United States Department of War

What is United States Department of War known for?


story main

The hospital was built in the early 1940s, believed to be a Works Progress Administration-funded project. It consisted only of ten buildings (including its massive, prominent 13-story main building), making it the smallest of the four as well (although it was planned to be a larger complex, those plans never made it past paper). The facility was commandeered by the War Department (United States Department of War) after the United States entered World War II. The War Department


powerful business

that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic; the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War (United States Secretary of War) in a request to use Federal land for construction. Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County, pending further bridge plans by Strauss. Miller, John B. (2002) "Case Studies in Infrastructure Delivery" ''Springer''. 296 pp. ISBN 0-7923-7652-8. Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry, which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. Stuart was promoted to captain (Captain (U.S. Army)) on April 22, 1861, but resigned from the U.S. Army on May 3, 1861, to join the Confederate States Army, following the secession of Virginia. (His letter of resignation, sent from Cairo, Illinois, was accepted by the War Department (United States Department of War) on May 14.) Wert, pp. 45, 52; Davis, pp. 47–40. Upon learning that his father-in-law, Col. Cooke, would remain in the U.S. Army during the coming war, Stuart wrote to his brother-in-law (future Confederate Brig. Gen. John Rogers Cooke), "He will regret it but once, and that will be continuously." Thomas, p. 95. On June 26, 1860, Flora gave birth to a son, Philip St. George Cooke Stuart, but his father changed the name to James Ewell Brown Stuart, Jr. ("Jimmie"), in late 1861 out of disgust with his father-in-law. Wert, pp. 42, 76. *1811 – During André Masséna's retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras, a division led by French Marshal (Marshal of France) Michel Ney fights off (Battle of Pombal) a combined Anglo-Portuguese force to give Masséna time to escape. *1824 – The United States Department of War creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs. *1845 – The Flagstaff War: Unhappy with translational differences regarding the Treaty of Waitangi, chiefs Hone Heke, Kawiti and Māori (Māori people) tribe members chop down the British flagpole for a fourth time and drive settlers out of Kororareka, New Zealand. US Treasury Secretary (United States Secretary of the Treasury), Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (Henry Morgenthau Jr.), suggested a plan for the total denazification of Germany; The original memorandum from 1944, signed by Morgenthau this was known as the Morgenthau Plan. The plan advocated the forced de-industrialisation of Germany. Roosevelt initially supported this plan, and managed to convince Churchill to support it in a less drastic form. Later, details were leaked to the public, generating widespread protest.


public open

. It became the hub of the city's early commercial district. Bednar, ''L'Enfant's Legacy: Public Open Spaces in Washington,'' 2006, p. 15. Boyer, ''The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments,'' 1996, p. 351; Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 344. Over time, the business district moved north, but its southern boundary continued to be marked by Pennsylvania Avenue. Bednar, ''L'Enfant's Legacy: Public Open Spaces in Washington,'' 2006, p. 23. Center Market moved a block west along Pennsylvania Avenue to larger, more modern facilities in 1872. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 383. The second inauguration (United States presidential inauguration) of Thomas Jefferson, which occurred on March 4, 1805, was the first to host an inaugural procession down Pennsylvania Avenue. Bryan, ''A History of the National Capital...,'' 1914, p. 457; Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 323. The city's first school, the Western School, opened on the south side of Pennsylvania Avenue between 17th and 18th Streets NW in January 1806. Bryan, ''A History of the National Capital...,'' 1914, p. 481. The city's first sewer pipe was laid under Pennsylvania Avenue in 1829. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 243. By 1835, Pennsylvania Avenue was largely lined by two- to four-story (Storey) Federalist (Federal architecture) row houses. Bednar, ''L'Enfant's Legacy: Public Open Spaces in Washington,'' 2006, p. 16. The Baltimore and Potomac Railroad converted a house at the corner of 2nd Street NW and Pennsylvania Avenue into the city's first train station. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 345; Dilts, ''The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828–1853,'' 1996, p. 375. It was abandoned in 1851 when the station moved to a more long-lasting location at New Jersey Avenue and C Street NW. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 364-365. The same year, the National Theatre opened on December 7. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 500. It was followed by the 400-seat Odeon in 1846, the 1,000-seat Adelphi in 1847, and Metzerott Hall in the 1860s. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 500, 507. President Andrew Jackson approved the construction of the Treasury Building (Treasury Building (Washington, D.C.)) in 1836 (it was completed the following year), but the size and height of the building forced a rerouting of Pennsylvania Avenue and blocked the view of the White House from L'Enfant's "Grand Avenue." Newton, ''Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture,'' 1971, p. 403; Berg, ''Grand Avenues: The Story of Pierre Charles L'Enfant, the French Visionary Who Designed Washington,'' 2008, p. 253. The city's first stock brokerage was opened by William W. Corcoran at 15th and Pennsylvania Avenue in 1837. Tindall, ''Standard History of the City of Washington From a Study of the Original Sources,'' 1914, p. 555. The city blocks where the National Gallery of Art now stands became a fashionable residential area in the 1830s. Savage, ''Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape,'' 2009, p. 172. The two airfields merged into a new airport named Washington-Hoover Airport. It opened on August 2, 1933, and closed to the public when Washington National Airport opened on June 16, 1941. Vogel, 2008, p. 35. Sullivan, Barry. "Washington Airport, World's Finest, Starts Operation Tomorrow." ''Washington Post.'' June 15, 1941. It remained open as a private field for small aircraft, "Million-Dollar Check Closes Airport Deal." ''Washington Post.'' September 20, 1941. but closed on September 16, 1941, when the United States Department of War purchased Washington-Hoover Airport for $1 million to construct The Pentagon. "Old Airport Is Purchased By the Army." ''Washington Post.'' September 17, 1941. From 1940 to 1942, he was a personnel specialist for the War Department (United States Department of War) in Washington and Chicago. From 1942 to 1943 he became the assistant director of civilian personnel. He enlisted during World War II, served in the U.S. Army (United States Army) from 1943 to 1946, and attained the rank of captain fighting in the China theater. In 1944, he married Joyce Hagen. After the war, he returned to the War Department as director of civilian personnel. The following day President Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets within the United States and issued orders to absorb the forces of the Philippine Army. That same day the War Department (United States Department of War) created the US Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (USAFFE) command, with jurisdiction over the Philippine Department and the military forces of the Commonwealth. At the same time General Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and designated the commander of USAFFE. The office handled some of the most important architectural commissions (Contract) of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Among its creations are the well-known State (United States Department of State), War (United States Department of War), and Navy (United States Department of the Navy) building (now the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (Old Executive Office Building)) in Washington, DC, the San Francisco Mint Building, and smaller post offices that have served communities for decades, many recognized as National Historic Landmarks, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as local landmarks. Origins The "United States Regiment of Dragoons" was organized by an Act of Congress approved 2 March 1833. It became the "First Regiment of Dragoons" when the Second Dragoons were raised in 1836. With the outbreak of the Civil War and the War Department (United States Department of War)'s desire to redesignate and reorganize its mounted units, its designation was changed to "First Regiment of Cavalry" by another Act of Congress on 3 August 1861. Its Headquarters were initially established at Jefferson Barracks (Jefferson Barracks Military Post), near St. Louis, Missouri. In the spring of 1855 two new regiments of cavalry,the First and Second Cavalry were authorized. One of these was named “The First Cavalry Regiment”, under the command of Lt. Col. Edwin Vose Sumner, the first regular American military unit to bear that name. Sumner was previously with the First Dragoons. Chalfant, William Y., Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers, University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Metropolitan The Washington and Georgetown's monopoly didn't last long. On July 1, 1864, a second streetcar company, the Metropolitan Railroad, was incorporated. It opened lines from the Capitol to the War Department (United States Department of War) along H Street (H Street (Washington, D.C.)) NW. In 1872, it built a line on 9th Street NW and purchased the Union Railroad (Union Railroad (Washington)) (chartered on January 19, 1872). It used the Union's charter to expand into Georgetown. In 1873 it purchased the Boundary and Silver Spring Railway (chartered on January 19, 1872) and used its charter to build north on what is now Georgia Avenue.


open public

and security; the pedestal reopened in 2004 and the statue in 2009, with limits on the number of visitors allowed to ascend to the crown. The statue, including the pedestal and base, closed beginning on October 29, 2011, for up to a year so that a secondary staircase and other safety features can be installed; Liberty Island remains open. Public access to the balcony surrounding the torch has been barred for safety reasons since 1916. thumb Government poster using the Statue of Liberty to promote the sale of Liberty Bond (File:Statue of Liberty 1917 poster.jpg)s When the torch was illuminated on the evening of the statue's dedication, it produced only a faint gleam, barely visible from Manhattan. The ''World'' characterized it as "more like a glowworm than a beacon."


landscape architecture

President Andrew Jackson approved the construction of the Treasury Building (Treasury Building (Washington, D.C.)) in 1836 (it was completed the following year), but the size and height of the building forced a rerouting of Pennsylvania Avenue and blocked the view of the White House from L'Enfant's "Grand Avenue." Newton, ''Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture,'' 1971, p. 403; Berg, ''Grand Avenues: The Story of Pierre Charles L'Enfant


service member

enable the President to lead the nation effectively. As of July 29, 2011, the White House Communications Agency is commanded by COL Clinton Bigger (United States Army) and the Agency's Senior Enlisted Service member is CSM Willie Clemmons (United States Army). When the United States of America declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917, many in Britain hoped this event would solve all these problems. The two men directly responsible for British tank production, Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt


massive prominent

The hospital was built in the early 1940s, believed to be a Works Progress Administration-funded project. It consisted only of ten buildings (including its massive, prominent 13-story main building), making it the smallest of the four as well (although it was planned to be a larger complex, those plans never made it past paper). The facility was commandeered by the War Department (United States Department of War) after the United States entered World War II. The War Department


dramatic short

characterized the incident as "the result of a deliberately formed plan." World War I After the United States officially entered World War I on 3 April 1917, Blue oversaw a dramatic short-term expansion of PHS duties without the benefit of increased appropriations. The military draft underway by July 1917 meant the movement of hundreds of thousands of draftees to temporary encampments around the country, with few provisions for public health by the United States Department


opposition including

(1970) , pp.233-237. Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The Department of War (United States Department of War) was concerned


influential part

for the office of United Nations Affairs. In the same year, he suggested splitting Korea (Division of Korea) into spheres of U.S. and of Soviet influence at the 38th parallel north. He was made Deputy Under Secretary of State in 1949. He was made Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs in 1950 and played an influential part in the US decision to become involved in the Korean War, and also in Japan's postwar compensation for victorious countries, such as the Rusk documents. However he was a cautious diplomat and always sought international support. The president was even more astonished that from September 17 to October 26, despite repeated entreaties from the War Department (United States Department of War) and the president himself, McClellan declined to pursue Lee across the Potomac, citing shortages of equipment and the fear of overextending his forces. General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck wrote in his official report, "The long inactivity of so large an army in the face of a defeated foe, and during the most favorable season for rapid movements and a vigorous campaign, was a matter of great disappointment and regret." Bailey, p. 67. Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7, effectively ending the general's military career. After World War II broke out in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt returned Stimson, now aged 73, to his post at the head of the War Department (United States Department of War). The Democratic President chose Stimson, a Republican, in part to foster bi-partisan unity supporting the war Roosevelt saw as inevitable. Ten days before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Stimson entered in his diary the following statement: '' Roosevelt brought up the event that we are likely to be attacked perhaps next Monday … and the question was what we should do. The question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.''* Richard N. Current, "How Stimson Meant to 'Maneuver' the Japanese," ''Mississippi Valley Historical Review'' Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jun., 1953), pp. 67-74 in JSTOR During the war, Stimson directed the expansion of the military, managing the conscription and training of 13 million soldiers and airmen and the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30% of the nation's industrial output. He worked closely with his top aides Robert P. Patterson (who succeeded Stimson as Secretary) Kieth Eiler, ''Mobilizing America: Robert P. Patterson and the War Effort'' (Cornell U.P. 1997) , Robert Lovett (who handled the Air Force), and John J. McCloy Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, ''The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, and McCloy'' (1986) . Stimson, a lawyer, insisted — against the initial wishes of both Roosevelt and Churchill (Winston Churchill) - on proper judicial proceedings against leading war criminals. He and the United States Department of War drafted the first proposals for an International Tribunal, and this soon received backing from the incoming President Truman. Stimson's plan eventually led to the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-1946 that have had a significant impact on the development of International Law. President James Monroe seriously considered Johnson for the position of Secretary of War after Henry Clay declined the office, but the post ultimately went to John C. Calhoun. Nevertheless, Johnson wielded considerable influence over defense policy as chair of the Committee on Expenditures (United States House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments) in the Department of War (United States Department of War) during the Fifteenth Congress (15th United States Congress). In 1818, he (Calhoun) approved an expedition (Yellowstone Expedition) to build a military outpost near the present site of Bismarck, North Dakota on the Yellowstone River; he awarded the contract to his brother James. Although the Yellowstone Expedition was an ultimate failure and cost the U.S. Treasury a large portion of money, the Johnsons escaped political ill will in their home district because the venture was seen as a peacekeeping endeavor on the frontier. In 1898, based on the success of his models, Langley received a War Department (United States Department of War) grant of $50,000 and $20,000 from the Smithsonian to develop a piloted airplane, which he called an "Aerodrome (Langley Aerodrome)" (coined from Greek words roughly translated as "air runner"). Langley hired Charles M. Manly (1876–1927) as engineer and test pilot. When Langley received word from his friend Octave Chanute of the Wright brothers' success with their 1902 glider, he attempted to meet the Wrights, but they politely evaded his request. United States In the period between the Napoleonic Wars and the First World War, doctrine was defined by the War Department (United States Department of War) in "Field Service Regulations." In addition, many officers wrote military manuals that were printed by private publishers, such as Hardee's Tactics, used by both Confederate (Confederate States of America) and Union forces. General George B. McClellan wrote a cavalry manual, ''Regulations and Instructions for the Field Service of the U.S. Cavalry,'' in 1862. At the same time, the War Department (United States Department of War) announced its intentions to build several new military installations. Efforts by Frank Miller (Frank Augustus Miller), then owner of the Mission Inn in Riverside, California, Hiram Johnson and others, succeeded in gaining War Department approval to construct an airfield at Alessandro Field located near Riverside, an airstrip used by aviators from Rockwell Field on cross-country flights from San Diego. United States Army In 1940, the "Camp Beale" area consisted of grassland and rolling hills and the 19th century mining town of Spenceville. Then Marysville city (Marysville, California) officials encouraged the Department of War (United States Department of War) to establish a military facility in the area. The U.S. government purchased

United States Department of War

The '''United States Department of War''', also called the ''War Department'' (and occasionally ''War Office'' in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army. The War Department also bore responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department (United States Department of the Navy) in 1798 and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force (United States Department of the Air Force) in 1947. The Secretary of War headed the war department throughout its existence.

The War Department existed from 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army (United States Department of the Army) and Department of the Air Force (United States Department of the Air Force) and joined the Department of the Navy (United States Department of the Navy) as part of the new joint ''National Military Establishment'' (NME), renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949.

The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department.

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