Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia

What is Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia known for?


projects

accessdate 01-06-10 A separate UN-HABITAT report from 2003 describes three types of slums in Bogotá: inner-city, those lying on the perimeter, and squatter settlements. The total number of those living under these conditions is around 700,000.

. Furthermore, it promotes the construction of wastewater treatment systems in municipalities with adequate water and sewerage service and with prioritized high impact watersheds, including Río Bogotá, Río Chicamocha, Río Medellin and Río Cauca. Second, the '''Sanitation and Management of Wastewater Discharge Plan (Plan de Saneamiento y Manejo de Vertimientos, PSMV)''', which mandates that the service providers indicate programs, projects and activities following an implementation schedule

an existing 10-25-year return period to a 100-year period, restoring part of the river flood plain, creating and enhancing wetlands and multifunctional parks, and complementing wastewater infrastructure with existing wastewater treatment when possible.


development studies

, and women are gaining more opportunities for employment, but more progress is needed. Overall, poverty since 1970 has decreased;


quality

Bogotá Tourism footnotes Water management in Bogotá, Colombia, a metro area of more than 8 million inhabitants, faces three main challenges: improving the quality of the highly polluted Bogotá River, controlling floods and revitalizing riparian areas along the river. The main public entities in charge of water resources management in Bogotá are the district government, the regional environmental agency Corporación Autónoma Regional (CAR

) of the department of Cundinamarca (Cundinamarca Department), and the water and sanitation utility Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá (EAAB). In a rare move, a court mandated that these entities cooperate to improve the river’s quality, a ruling that translated into an agreement signed in 2007 that defined the responsibilities of each entity and forced them to approach the water management challenges in an integrated way. The agreement prepared the ground for the expansion

in the evening. Water management: past and present During a period of approximately thirty years from the early 1970s through the 1990s Bogotá's water management focused heavily on improving coverage and quality of water supply sanitation services (WSS) while also improving financial and technical sustainability. As a result, the water ans sewerage company of Bogotá (EAAB) provides above 99 percent coverage for water, sewerage and drainage services


power+complex

hydroelectric power. About 670 MW are now generated in the Bogotá region alone. An additional 600 MW are expected to be produced by the Chingaza project. The Bogotá power company (EMGESA) has constructed a hydropower facility (1124 MW installed capacity) downstream of Bogotá to take advantage of the river flow and elevation drop. The holding reservoir for the EMGESA power complex is the 853 ha Muña reservoir, which is also highly contaminated. Challenges and response Wastewater Pollution and response The Salitre WWTP has been in operation for ten years, however, the city of Bogotá has not seen an improvement in water quality because 80% of the city's wastewater continues to flow untreated into the river. In December 2004, the Department of Planning (Departamento Nacional de Planeación, DNP) issued a strategic planning document for the Bogotá River calling for an upgrade and expansion of the Salitre WWTP to a capacity of 8 m 3 s to address a portion of the remaining 80% of untreated wastewater. The plan also calls for the construction of a larger primary plant with a 14 m 3 s treatment capacity to be located downstream of Bogotá. This larger WWTP called Canoas will treat wastewater from the Fucha, Tunjuelo and Soacha basins. These planned expansions to the wastewater treatment capacity are meant to address one of the biggest environmental problems facing Bogota City and that is untreated wastewater entering the Bogota River as it flows through the middle basin. In this section, Bogotá City discharges all of its wastewater into the river through three main urban tributaries: '''Salitre, Fucha, and Tunjuelo'''. This occurs primarily by way of illegal connections to storm drains, solid waste from a growing urban population, and industries along the aforementioned urban tributaries. During the dry season, wastewater flow is about 17 m 3 s while the capacity of the primary wastewater treatment plant at Salitre is only 4 m 3 s. As a consequence, the Bogotá river is one of the most polluted rivers in the world and includes an anaerobic (Hypoxia (environmental)) stretch of about 60 km. Category:Geography of Bogotá


water+green

; * The '''Water Regulatory Commission (CRA)''' is responsible for defining tariff-setting methodologies and setting service quality. * The '''Superintendency of Public Enterprises (SSPD)''' is responsible for monitoring and supervising the adequacy and efficiency


works program

name "WB" Flooding and river restoration Prior to 1950, the Bogotá River meandered through the middle of the basin with wide riparian areas, extensive flood plains, and thriving ecosystmes such as the La Conejera, Juan Amarillo, and Jaboque wetlands. Rapid urbanization has resulted in the channelization of the river, destruction of wetlands and settlements along the river making the river increasingly prone to flooding. In response, CAR has incorporated a flood works

program to widen and protect riparian zones, restore the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connect the river to its flood plains. In one particular component of a World Bank loan (see Multi-stakeholder assistance below) to CAR, EAAB, and the District Government; the Flood Control and Environmental Works project finances a comprehensive river recuperation program that incorporates best practice in urban river restoration. This component consists of improving flood control from


creating

an existing 10-25-year return period to a 100-year period, restoring part of the river flood plain, creating and enhancing wetlands and multifunctional parks, and complementing wastewater infrastructure with existing wastewater treatment when possible.

again. Upon further review, a judge ruled again in favor of Muña and delegated shared responsibilities to CAR, EAAB, and the District. The defendants agreed to the terms set by the court ruling and the prevailing legal document was called ''Convenio 171'' and was signed by all parties in 2007. Convenio 171 calls for CAR to finance and construct the upgrade and expansion of the Salitre WWTP. CAR did this by creating a special account for the Bogotá wastewater program called ''Fondos Para Inversiones

and the objectives are to transform 68-km of Bogota River into an environmental asset for the Bogota metropolitan region by improving water quality, reducing flood risk, restoring riparian habitats, and creating multifunctional areas along the river that provide an ecological habitat, as well as opportunities for the public use and enjoyment of this urban river. Additionally, the World Bank is offering assistance with an integrated urban water management strategy. The goal


growing population

urbanization implies that the construction of more drainage, WWTP, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure will be necessary. All of the housing built by new residents and the subsequent water infrastructure to support a growing population has the effect of reducing impermeable surfaces, thus adding to another one the challenges Bogotá is facing, flood and stormwater control. Wetlands restoration thumb Wetland of Córdoba (File:Árboles en Bogotá - Humedal de Córdoba Vegetación.JPG) In 1950, there were an estimated 50,000 acres (20,234 ha) of wetlands connected to the Bogotá River and by 2009, there was less than 2,500 acres (1,000 ha) remaining. Much of the wetlands have been degraded by poor water quality. In response to the degradation of the wetlands, a strong environmental movement has emerged in Bogotá that actively promotes the protection and expansion of wetland areas. In 2006, the Bogotá district government passed a comprehensive wetlands management policy where the district government, EAAB, and CAR work together to protect rivers and wetlands utilizing new regulations and environmental management programs. The basin plan for the Río Bogotá (POMCA) established water quality standards for the river basin until the year 2020, and designates water uses through river segments and sets ambient water quality criteria of approximately 25 pollutants in order to meet the designated uses. Flooding and river restoration Prior to 1950, the Bogotá River meandered through the middle of the basin with wide riparian areas, extensive flood plains, and thriving ecosystmes such as the La Conejera, Juan Amarillo, and Jaboque wetlands. Rapid urbanization has resulted in the channelization of the river, destruction of wetlands and settlements along the river making the river increasingly prone to flooding. In response, CAR has incorporated a flood works program to widen and protect riparian zones, restore the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connect the river to its flood plains. In one particular component of a World Bank loan (see Multi-stakeholder assistance below) to CAR, EAAB, and the District Government; the Flood Control and Environmental Works project finances a comprehensive river recuperation program that incorporates best practice in urban river restoration. This component consists of improving flood control from an existing 10-25-year return period to a 100-year period, restoring part of the river flood plain, creating and enhancing wetlands and multifunctional parks, and complementing wastewater infrastructure with existing wastewater treatment when possible. Category:Geography of Bogotá


special interest

: www.idrc.ca en ev-29703-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html title IRDC journal publisher International Development Research Center year 2009 pages accessdate 2009-12-08 Of special interest, La Ramada Irrigation District is a component of an irrigation and wetland management program on the upper Bogotá river. Within the program, La Ramada irrigation district will be expanded from 5,550 ha to 18,535 ha (13,590 acres to 45,800 acres). La Ramada is bordered to the west by the Tenjo watershed


programs

In early 2000, the national government developed two key policy instruments to control wastewater pollution. First, the '''National Plan for Municipal Wastewater Management (PMAR)''', which provides a framework for the rapid evolution of wastewater management programs in the large urban areas. This national plan promotes coordinated wastewater management at the local, regional, and national levels by focusing on institutional strengthening and the application of existing planning tools

. Furthermore, it promotes the construction of wastewater treatment systems in municipalities with adequate water and sewerage service and with prioritized high impact watersheds, including Río Bogotá, Río Chicamocha, Río Medellin and Río Cauca. Second, the '''Sanitation and Management of Wastewater Discharge Plan (Plan de Saneamiento y Manejo de Vertimientos, PSMV)''', which mandates that the service providers indicate programs, projects and activities following an implementation schedule

and investment plan aimed at reducing pollution loads in receiving waters and improving wastewater collection in municipal sewer systems. PSMV’s action plans are aligned with other planning instruments, for instance water quality objectives defined by the environmental authority, as well as master plans and investment plans set by the municipalities. These two national policies have been instrumental to support the recent increase of wastewater programs in large cities in Colombia. ref name "WB"

Urban water management in Bogotá, Colombia

Water management in Bogotá, Colombia, a metro area of more than 8 million inhabitants, faces three main challenges: improving the quality of the highly polluted Bogotá River, controlling floods and revitalizing riparian areas along the river. The main public entities in charge of water resources management in Bogotá are the district government, the regional environmental agency Corporación Autónoma Regional (CAR) of the department of Cundinamarca (Cundinamarca Department), and the water and sanitation utility Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá (EAAB). In a rare move, a court mandated that these entities cooperate to improve the river’s quality, a ruling that translated into an agreement signed in 2007 that defined the responsibilities of each entity and forced them to approach the water management challenges in an integrated way. The agreement prepared the ground for the expansion of the Salitre wastewater treatment plant, construction of a new one, widening and protecting riparian zones, restoring the natural meander of the river, and hydraulically connecting the river to its flood plains. These measures are supported by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.

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