Veliky Novgorod

What is Veliky Novgorod known for?


short life

: "Fleming... spent six years of his short life on a diplomatic mission from Holstein to Russia and Persia" (translated from the German) Travelling into Russia, Fleming was in an advance party of the embassy which went to Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod), where he remained while negotiations went on with the Swedes and the Russians. At the end of July 1634 the ambassadors joined the party, and the embassy proceeded to Moscow, arriving on 14 August. After four months in the capital city, the Holstein embassy departed again for the Baltic on Christmas Eve, 1634, and on 10 January arrived at Reval (now Tallinn) in Swedish Estonia (Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)). While the ambassadors continued to Gottorp some of the party, including Fleming, remained in Reval. Sperberg-McQueen (1990) p. 81 In the event, Fleming was there for about a year, during which he organized a poetry circle called "the Shepherds". Elena Rannu, ''The living past of Tallinn'' (1993), p. 106: "It happened that the German poet Paul Fleming (1609–1640), a doctor by profession, was one of that Holstein Embassy too. Like his comrades, he spent about a year in the town... He organized a poetry group which was called "Shepherds"... Some of Paul Fleming's sonnets were connected directly with Tallinn, others with the places along which the embassy travelled..." Not long after his arrival in Reval, Fleming began his courtship of Elsabe Niehus, the daughter of Heinrich Niehus, a merchant originally from Hamburg. Karen Brand, ''Diversität der deutschen Liebeslyrik von Paul Fleming'' (2010), p. 4: "Vermutlich im März 1635 begann die Liebesbeziehung zu Elsabe Niehus..." He wrote love poems for her, and they became engaged to be married. In 1636 the embassy proceeded to Persia, by way of a further visit to Moscow, and Elsabe was left behind. Hans Dieter Betz, ''Religion past and present'' (2008), p. 140 Fleming's ''Epistolae ex Persia'' were four letters in verse written during his time in Persia, between 1636 and 1638. Marian R. Sperberg-McQueen, ''The German poetry of Paul Fleming: studies in genre and history'' (1990), p. 133 The embassy was at Isfahan in 1637. On returning to Reval, Fleming found that Elsabe had married another man and became engaged to her sister, Anna Niehus. 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


studies publication

Travels_into_Poland_Russia_Sweden_and_Denmark. author William Coxe authorlink William Coxe (historian) publication-date 1784 oclc 654136 chapterurl http: archive.org stream travelspolandrus01coxe#page 444 mode 2up chapter Novogorod *


book written

left thumb City plan of Novgorod in the first half of the 18th century (File:Novgorod 1701-1745.png) During the Time of Troubles, Novgorodians submitted to Swedish (Sweden) troops led by Jacob De la Gardie in the summer of 1611. The city was restituted to Muscovy, a brief six years later, by the Treaty of Stolbovo and only regained a measure of its former prosperity towards the end of the century, when such ambitious buildings as the Cathedral


important historic

The medieval walls of Novgorod (pictured) withstood many sieges State Party Russian Federation (Russia) Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi ID 604 Region European Russia (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 1992 Session 16th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 604 '''Veliky Novgorod''' (also '''Novgorod the Great''') ( 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


major attempt

of his principality, the Volga (Volga River) (''Mordvin'' "Rav" or "Rava"), and the Oka (Oka River), and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means ''Lower Newtown,'' to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by Inäzor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238 at the Battle of Sit River the Mongols occupied the fortress and the remnants of small Nizhny Novgorod settlement which surrendered without any resistance in order to preserve what had been developed since Purgaz's attack nine years earlier. Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers. thumb right A map of the White Sea (1635) (File:Whiteseamap.jpg) The sea was known to the Novgorod people (Veliky Novgorod) since at least the 11th century and was rapidly explored because of its commercial significance for navigation and coastal forests rich in fur animals. One of the earliest settlements near the sea shores was established in the late 14th century in Kholmogory, on the Northern Dvina River. From there, in 1492, a merchant fleet laden with grain and carrying ambassadors of Ivan III of Russia sailed to Denmark, marking the establishment of the first international seaport in Russia. The Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in Paris, as well as streets in Veliky Novgorod (which is close to his birthplace) and Tambov, are named after the composer. In 1986, Moscow Conservatory dedicated a concert hall on its premises to Rachmaninoff, designating the 252-seat auditorium Rachmaninoff Hall. A monument to Rachmaninoff was unveiled in Veliky Novgorod, near his birthplace, as recently as 14 June 2009. 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -


previous period

), to St. Simeon (1462), and other saints. Generally, they are not thought to be as innovative as the churches from the previous period. Several shrines from the 12th century (i.e., in Opoki) were demolished brick by brick and then reconstructed exactly as they used to be, several of them in the mid-fifteenth century, again under Archbishop Yevfimy II (Euthymius II), perhaps one of the greatest patrons of architecture in medieval Novgorod. Novgorod's conquest by Ivan III


882

for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the ''Annales Bertiniani'' (written up until 882) where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor (list of Frankish kings) Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader who they designated

Rus' In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya

Krivich tribe in 882 when Oleg of Novgorod took it in passing from Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) to Kiev. The town was first attested two decades earlier, when the Varangian (Varangians) chieftains Askold and Dir, while on their way to Kiev, decided against challenging Smolensk on account of its large size and population. In the same 1340 Simeon engaged in his first military standoff with Veliky Novgorod. Simeon claimed his right to collect taxes in the Novgorodian town


attempt made

of his principality, the Volga (Volga River) (''Mordvin'' "Rav" or "Rava"), and the Oka (Oka River), and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means ''Lower Newtown,'' to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by Inäzor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238


publication place

Veliky Novgorod City Portal *Veliky Novgorod for tourists *The Faceted Palace of the Kremlin in Novgorod the Great site *Veliky Novgorod's architecture and buildings history *

Travels_into_Poland_Russia_Sweden_and_Denmark. author William Coxe authorlink William Coxe (historian) publication-date 1784 oclc 654136 chapterurl http: archive.org stream travelspolandrus01coxe#page 444 mode 2up chapter Novogorod *

chapterurl http: www.archive.org stream cu31924028397929#page n159 mode 2up chapter Novgorod the Great *


prominent architecture

Russian (Russians) and Muslim Tatar (Tatars) cultures. The city has rigistered a brand ''The Third Capital of Russia'', though a number of other major Russian cities compete for this status, like Samara (Samara, Russia), Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod, all being major cultural centers with rich history and prominent architecture. Veliky Novgorod, Pskov, Dmitrov and the cities of Golden Ring (Vladimir (Vladimir (city)), Yaroslavl

and Nizhny Novgorod, all being major cultural centers with rich history and prominent architecture. Veliky Novgorod, Pskov and the cities of Golden Ring (Vladimir (Vladimir (city)), Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others) have at best preserved the architecture and the spirit of ancient and medieval Rus' (Rus' (name)), and also are among the main tourist destinations. Many old fortifications (List of castles in Russia) (typically Kremlins), List of Russian Orthodox

Veliky Novgorod

WHS Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings Image 200px The medieval walls of Novgorod (pictured) withstood many sieges (File:Natalya dulchenko kokui.jpg) State Party Russian Federation (Russia) Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi ID 604 Region European Russia (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 1992 Session 16th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 604 '''Veliky Novgorod''' (also '''Novgorod the Great''') (

At its peak during the 14th century, it was one of Europe's largest cities.

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