Vatican City

What is Vatican City known for?


original+painting

Evangelista, Reggio Emilia, which are based on Caravaggio's earliers works. He executed the decoration of the cupula and pendentives of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista in Reggio. Another picture in the same collection appears to be a replica of his painting of the "Allegory of Calumny", as suggested by Lucian's description of a celebrated work by Apelles; the satire in the original painting, directed against some of his courtier enemies, was the immediate cause


main working

Leggesullefontideldiritto.pdf here. While the state itself uses only Italian, many other languages are used by institutions situated within the state, such as the Holy See, the Pontifical Swiss Guard (Pontifical Guard), and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The Holy See uses Latin as its main official language, Italian as its main working language and French as its main diplomatic language; in addition, its Secretariat of State (Secretariat of State (Holy See)) uses English, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. The Swiss Guard, in which commands on parade are given in German, also uses French and Italian, the other two official Swiss languages, in its official ceremonies, such as the annual swearing in of the new recruits on 6 May. Centro Televisivo Vaticano, "Solemn oath of the Vatican Swiss guards" religion Catholicism latd 41 latm 54.2 latNS N longd 12 longm 27.2 longEW E coordinates_type region:VA_type:country coordinates_display inline, title government_type absolute monarchy, right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.


providing studies

. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (United Nations General Assembly) (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (United Nations Security Council) (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (United Nations Economic and Social Council) (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (United Nations Secretariat) (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UN System (United Nations System) agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most prominent position is Secretary-General (Secretary-General of the United Nations) which has been held by Ban Ki-moon of South Korea since 2007. With the addition of South Sudan on 14 July 2011, right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.


famous white

an assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II (1981 Pope John Paul II assassination attempt) in Vatican City in 1981 and provided the first reports from the Windsor Castle fire of November 1992. On 6 May, the Imperial army attacked the walls at the Gianicolo and Vatican Hills. Duke Charles was fatally wounded in the assault, allegedly shot by Benvenuto Cellini. The Duke was wearing his famous white cloak to mark him out to his troops, but it also had the unintended consequence of pointing him out as the leader to his enemies. The death of the last respected command authority among the Imperial army caused any restraint in the soldiers to disappear, and they easily captured the walls of Rome the same day. Philibert of Châlon took command of the armies, but he was not as popular or feared, leaving him with little authority. One of the Swiss Guard's most notable hours occurred at this time. Almost the entire guard was massacred by Imperial troops on the steps of St Peter's Basilica. Of 189 guards on duty only 42 survived, but their bravery ensured that Pope Clement VII escaped to safety, down the ''Passetto di Borgo'', a secret corridor (secret passage) which still links the Vatican City to Castel Sant'Angelo. Early in September 1943, Princess Mafalda traveled to Bulgaria to attend the funeral of her brother-in-law, King Boris III (Boris III of Bulgaria). While there, she was informed of Italy's surrender to the Allied Powers, that her husband was being held under house arrest in Bavaria, and that her children had been given sanctuary in the Vatican (Vatican City). The Gestapo ordered her arrest, and on 23 September she received a telephone call from Hauptsturmführer Karl Hass at the German High Command; the Hauptsturmführer told Mafalda that he had an important message from her husband. On her arrival at the German embassy, Mafalda was arrested, ostensibly for subversive activities but (it is generally assumed) more probably as a hostage to keep her father, the King of Italy, from opposing German interests in the war. Princess Mafalda was transported to Munich for questioning, then to Berlin, and finally to Buchenwald concentration camp. '''Abortion law''' is legislation and common law which pertains to the provision of abortion. Abortion has been a controversial subject (Abortion debate) in many societies through history because of the moral, ethical, practical, and political power issues that surround it. It has been banned frequently and otherwise limited by law. However, abortions continue to be common in many areas where they are illegal; abortion rates are similar in countries where the procedure is legal and in countries where it is not according to the World Health Organization (WHO), Abortion Rates Similar in Countries That Legalize, Prohibit Procedure, a WHO Study Says due to unavailability of modern contraceptives in areas where abortion is illegal. The number of abortions worldwide is declining due to increased access to contraception according to WHO. Almost 2 3 of the world's women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request for a broad range of social, economic or personal reasons. Abortion laws vary widely by country, ranging from those in Chile (Abortion in Chile), El Salvador (Abortion in El Salvador), Nicaragua (Abortion in Nicaragua), the Dominican Republic (Abortion in the Dominican Republic), Malta (Abortion in Malta) and Vatican City, which ban the procedure entirely; right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.


term support

''Propaganda Map'' or ''Carta Universal''). The layout of the map (''Mapamundi'') is strongly influenced by the information obtained during the Magellan-Elcano (Juan Sebastián Elcano) trip around the world. Luxuria also campaigned prior to the elections for gays to have cohabitation rights, and had helped campaign by winning the support of Italy's left (Left-wing). Furthermore, Luxuria outlined her long-term support for full gay marriage rights, comparable


educational association

: www.ncea.org news pressrelease article.asp?article_id 203 title Catholic Schools Earn 43 of 50 Private School Blue Ribbon School Honors – National Catholic Educational Association publisher Ncea.org date October 17, 2008 accessdate October 18, 2011 Caravaggio, or his patron, appear to have had in mind the Michelangelo frescoes in the Vatican (Vatican City)'s Capella Paolina (1546–1550) when choosing the subjects for these paintings. However, the Caravaggio scene is far


time past

time past he had been desirous of displaying his abilities and adding to his fame in Florence. Years had healed the breach between him and the Medicean family; and on the occasion of the Pazzi conspiracy against the life of Lorenzo de' Medici, he had sent violent letters of abuse to his papal patron Sixtus, denouncing his participation in a plot so dangerous to the security of Italy. Lorenzo now invited him to profess Greek at Florence, and thither Filelfo journeyed in 1481. But two weeks


family year

ascendancy. Many painters, e.g. Picasso (Pablo Picasso) added a stone to Csontváry's cairn. Cultural references Mrs. Krabappel has a candle which resembles Charlie Brown, a character from ''Peanuts''. At the Aztec theater, a movie by Tom


extraordinary resistance

newspaper, ''L'Osservatore Romano'', issued the statement: right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.


early images

'', including his musicians, among them his ''vihuelistas'' or ''violists''. This is how we can say with near certainty that the instrument depicted in the Bogia Apts Quadrivium fresco is a ''Spanish'' vihuela, even though it appears in an ''Italian'' fresco. Borgia commissioned this and other frescos shortly after taking up residence in the Vatican. Important early images like this are key and essential for seeing and understanding the origins and connections between ''plucked'' vihuela and ''bowed'' vihuela, that is ''vihuela de arco'', otherwise known as ''viola da gamba'' (in Italian) or ''viols''. The '''Monument to the Royal Stuarts''' is a memorial in St. Peter's Basilica, in the Vatican (Vatican City) in Rome. It commemorates the last three members of the Royal House of Stuart: James Francis Edward Stuart, his elder son Charles Edward Stuart, and his younger son, Henry Benedict Stuart. The Jacobites (Jacobitism) recognised these three princes as kings of England, Scotland and Ireland. Back in Italy in Bologna on 27 September, he yet again sang before the Pope at the International Eucharistic Congress. On 19 October, he sang at the TeleFood (Food and Agriculture Organization#TeleFood) benefit concert held in the Vatican City, and organised by the Food and Agriculture Organization to raise awareness about world hunger. On 25 October he received a Bambi award (Bambi (prize)), an annual television and media prize awarded by the German media company Hubert Burda Media, in the Klassik category in Cologne, Germany. On October 15, Bocelli performed again for Pope Benedict XVI and a crowd of 8,000 people in Vatican (Vatican City)'s Audience Hall (Paul VI Audience Hall), during a meeting honoring participants from around the world, for their work in spreading the faith. Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli performs for Pope Benedict XVI In Rome, the four friends head to the Vatican City, where Mieke will tour before she leaves. However, the group are unable to get through inside the Vatican to follow Mieke, but in the end, they get inside after Jamie is able to convince the Swiss Guards that he is a tour guide. Once inside, Jamie is asked to replace one of the tour guides who was too sick to go to work. Meanwhile, Cooper accidentally rings the bell of Saint Marco and sets fire to a Papal mitre. Throwing it onto the fireplace, it lights up in white smoke over the Vatican, making everyone around the world presume that a new pope has been elected. Attempting to escape, Scott gets tangled in a golden curtain, and stumbles out on the balcony where he is presumed to be the new pope. Spotting Mieke, Scott jumps down a banister to meet up with her. Although the Swiss Guards realize what is going on and attempt to stop Scott and Cooper and severely punish them for their actions, the football hooligans from London return and eventually rescue Scott and Cooper. Scott finally introduces himself to Mieke in person and upon confessing his love for her, Mieke has sex with Scott in a confessional. Before Mieke boards her boat, she told Scott to continue to write to her. A man whom Jamie took on a tour of the Vatican turns out to be Arthur Frommer (Patrick Malahide), author of the guidebook Jamie has memorized, and he hires Jamie to tour every museum and cathedral across Europe. Scott, Cooper, and Jenny finally get their passports and prepare to return back to Ohio. On the group's return trip, Jenny entices Cooper to have sex with her in one of the plane's toilets, finally realizing his dream of "crazy European sex". The film ends when Scott moves to Oberlin College in the fall and is surprised to see Mieke, who states that, due to another misunderstanding about her name, she is his roommate, and Scott and Mieke embrace each other. 2002–05: ''Closer'' On February 24, 2002, Groban performed "The Prayer" with Charlotte Church at the closing ceremonies of the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, and by November, he had his own PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) special, "Josh Groban In Concert" (2002). In December 2002, he performed "To Where You Are" and sang "The Prayer (The Prayer (Celine Dion and Andrea Bocelli song))" in a duet with Sissel Kyrkjebø at the Nobel Peace Prize Concert in Oslo, Norway. He joined The Corrs, Ronan Keating, Sting (Sting (musician)), Lionel Richie, and others for a Christmas performance at the Vatican (Vatican City) in Rome, Italy. In 2003, Groban performed at the David Foster concert for World Children's Day, singing "The Prayer" with Celine Dion and the finale song, "Aren't They All Our Children?" with artists including Yolanda Adams, Nick Carter (Nick Carter (musician)), Enrique Iglesias, and Celine Dion. thumb 250px ''Pope Sixtus IV Appoints Bartolomeo Platina Prefect of the Vatican Library (File:Melozzo da Forlì 001.jpg)'', fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, 1477, now in the Vatican Museums. The '''Vatican Apostolic Library''' ( right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.

Vatican City

'''Vatican City''' ( it is the smallest internationally recognized independent state (sovereign state) in the world by both area (List of countries by area) and population (List of countries by population).

It is an ecclesiastical (Ecclesiology) or sacerdotal (Sacerdotal state)-monarchical (Monarchy) state ruled by the Bishop of Rome (diocese of Rome)—the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic (Catholic Church) clergy of various national origins. Since the return of the Popes from Avignon (Avignon Papacy) in 1377, they have generally resided at the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere.

Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See ( which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin (Latin Church) and Eastern Catholic (Eastern Catholic Churches) adherents around the globe. The independent city-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870), which had previously encompassed much of central Italy. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" over the city-state. Article 3 of the Lateran Treaty .

Within Vatican City are cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.

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