Venezuela

What is Venezuela known for?


volcanic stone

and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule.


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for Secession , Kommersant, August 26, 2008. In 2009, he called the decision to hold NATO military exercises in Georgia (Cooperative 09) during Soviet Victory Day (Victory Day (9 May)) celebrations in Moscow a "total revision of the history of the Great Patriotic War" and suggested that Russia should respond by conducting large-scale joint military drills with Cuba and Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea.


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which expresses support for Dr Sharp and the Albert Einstein Institution. The petition was signed by many prominent left-wing scholars and activists, including Howard Zinn and Noam Chomsky. Latin American ships A number of similar ships have been built by the Astilleros Celaya S.A. shipyard in Bilbao for Latin American Navies, possibly following the Blohm & Voss design. The hulls and rigging of these ships are very similar, the main differences are in the superstructure and they also have larger tanks for both diesel (Diesel fuel) and water, and they are also longer. These ships are the ''Gloria (ARC Gloria)'' (1967, Colombia), the ''Guayas (Guayas (ship))'' (1976, Ecuador), the ''Simón Bolívar (Simón Bolívar (barque))'' (1979, Venezuela), and the ''Cuauhtémoc (ARM Cuauhtémoc (BE01))'' (1982, Mexico). "Big In Japan" was Alphaville's biggest hit, topping the charts in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Sweden, Venezuela and the U.S. Billboard Dance Chart (Billboard charts) (the group's only Top 10 on any Billboard chart). The single also reached the Top Five in Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Ireland and South Africa. It became the group's only Top 20 single in the UK, peaking at #8. File:OB-Alex-Cabrera.jpg


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: www.nhm.ac.uk nature-online species-of-the-day biodiversity loss-of-habitat titanus-giganteus index.html There is a local 'cottage industry' in French Guiana of leading tours specifically to collect specimens of this beetle. Dried beetles are commonly available to collectors, but the very large specimens, in particular, are sought after and routinely command high prices, running into hundreds of US$. For instance, a 150 mm male secimen was sold on the internet auction site eBay in March 2012 for US$540. Other countries' ecotourism agencies mention these beetles in their advertisements. *Kevin Hasson - Founder and President of The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty *Donna Jean Hrinak - American diplomat, former U.S. Ambassador to Brazil (2002–2004), Venezuela (2000–2002), Bolivia (1997–2000), and the Dominican Republic (1994–1997). *John Kilkenny - Former judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit '''Christina Koning''' is a novelist and short story writer who has reviewed extensively for the UK national press. Koning was born in Kuala Belait, Borneo, in 1954, and spent her early childhood in Venezuela and Jamaica. She was educated at Girton College, Cambridge, and the University of Edinburgh – the setting for her first novel. Since the early 1990s, she has worked as a travel writer and journalist – most recently for The Times. She has also taught Creative Writing at the University of Oxford and Birkbeck, University of London. Koning has appeared as a critic on BBC Radio 4’s Woman’s Hour and has also had stories broadcast on Radio 4; her stories have also appeared in ''New Writing''. Throughout her life, she received several awards, gabardines and nominations, including: The Lady of Honour of the Order of Isabel la Católica (1977); the member of the International Ceramic Academy in Ginebra, Switzerland; the founding member of the PEN Paraguayan Club; the “Ollantay” trophy to the theatre investigation of Venezuela (1984); the “woman of the year” in (1977); the Bicentenary Medal of the United States of America (1976); the condition of Counsel of the Vice Minister of the Paraguayan Culture, the National Order of Merit in the commendatory grade of the Paraguayan Government in (1994), her Human Rights defence recognition given by the International Society of Jurist, the Beautiful Arts Gold Medal of Spain (1995), the Johann Gottfried von Herder Medal, member of the Paraguayan Linguistic Academy of Paraguayan and Spanish history, finalist of the Merit Contest for the “Príncipe de Asturias” (Prince of Asturias) award (1981), the postulation for the “Cervantes award”, top recognition for the Hispanic letters in the years 1989 and 1994, the “Ciudadanía Honoraria” given by the Paraguayan Parliament in 1998, among others. Boxing career Born in the village of Bang Sapan, Prachuap Khiri Khan (Prachuap Khiri Khan Province), Phayao Poontarat came from a poor family. As a child, he sold flowers in the resort city of Pattaya to help support his younger siblings. Like many poor boys in Thailand, he took up Muay Thai, and he proved to be a gifted boxer. He switched to international boxing and won a place on the Thai Olympic team in 1976. Bangkok Post, July 8, 2008 . Though he finished with a bronze medal, Phayao gained attention by defeating the 1972 Olympic gold medal winner, Gyogy Gedo, in the quarter finals. He trained hard for the 1980 Moscow Olympics, but his hopes for a gold were ended by the United States led boycott over of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. Instead, he turned professional and on November 27, 1983 became WBC (World Boxing Council) superflyweight world champion by defeating Rafael Orono of Venezuela in a split decision. In his first title defence, against Guty Espadas of Mexico, Phayao was behind on all the score cards, but saved his championship belt with a 10th round knockout. Phayao was then challenged by Japan's Jiro Watanabe and agreed to meet him. When they met in Osaka on July 5, 1984 Phayao lost by a controversial 12 round decision. The World Boxing Council viewed the tape and ordered a rematch. It took place in November, with Phayao losing by a technical knockout in the 11th round. http: www.movethailand.com news-thailand-payao-s-two-firsts-remain-unchallenged-en-1342.html 2003-2005: Luis Raúl leaves Again, when Luis Raúl left the show in 2003, many thought that audiences would reject the change. A long casting process ensued, and Venezuelan host (television presenter) Daniel Sarcos was picked to join Mamery. Known Puerto Rican (Puerto Rico) host, Sonya Cortes, was also chosen to complete the trio of hosts. This decision angered many local celebrities, who argued the election of a foreign host over a Puerto Rican one. However, after a few months, legal problems concerning Sarcos visa didn't allow him to continue working, and Puerto Rican Rafael José was chosen to replace him. '''Conexion Latina''' is a salsa music and Afro-Cuban jazz orchestra based in Germany, which was founded in 1980 (1980 in music) by trombonist (trombone) Rudi Fuesers. From the beginning, the orchestra was formed of musicians from different Latin American countries like Colombia, Cuba, Jamaica, Peru, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Venezuela, creating an original mixture that gave the band its unique sound and made it Europe's leading salsa orchestra. Among the musicians that have played for Conexion Latina are Benny Bailey, Dusko Goykovich, Larry Harlow, Nicky Marrero, Bobby Shew and Bobby Stern, between others. The quality of Conexion Latina's music is also due to first-class arrangements made by Oscar Hernández (Oscar Hernández (musician)), Alberto Naranjo and Marty Sheller, to name just a few. The band also has been invited to selected festivals around Europe, sharing stages with artists such as Tito Puente, Mongo Santamaría, Rubén Blades, Irakere, Willie Colón and Eddie Palmieri.


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at the new Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague was agreed. In 1908, another dispute (Dutch-Venezuela War) broke out with the Netherlands, which was resolved when Castro left for medical treatment in Germany and was promptly overthrown by Juan Vicente Gómez. The discovery of massive oil deposits (oil field) in Lake Maracaibo during World War I proved to be pivotal for Venezuela, and transformed the basis of its economy from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports

Nations Convention on Law of the Sea and a ruling in favor of Guyana was announced in September, 2007. Welcome to guyanachronicle.com Guyana to experience ‘massive' oil exploration this year Business: News in the Caribbean - Caribbean360.com Disputes - international All of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area east of the New Upper Courantyne. upright left thumb Oil painting of Grover Cleveland, painted in 1899 by Anders Zorn (Image:Grover Cleveland, painting by Anders Zorn.jpg) Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that did not simply forbid new European colonies, but declared an American interest in any matter within the hemisphere. Zakaria, 145–146 When Britain and Venezuela disagreed over the boundary between the latter nation and the colony of British Guiana, Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney protested. Graff, 123–125; Nevins, 633–642 British prime minister Lord Salisbury (Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury) and the British ambassador to Washington, Julian Pauncefote (Julian Pauncefote, 1st Baron Pauncefote) misjudged the importance the American government placed on the dispute, prolonging the crisis before ultimately accepting the American demand for arbitration. Paul Gibb, "Unmasterly Inactivity? Sir Julian Pauncefote, Lord Salisbury, and the Venezuela Boundary Dispute," ''Diplomacy & Statecraft,'' Mar 2005, Vol. 16 Issue 1, pp 23–55 Nelson M. Blake, "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy," ''American Historical Review,'' Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jan. 1942), pp. 259–277 in JSTOR A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana. Graff, 123-25 By standing with a Latin American nation against the encroachment of a colonial power, Cleveland improved relations with the United States' southern neighbors, but the cordial manner in which the negotiations were conducted also made for good relations with Britain. Nevins, 550, 633–648 thumb left 210px An ''hórreo (File:Galice horreo.jpg)'' in A Coruña province. The ''hórreo'' is a type of granary typical of northern Spain General Francisco Franco — himself a Galician from Ferrol (Ferrol, Spain) — ruled as dictator from the civil war until his death in 1975. Franco's centralizing regime suppressed any official promotion of the Galician language, although its everyday use was never proscribed. Among the attempts at resistance were small leftist guerrilla groups such as those led by José Castro Veiga ("El Piloto") and Benigno Andrade ("Foucellas"), both of whom were ultimately captured and executed. Ernesto S. Pombo, El último guerrillero antifranquista, ''El País'', 1986-03-10. Retrieved 2010-02-18. Carlos Fernández, La cárcel acogió a huéspedes históricos, ''La Voz de Galicia'', 2005-10-20. Retrieved 2010-02-18. In the 1960s, ministers such as Manuel Fraga Iribarne introduced some reforms allowing technocrats affiliated with Opus Dei to modernize administration in a way that facilitated capitalist (capitalism) economic development. However, for decades Galicia was largely confined to the role of a supplier of raw materials and energy to the rest of Spain, causing environmental havoc and leading to a wave of migration to Venezuela and to various parts of Europe. Fenosa (Unión Fenosa), the monopolistic supplier of electricity, built hydroelectric dams, flooding many Galician river valleys. Migration Like most of Western Europe, Galicia's history has been defined by mass emigration. There was significant Galician emigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to the industrialized Spanish cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Zaragoza and Madrid and to Latin America - Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela, Brazil and Cuba in particular. One notable example of that emigration is that of Fidel Castro, whose father was a Galician immigrant and mother was of Galician descent. Emigration Large-scale emigration, principally to the United States, and Canada (predominantly to Quebec, with other areas of the country) - but also to Cuba, other areas of Europe and the Americas such as France (with French Guiana), Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland; and Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, the Bahamas and other Caribbean neighbors - has created what Haitians refer to as the Eleventh Department or the Diaspora. About one of every six Haitians live abroad. At age 14, after leaving Realschule, Heinrich became an apprentice at Herr Holtz's grocery in Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg Havel). One story has it that his passion for Homer was born when he heard a drunkard reciting it at the grocer's. Payne, p. 70. He labored for five years, until he was forced to leave because he burst a blood vessel lifting a heavy barrel. "Schliemann, Heinrich" in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, at de.wikisource.


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s crew acted as honor guard. Personal life Before appearing on television, Wright ran a community centre with his wife. Wright spent three months in Guyana as part of a Prince's Trust initiative called Operation Raleigh. He also had extensive travel experience in Egypt, India, Venezuela, Lebanon and Romania. The university has joint co-operative programmes with many international institutions of higher educations from the Arab World, USA, Argentina, Venezuela, Australia, Japan, India, Malaysia, Iran, Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Turkey, Kazakhstan, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Austria, Norway, Poland, Ukraine, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary and Moldova. thumb right 250px alt A beige-colored snake slithers on a branch, among leafy vegetation. Cascabel Dormillon or Cook's Tree Boa (''Corallus ruschenbergerii (Image:Cooks Tree Boa, Caroni Swamp Trinidad.jpg)''), Caroni Swamp, Trinidad Forty-seven species of snake have been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago, making the snake population of this area the most diverse in the Caribbean. Forty-four of these snake species are found in Trinidad and twenty-one in Tobago. Many of these species are South American, most of which are present in Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago consists of two main islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and several smaller islands. The Bocas Islands (Islands of Trinidad and Tobago#Bocas Islands), which lie between Trinidad and Venezuela, in the ''Bocas del Dragón'' (''Dragons' Mouth''), consist of Chacachacare, Monos, Huevos and Gaspar Grande. Several smaller islands


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locations in Venezuela, the Persian Gulf and the North Sea. Montañez left the band in early 1977 and went to live in Venezuela where he replaced Oscar D'León in another orchestra, '''Dimension Latina'''. Jerry Rivas was then chosen to join the orchestra. Both Rivas and Aponte are still members of the orchestra to this day. The success of this new duo was proved with their 1977 album ''International'' and 1978's ''En Las Vegas'' which reached gold record status

, Georgia , United States (2007). Solo career In 1988, Vega formed his own band and recorded "solo" for the first time. His album "Yo me Quedo" (I will stay) became a "hit'. He then followed that with the recording of the album "Lo Mio es Amor" (My thing is Love) which included the songs "Ella" (She) and an English language track "Love is Forever". This album earned him his first Gold Record Award (Gold record). In 1991, Vega won a Platinum Record Award (Platinum record) with the success of his album "Uno Mismo" (Yourself). That year he performed in Venezuela and later went to New York where in Madison Square Garden he participated in Tito Puentes 100th recording "The Mambo King". '''Carlos Eduardo López Avila''', better known under his stage name '''Jeremías''', is a British (United Kingdom)-Venezuelan singer-songwriter who was born in London, England on September 19, 1973, of Venezuelan parents. He moved to Venezuela at the age of 2, although he still maintains a British passport. Encouraged musically from an early age, he began writing songs at age 8, and at age 11 took the name Jeremías. He later signed with the record label Universal (Universal Music Group), in 2000 several Venezuelan record companies were interested in his project and after some failed attempts, he created his own label, Avila Records,

Venezuela

'''Venezuela''' ( with an estimated population around 29,100,000. Venezuela is considered a state with extremely high biodiversity (Megadiverse countries), with habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive ''llanos (Los Llanos, Venezuela)'' plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta (Orinoco Delta) in the east.

The territory currently known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain (Spanish colonization of the Americas) in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples (Indigenous peoples in Venezuela). In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American colonies to declare independence (First Republic of Venezuela), which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia. It gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional ''caudillos'' (military strongmen) until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992 (1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts), and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election (Venezuelan presidential election, 1998) of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution, beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly (1999 Constituent Assembly of Venezuela) to write a new Constitution of Venezuela.

Venezuela is a federal (federation) presidential republic consisting of 23 states (States of Venezuela), the Capital District (Venezuelan Capital District) (covering Caracas), and federal dependencies (Federal Dependencies of Venezuela) (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela also claims all Guyanese (Guyana) territory west of the Essequibo River, a

Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak. Kelly, Janet and Palma, Pedro (2006) "The Syndrome of Economic Decline and the Quest for Change", p. 207 in McCoy, Jennifer and Myers, David (eds, 2006), ''The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela'', Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-8428-4.

The recovery of oil prices (Price of petroleum) after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending which significantly reduced economic inequality and poverty, Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable. ''CNN.'' Retrieved 5 April 2014. Dan Beeton and Joe Sammut (6 December 2013). Venezuela Leads Region in Poverty Reduction in 2012, ECLAC Says. ''Center for Economic and Policy Research''. Retrieved 5 April 2014. although the fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis (Financial crisis of 2007–2010) caused a renewed economic downturn. In February 2013, Venezuela devalued its currency due to the rising shortages in the country.

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