law of 1879, replacing the short-lived venezolano (Venezuelan venezolano) at a rate of five bolívares to one venezolano. Initially, the bolívar was defined on the silver standard, equal to 4.5g fine silver, following the principles of the Latin Monetary Union. The monetary law of 1887 made the gold bolívar unlimited legal tender, and the gold standard came into full operation in 1910. Venezuela went off gold in 1930, and in 1934 the bolívar exchange rate was fixed in terms of the U.S. dollar at a rate of 3.914 bolívares 1 U.S. dollar, revalued to 3.18 bolívares 1 U.S. dollar in 1937, a rate which lasted until 1941. Until 18 February 1983 (now called Black Friday (''Viernes Negro'')) The Economist, by many Venezuela ns, the bolívar had been the region's most stable and internationally accepted currency. It then fell prey to high devaluation. Exchange controls were adopted since February 5, 2003 to limit capital flight, CADIVI, Sistema Cambiario pegged to the U.S. dollar (United States dollar) at a fixed exchange rate of 1600 VEB to the dollar. thumb left 175px Gilman and University of Chicago (File:Daniel Coit Gilman William Rainey Harper.jpg) president William Rainey Harper, 1903 Gilman was also active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital (1889) and Johns Hopkins Medical School (1893). He founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, and in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. ''New Century Reference Library'', 1907 From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. *United States - Socialist Alternative (Socialist Alternative (US)) (website) *Venezuela - Socialismo Revolucionario (Socialismo Revolucionario (Venezuela)) (Revolutionary Socialism) (website)
doubles (with compatriot Nicolás Massú) in 1997, and the French Open singles (defeating a young Juan Carlos Ferrero in the final) and doubles (with Venezuelan José de Armas) in 1998. That year, at 17, he made his Davis Cup debut in Chile's tie against Argentina, losing in four sets to Franco Squillari. He won his first Davis Cup tie in a doubles rubber partnering Massú.
community. Ayala had enjoyed Salsa music since he was young, and this led him to include music of genres besides reggaeton in the album. The most prominent of these cross-genre singles was "Melao", in which he performed with Andy Montañez. ref name
the gold medal. Cramner, having won each X Games run to earn the X Games park gold medal, and having won the Panasonic and Toyota contests, finishes 59 points behind Dhers, having compiled 330 Tour points, and 11 points clear of Nyquist, the Vans champion and a Right Guard and Toyota runner-up; American '''Morgan Wade''', behind Cramner the X Games silver medallist, manages no finish better than eighth and ultimately finishes in overall thirteenth. In the dirt event (Dirt Jumping), American
and the subsequent U.S. policy of Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America. Since Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela, the long-standing and close diplomatic relationship between Venezuela and the United States has deteriorated. Chávez's stance as an OPEC price hawk has raised the price of oil for the United States. His public friendship and significant trade relationship with Cuba has conflicted with the U.S. foreign
and the National Head Coach of Qatar men's Water polo team. Family and Early Life Born in Tumeremo, Bolívar (Bolívar (state)) state in Venezuela in 1925 he was orphaned at a young age and left to do a lot of the upbringing of his younger siblings Leopoldo (Leopoldo Sucre Figarella), Ines Matilde, Antonio, Jose Francisco and Guillermo (Guillermo Sucre). All the siblings would go on to achieve great things in their lifetimes, in the field of politics, arts and medicine. (1) Viola br >
to the public but was unable to calm them down and a riot erupted. While in Ecuador he composed two successful singles, ''Cataplum pa''' and ''Cautiverio''. Late in 1956, Santos recorded with a Venezuelan record label named "Discomoda". In 1959, he briefly returned to Cuba and worked in Puerto Rico and New York before establishing a restaurant in Havana. In 1962, Santos abandoned the island after his
; While in Ecuador he composed two successful singles, ''Cataplum pa''' and ''Cautiverio''. Late in 1956, Santos recorded with a Venezuelan record label named "Discomoda". In 1959, he briefly returned to Cuba and worked in Puerto Rico and New York before establishing a restaurant in Havana. In 1962, Santos abandoned the island after his restaurant was nationalized by the government, this was combined with other disagreements with Castro's
and songwriter. Starting his career in the early 80s, he has already released more than 15 albums with numerous successful singles and has sold over 22 million record worldwide. Early years Montaner was born as Héctor Eduardo Reglero Montaner, in Valentín Alsina (Valentín Alsina, Buenos Aires), Buenos Aires, Argentina. However, he moved to Venezuela when he was 6 years old. During his youth he performed in the church chorus in the city of Maracaibo. In 1983, he released his
and heavy crime rate. In a study titled ''Venezolana Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile'' by Thomas Paez, Mercedes Vivas and Juan Rafael Pulido of the Central University of Venezuela, over 1.35 million Venezuelan college graduates had left the country since the beginning of the Bolivarian Revolution. It is believed nearly 12% of Venezuelans live abroad with Ireland becoming a popular destination for students.
and that he received a high draft lottery (draft lottery (1969)) number in 1969 which ensured that he would not be drafted for the Vietnam War. DeLay graduated from the University of Houston in 1970 with a Bachelor of Science degree (academic degree) with a major in biology. The '''Green Jay''' (''Cyanocorax yncas'') is a bird species of the New World jays, which exhibits distinct regional variations within its large but discontinuous range
-fronted capuchin''', ''Cebus albifrons'', is a species of capuchin monkey, a type of New World (New World monkey) primate, found in seven different countries in South America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. The species is divided into several different subspecies, though the specific divisions are uncertain and controversial. Location The common squirrel monkey can be found primarily in the Amazon
'''Venezuela''' ( with an estimated population around 29,100,000. Venezuela is considered a state with extremely high biodiversity (Megadiverse countries), with habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive ''llanos (Los Llanos, Venezuela)'' plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta (Orinoco Delta) in the east.
The territory currently known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain (Spanish colonization of the Americas) in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples (Indigenous peoples in Venezuela). In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American colonies to declare independence (First Republic of Venezuela), which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia. It gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional ''caudillos'' (military strongmen) until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992 (1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts), and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election (Venezuelan presidential election, 1998) of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution, beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly (1999 Constituent Assembly of Venezuela) to write a new Constitution of Venezuela.
Venezuela is a federal (federation) presidential republic consisting of 23 states (States of Venezuela), the Capital District (Venezuelan Capital District) (covering Caracas), and federal dependencies (Federal Dependencies of Venezuela) (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela also claims all Guyanese (Guyana) territory west of the Essequibo River, a
Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak. Kelly, Janet and Palma, Pedro (2006) "The Syndrome of Economic Decline and the Quest for Change", p. 207 in McCoy, Jennifer and Myers, David (eds, 2006), ''The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela'', Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-8428-4.
The recovery of oil prices (Price of petroleum) after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending which significantly reduced economic inequality and poverty, Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable. ''CNN.'' Retrieved 5 April 2014. Dan Beeton and Joe Sammut (6 December 2013). Venezuela Leads Region in Poverty Reduction in 2012, ECLAC Says. ''Center for Economic and Policy Research''. Retrieved 5 April 2014. although the fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis (Financial crisis of 2007–2010) caused a renewed economic downturn. In February 2013, Venezuela devalued its currency due to the rising shortages in the country.