Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia

What is Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia known for?


water quality

; These systems were viewed as separate and the management strategy did not account for treatment facilities, local streams, and overall water quality within them. The philosophy is evolving however, and water resources management practice is becoming more of an integrated approach taking into account a multi-sectoral approach looking at water supply, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drainage and irrigation as one entity. According to pollution control work

$35 million to rehabilitate the Tibitoc water production plant water main lines. Other improvements were made to operating guidelines and the monitoring of the facility. Category:Geography of Bogotá


poor water

Vegetación.JPG thumb Wetland of Córdoba In 1950, there were an estimated 50,000 acres (20,234 ha) of wetlands connected to the Bogotá River and by 2009, there was less than 2,500 acres (1,000 ha) remaining. Much of the wetlands have been degraded by poor water quality. In response to the degradation of the wetlands, a strong environmental movement has emerged in Bogotá that actively promotes the protection and expansion of wetland areas. In 2006, the Bogotá district government passed a comprehensive wetlands management policy where the district government, EAAB, and CAR work together to protect rivers and wetlands utilizing new regulations and environmental management programs. The basin plan for the Río Bogotá (POMCA) established water quality standards for the river basin until the year 2020, and designates water uses through river segments and sets ambient water quality criteria of approximately 25 pollutants in order to meet the designated uses. Flooding and river restoration Prior to 1950, the Bogotá River meandered through the middle of the basin with wide riparian areas, extensive flood plains, and thriving ecosystmes such as the La Conejera, Juan Amarillo, and Jaboque wetlands. Rapid urbanization has resulted in the channelization of the river, destruction of wetlands and settlements along the river making the river increasingly prone to flooding. In response, CAR has incorporated a flood works program to widen and protect riparian zones, restore the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connect the river to its flood plains. In one particular component of a World Bank loan (see Multi-stakeholder assistance below) to CAR, EAAB, and the District Government; the Flood Control and Environmental Works project finances a comprehensive river recuperation program that incorporates best practice in urban river restoration. This component consists of improving flood control from an existing 10-25-year return period to a 100-year period, restoring part of the river flood plain, creating and enhancing wetlands and multifunctional parks, and complementing wastewater infrastructure with existing wastewater treatment when possible. Category:Geography of Bogotá


water falls

, by the Chicú River to the North and by the Bogotá River on the eastern and southern borders. There are about 800 farmers who ensure irrigation to the land within the borders of their irrigation district, within management schemes, and along a set of water resources management criteria. Hydropower A complex hydroelectric system has been built, taking advantage of natural water falls or channeling and piping water to steep slopes to produce


long term

Ambientales en Bogotá (FIAB)'' (Funds for environmental investment in Bogotá). EAAB agreed to construct the new interceptors to the forthcoming Canoas WWTP. Multi-stakeholder assistance The World Bank is working with CAR, EAAB, and the Government District to help refine the Sanitation Plan (Plan de Saneamiento) and establish the basis for a long-term program to improve the water ecosystem in the basin. Project cost is US$487 million and the objectives are to transform 68-km of Bogota River into an environmental asset for the Bogota metropolitan region by improving water quality, reducing flood risk, restoring riparian habitats, and creating multifunctional areas along the river that provide an ecological habitat, as well as opportunities for the public use and enjoyment of this urban river. Additionally, the World Bank is offering assistance with an integrated urban water management strategy. The goal is to enable Bogotá to move towards a sustainable approach to improving the Bogotá river and creating an urban environmental asset. Objectives include a model project for urban river recuperation that incorporates water quality improvements, flood control, wetlands, and multifunctional parks. The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is planning a US$50 million loan to support CAR in its Bogotá River cleanup efforts. The IDB also contributed a US$1.5 million grant to CAR's environmental control program. An additional US$643,000 was put up by CAR itself. The projects for the basin's protection are to be carried out in multiple stages, the first of which implements an institutional, managerial, financial and operational framework to carry out the cleanup project. With the loan, CAR plans on building aqueducts and increasing potable water supply, drainage systems and wastewater treatment for all 41 municipalities located in the Bogotá river basin. The money may also finance the design, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants for municipalities that do have them. Category:Geography of Bogotá


traditional water

, and has transformed itself from an inefficient bankrupt company into a commercial water utility with a corporate culture based on professional responsibility and accountability. While WSS improvements were exceptional, the traditional water management approach did not account for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment and non-point sources pollution control resulting in the environmental degradation of water bodies. ref name "WB" >


important agricultural

with zero dissolved oxygen and high levels of '''BOD5''', Total suspended solids (TSS) and fecal coliforms. In the lower basin of the city, more untreated wastewater is flushed into the Bogotá River just a few kilometers upstream of the Tequendama Falls before it is then transferred to the Muña reservoir for hydroelectric generation. Consequently, Tequendama falls rarely has any significant flow. EAAB is financing a project to include the construction of new interceptors on the Salitre and Fucha rivers to transport wastewater to a new WWTP with capacity of 8 m 3 s. thumb Tequendama Falls on the Bogotá River (File:Hotel y Salto del Tequendama.JPG) In early 2000, the national government developed two key policy instruments to control wastewater pollution. First, the '''National Plan for Municipal Wastewater Management (PMAR)''', which provides a framework for the rapid evolution of wastewater management programs in the large urban areas. This national plan promotes coordinated wastewater management at the local, regional, and national levels by focusing on institutional strengthening and the application of existing planning tools. Furthermore, it promotes the construction of wastewater treatment systems in municipalities with adequate water and sewerage service and with prioritized high impact watersheds, including Río Bogotá, Río Chicamocha, Río Medellin and Río Cauca. Second, the '''Sanitation and Management of Wastewater Discharge Plan (Plan de Saneamiento y Manejo de Vertimientos, PSMV)''', which mandates that the service providers indicate programs, projects and activities following an implementation schedule and investment plan aimed at reducing pollution loads in receiving waters and improving wastewater collection in municipal sewer systems. PSMV’s action plans are aligned with other planning instruments, for instance water quality objectives defined by the environmental authority, as well as master plans and investment plans set by the municipalities. These two national policies have been instrumental to support the recent increase of wastewater programs


water main

$35 million to rehabilitate the Tibitoc water production plant water main lines. Other improvements were made to operating guidelines and the monitoring of the facility. Irrigation Because


treatment

of the Salitre wastewater treatment plant, construction of a new one, widening and protecting riparian zones, restoring the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connecting the river to its flood plains. These measures are supported by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Economic and social Bogotá is the largest city and economic center in Colombia. With a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$86 billion, Bogotá accounts for approximately 25% of Colombia's

, and has transformed itself from an inefficient bankrupt company into a commercial water utility with a corporate culture based on professional responsibility and accountability. While WSS improvements were exceptional, the traditional water management approach did not account for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment and non-point sources pollution control resulting in the environmental degradation of water bodies. ref name "WB" >

; These systems were viewed as separate and the management strategy did not account for treatment facilities, local streams, and overall water quality within them. The philosophy is evolving however, and water resources management practice is becoming more of an integrated approach taking into account a multi-sectoral approach looking at water supply, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drainage and irrigation as one entity. According to pollution control work


growing population

urbanization implies that the construction of more drainage, WWTP, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure will be necessary. All of the housing built by new residents and the subsequent water infrastructure to support a growing population has the effect of reducing impermeable surfaces, thus adding to another one the challenges Bogotá is facing, flood and stormwater control. Wetlands restoration thumb Wetland of Córdoba (File:Árboles en Bogotá - Humedal de Córdoba Vegetación.JPG) In 1950, there were an estimated 50,000 acres (20,234 ha) of wetlands connected to the Bogotá River and by 2009, there was less than 2,500 acres (1,000 ha) remaining. Much of the wetlands have been degraded by poor water quality. In response to the degradation of the wetlands, a strong environmental movement has emerged in Bogotá that actively promotes the protection and expansion of wetland areas. In 2006, the Bogotá district government passed a comprehensive wetlands management policy where the district government, EAAB, and CAR work together to protect rivers and wetlands utilizing new regulations and environmental management programs. The basin plan for the Río Bogotá (POMCA) established water quality standards for the river basin until the year 2020, and designates water uses through river segments and sets ambient water quality criteria of approximately 25 pollutants in order to meet the designated uses. Flooding and river restoration Prior to 1950, the Bogotá River meandered through the middle of the basin with wide riparian areas, extensive flood plains, and thriving ecosystmes such as the La Conejera, Juan Amarillo, and Jaboque wetlands. Rapid urbanization has resulted in the channelization of the river, destruction of wetlands and settlements along the river making the river increasingly prone to flooding. In response, CAR has incorporated a flood works program to widen and protect riparian zones, restore the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connect the river to its flood plains. In one particular component of a World Bank loan (see Multi-stakeholder assistance below) to CAR, EAAB, and the District Government; the Flood Control and Environmental Works project finances a comprehensive river recuperation program that incorporates best practice in urban river restoration. This component consists of improving flood control from an existing 10-25-year return period to a 100-year period, restoring part of the river flood plain, creating and enhancing wetlands and multifunctional parks, and complementing wastewater infrastructure with existing wastewater treatment when possible. Category:Geography of Bogotá


growing number

military headquarters , which represent another major component of the city's economy. And finally, a large and flourishing flower export trade is located in Bogotá. Employment trends in Bogotá indicate that rates of unemployment have fallen while a growing number of citizens are looking for work. This paradox can largely be explained by ongoing urbanization into Bogotá, therefore poverty remains a substantial problem. Jobs have been created in some sectors

Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia

Water management in Bogotá, Colombia, a metro area of more than 8 million inhabitants, faces three main challenges: improving the quality of the highly polluted Bogotá River, controlling floods and revitalizing riparian areas along the river. The main public entities in charge of water resources management in Bogotá are the district government, the regional environmental agency Corporación Autónoma Regional (CAR) of the department of Cundinamarca (Cundinamarca Department), and the water and sanitation utility Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá (EAAB). In a rare move, a court mandated that these entities cooperate to improve the river’s quality, a ruling that translated into an agreement signed in 2007 that defined the responsibilities of each entity and forced them to approach the water management challenges in an integrated way. The agreement prepared the ground for the expansion of the Salitre wastewater treatment plant, construction of a new one, widening and protecting riparian zones, restoring the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connecting the river to its flood plains. These measures are supported by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.

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