the election of the new pope, arranged for his temporary absence from the Vatican (Vatican City) for the purpose of settling private business. Resigning office in March 1878, he resumed the practice of law, and secured the annulment of Garibaldi (Giuseppe Garibaldi)'s marriage. The fall of Cairoli led to Mancini's appointment (1881) to the ministry of foreign affairs in the Depretis administration. The growing desire in Italy for alliance with Austria and Germany did not at first secure his approval; nevertheless he accompanied King Humbert to Vienna and conducted the negotiations which led to the informal acceptance of the Triple Alliance (Triple Alliance (1882)). Life He entered the army, and lost his left hand at Novara (battle of Novara (1849)), where he was ''aide-de-camp'' to Charles Albert, king of Piedmont (Charles Albert of Piedmont). He fought in 1859, and reached the grade of general in the Austrian campaign of 1866, after which he served on the delimitation commission. He was chief of the Military Academy, and in 1867 was made prefect of Ravenna to suppress political disorder. He was defeated at Turin in the elections for the Chambrin in 1870, and was sent in 1871 as minister (Political minister) plenipotentiary to Vienna, where he subsequently became ambassador (Ambassador (diplomacy)). Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
, was attracted to the capital city of Vienna, where she started her career as a concert and opera singer in the 1920’s. She began giving singing lessons in 1931 and became one of the most respected singing teachers in the city. From 1950-1966, she taught singing at the Academy (now: University) of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. She died in Vienna, on April 3, 1986. Upon graduating from the Royal College of Music, Sheila won the Dame Clara Butt Award for being the best soprano of her year. This award took her to Vienna, Austria, during the Allied occupation of that city after World War II, where she attended the Vienna Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, receiving her Performer's Diplomas in Lieder, Oratorio, and Opera. Sheila won practically every scholarship Great Britain had to offer, including a Sir James Caird Scholarship for three years in succession. During her stay in Vienna, she met and married her husband, baritone Werner Harms, who was in Austria on a Fulbright scholarship, and who had previously studied at the Academy of Vocal Arts in Philadelphia. She was of German (Germans) birth but, according to some sources, Hungarian (Hungary) extraction. Mme Therese Tietjens received her vocal training in Hamburg and in Vienna. She studied with Heinrich Proch, who was also the teacher of Mme Peschka-Leutner and other ''prime donne''. She made a successful debut at Hamburg in 1849 as ''Lucrezia Borgia (Lucrezia Borgia (opera))'' in Donizetti (Gaetano Donizetti)'s opera, a work with which she was particularly associated all her professional life. Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)). When he left the gymnasium he continued his education in the military Lower Realschule (secondary school) in Košice, Hungary (present-day Slovakia) and then in the Higher Realschule in Hranice na Moravě, which was also attended to by some Austrian archdukes. Afterwards, he studied at the Faculty of Artillery at the Vienna's Technical Military Academy. Biography De Koven was born in Middletown, Connecticut, and moved to Europe in 1870, where he received the majority of his education. He graduated from St John's College (St John's College, Oxford) of Oxford University in England in 1879. He undertook various musical studies at Stuttgart with Speidel and with Lebert and Pruckner. He studied composition at Frankfurt with Dr. Hauff, and after staying there for six months moved on to Florence, Italy, where he studied singing with Vanuccini. Study in operatic composition followed, first with Richard Genée, in Vienna, and then with Léo Delibes, in Paris. Lachner was born in Rain am Lech to a musical family (his brothers Ignaz (Ignaz_Lachner), Theodor and Vinzenz (Vinzenz Lachner) also became musicians). He studied music with Simon Sechter and Maximilian, the Abbé Stadler (Maximilian Stadler). He conducted at the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna. In 1834, he became ''Kapellmeister'' at Mannheim. In 1835 he received the first prize for symphonic composition at Vienna with his ''Sinfonia passionata'', and became royal ''Kapellmeister'' at Munich, becoming a major figure in its musical life, conducting at the opera and various concerts and festivals. His career there came to a sudden end in 1864 after Richard Wagner's disciple Hans von Bülow took over Lachner's duties. Lachner remained officially in his post on extended leave for a few years until his contract expired. After Thalberg's stay in London in May 1837, he made a first, short tour, giving concerts in several towns in Great Britain, but he became ill and returned rather soon to Vienna. In spring 1838 he gave concerts in Paris again. A note in the ''Revue et Gazette musicale'' of March 4, 1838, p. 104, shows that Thalberg's fame had in the meanwhile grown. He was called "le plus illustre de nos compositeurs" ("the most famous of our composers") now. Thalberg left Paris on April 18, 1838, travelling to Vienna, where on the very day Franz Liszt gave a charity concert for the benefit of the victims of a flood in Hungary. He was born in Brünn (Brno) (Brno), Moravia and died in Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria. He was a participant in the Austrian Brazil Expedition from 1817 to 1821. In 1845 he succeeded Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin as Director of the Imperial Gardens at Schönbrunn Palace. birth_date Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
and finally London. The orchestra has undertaken several major tours which included cities such as New York, Boston, Chicago, Vienna, Munich and Berlin. It has performed under guest conductors including Leonard Bernstein, Pierre Boulez, Hans Knappertsbusch, Carl Schuricht,
. Strauss was initially reluctant, but he composed the prologue (and modified some aspects of the opera) in 1916, and this revised version was first performed at the Hofoper (Vienna State Opera), Vienna, on 4 October of that year. This is the version that is normally staged today, although the original play-plus-opera is occasionally performed (for example, at the 1997 Edinburgh International Festival). Serge moved to Vienna, Austria, later in 1923. Austria was then ruled by the Social
); however, neither Freud nor Jones mentioned these paintings in their writings about dreams. Carl Jung included ''The Nightmare'' and other Fuseli works in his ''Man and His Symbols'' (1964). * as Berlin: ''The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas (The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas (film))'' (2008) * as Vienna
and recorded in Berlin, Rome, Vienna, Paris, Avignon, Provence, Milan, Dublin, the Bahamas (at the famous Compass Point Studios), The Grenadine Islands (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), and Mumbai. ''Up!'' album booklet For the blue international disc, the pair enlisted British-Asian music producers Simon and Diamond Duggal (Diamond Duggal) for production collaboration. Canadian folk music group Leahy provided group fiddles throughout the album. He attended elementary school in Dubrovnik. Finishing medical studies in Graz (Austria) and Prague (Czech Republic), he soon attended the specialized courses in Othorinolaringology (otolaryngology) in Zagreb, Vienna, and again, in Prague. He started practising at the clinical hospital of the Medical Department (''Medicinski fakultet'') in Zagreb in 1920, and eventually became its administrator and an associate professor. Later, in 1946, he became head of the department of the othorinolaringology of the Sisters of Charity Hospital (Sisters of Charity Hospital (Zagreb)) (''Bolnica Sestara Milosrdnica''). Recently, AVS has received more recognition as an art form. VISBOT performed at 320x240 (320x240 (festival)), the Croatian visual arts festival, and appeared in the Coded Cultures exhibition in the Museumsquartier in Vienna. The author of Line Rider, "fšk", created AVS visuals for nightclubs. Blanuša was born in Osijek and attended elementary school in Vienna and Steyer in Austria and gymnasium (gymnasium (school)) in Osijek and Zagreb. He studied engineering in both Zagreb and Vienna and also mathematics and physics. His career started in Zagreb, where he started to work and lecture. Blanuša was the dean (dean (education)) of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Zagreb in the 1957-58 school year. He received the Ruđer Bošković prize in 1960. From 1878 to 1887 Chełmoński visited Poland, Vienna and Venice. In 1887 he returned to Poland and in 1889 settled in the village of Kuklówka Zarzeczna. Contact with his homeland and nature are qualities revealed in his artworks. From that time are the best liked, or the most beloved of Chełmoński's paintings are paintings such as ''Partridge on the Snow'', ''The Storks'' or ''Before Thunderstorm''. He spent his childhood in the courtly circles of Vienna and Bratislava, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the towns of Sarajevo and Mostar. birth_date Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
(translator) and Heinrich Urban. In 1884 he moved to Vienna, where he was a pupil of Theodor Leschetizky. It was in Vienna that he made his musical debut in 1887. He soon gained great popularity and his subsequent appearances (in Paris in 1889, and in London in 1890) were major successes. His brilliant playing created a furore which reached to almost extravagant lengths of admiration; and his triumphs were repeated in the United
as the predecessor to the Mitropa Cup and consequently the European Cup and Champions League (UEFA Champions League). The last winner of the cup was Vienna Sports Club, one of the oldest and most traditional football clubs of Austria where the cup still remains. In 1911, H. L. Mencken wrote: "No other comic opera ever written – no other stage play, indeed, of any sort – was ever so popular&nbsp;.... ''Pinafore'' … has been given, and with great success, wherever there are theaters
WHS Historic Centre of Vienna Image State Party Austria Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi ID 1033 Region Europe and North America (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 2001 Session Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 1033 '''Vienna ''' (
Apart from being regarded as the ''City of Music''
In a 2005 study of 127 world cities (Global city), the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada) for the world's most livable cities (World's most livable cities) (in the 2012 survey of 140 cities Vienna was ranked number two, behind Melbourne).
The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2011 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets.