Veliky Novgorod

What is Veliky Novgorod known for?


important roles

0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


local architecture

of Russia Ivan III in 1478 decisively changed the character of local architecture. Large commissions were thenceforth executed by Muscovite masters and patterned after cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin: e.g., the Savior Cathedral of Khutyn Monastery (1515), the Cathedral of the Mother of God of the Sign (1688), the St. Nicholas Cathedral of Vyaschizhy Monastery (1685). Nevertheless, the styles of some parochial churches were still in keeping with local traditions: e.g., the churches


882

for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the ''Annales Bertiniani'' (written up until 882) where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor (list of Frankish kings) Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader who they designated

Rus' In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya

Krivich tribe in 882 when Oleg of Novgorod took it in passing from Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) to Kiev. The town was first attested two decades earlier, when the Varangian (Varangians) chieftains Askold and Dir, while on their way to Kiev, decided against challenging Smolensk on account of its large size and population. In the same 1340 Simeon engaged in his first military standoff with Veliky Novgorod. Simeon claimed his right to collect taxes in the Novgorodian town


buildings history

Veliky Novgorod City Portal *Veliky Novgorod for tourists *The Faceted Palace of the Kremlin in Novgorod the Great site *Veliky Novgorod's architecture and buildings history *


location original

... publisher Bennett & Walton year 1827 location Original from the New York Public Library url http: books.google.com books?id NrsBAAAAYAAJ&pg PA837&dq %22Valdai+Lake%22&client firefox-a page 837 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


cathedral

to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son, Vladimir (Vladimir of Novgorod), sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral (Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod), more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day. Early foreign ties In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II

Ladoga Ladoga and Onega (Lake Onega) was sparsely populated and never organized politically. thumb 12th-century Novgorod icon called ''Angel with Golden Locks'' (File:goldenlocks.jpg) thumb left Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia (File:Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod.jpg), a symbol of the city, the main cathedral of Novgorod republic One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the ''posadnik'', or mayor, an official elected by the public

; left thumb City plan of Novgorod in the first half of the 18th century (File:Novgorod 1701-1745.png) During the Time of Troubles, Novgorodians submitted to Swedish (Sweden) troops led by Jacob De la Gardie in the summer of 1611. The city was restituted to Muscovy, a brief six years later, by the Treaty of Stolbovo and only regained a measure of its former prosperity towards the end of the century, when such ambitious buildings as the Cathedral of the Sign and the Vyazhischi


major attempt

of his principality, the Volga (Volga River) (''Mordvin'' "Rav" or "Rava"), and the Oka (Oka River), and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means ''Lower Newtown,'' to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by Inäzor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238 at the Battle of Sit River the Mongols occupied the fortress and the remnants of small Nizhny Novgorod settlement which surrendered without any resistance in order to preserve what had been developed since Purgaz's attack nine years earlier. Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers. thumb right A map of the White Sea (1635) (File:Whiteseamap.jpg) The sea was known to the Novgorod people (Veliky Novgorod) since at least the 11th century and was rapidly explored because of its commercial significance for navigation and coastal forests rich in fur animals. One of the earliest settlements near the sea shores was established in the late 14th century in Kholmogory, on the Northern Dvina River. From there, in 1492, a merchant fleet laden with grain and carrying ambassadors of Ivan III of Russia sailed to Denmark, marking the establishment of the first international seaport in Russia. The Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in Paris, as well as streets in Veliky Novgorod (which is close to his birthplace) and Tambov, are named after the composer. In 1986, Moscow Conservatory dedicated a concert hall on its premises to Rachmaninoff, designating the 252-seat auditorium Rachmaninoff Hall. A monument to Rachmaninoff was unveiled in Veliky Novgorod, near his birthplace, as recently as 14 June 2009. 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


important local

Ladoga Ladoga and Onega (Lake Onega) was sparsely populated and never organized politically. thumb 12th-century Novgorod icon called ''Angel with Golden Locks'' (File:goldenlocks.jpg) thumb left Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia (File:Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod.jpg), a symbol of the city, the main cathedral of Novgorod republic One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the ''posadnik'', or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the Veche (Novgorod veche)) from among the city's boyarstvo, or aristocracy. The tysyatsky, or "thousandman", originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars. Michael C. Paul, "Secular Power and the Archbishops of Novgorod Before the Muscovite Conquest". ''Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History'' 8, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 231-270. Archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) for consecration. Michael C. Paul, "Episcopal Election in Novgorod, Russia 1156-1478". ''Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture'' 72, No. 2 (June 2003): 251-275. While a basic outline of the various officials and the Veche can be drawn up, the city-state's exact political constitution remains unknown. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one official's power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although his power was reduced from around the middle of the 12th century, was represented by his ''namestnik'', or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator and jurist. The exact composition of the Veche, too, is uncertain, with some historians, such as Vasily Klyuchevsky, claiming it was democratic in nature, while later scholars, such as Marxists (Marxist historiography) Valentin Ianin and Aleksandr Khoroshev, see it as a "sham democracy" controlled by the ruling elite. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the Hanseatic League, was the easternmost kontor, or entrepot, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (sable, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts). Janet Martin, ''Treasure of the Land of Darkness: the Fur Trade and its Significance for Medieval Russia''. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally. A large number of birch bark letters (birch bark document) have been unearthed in excavations, perhaps suggesting widespread literacy, although this is uncertain (some scholars 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


major cultural

Russian (Russians) and Muslim Tatar (Tatars) cultures. The city has rigistered a brand ''The Third Capital of Russia'', though a number of other major Russian cities compete for this status, like Samara (Samara, Russia), Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod, all being major cultural centers with rich history and prominent architecture. Veliky Novgorod, Pskov, Dmitrov and the cities of Golden Ring (Vladimir (Vladimir (city)), Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others) have at best preserved the architecture and the spirit of ancient and medieval Rus' (Rus' people), and also are among the main tourist destinations. Many old fortifications (List of castles in Russia) (typically Kremlins), monasteries (List of Russian Orthodox monasteries) and churches (Russian Orthodox Church) are scattered throughout Russia, forming its unique cultural landscape both in big cities and in remote areas. - Veliky Novgorod Великий Новгород Novgorod Oblast - * 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


attempt made

of his principality, the Volga (Volga River) (''Mordvin'' "Rav" or "Rava"), and the Oka (Oka River), and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means ''Lower Newtown,'' to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by Inäzor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238

Veliky Novgorod

WHS Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings Image 200px The medieval walls of Novgorod (pictured) withstood many sieges (File:Natalya dulchenko kokui.jpg) State Party Russian Federation (Russia) Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi ID 604 Region European Russia (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 1992 Session 16th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 604 '''Veliky Novgorod''' (also '''Novgorod the Great''') (

At its peak during the 14th century, it was one of Europe's largest cities.

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