in which the Turkic languages were gradually imposed in Central Asia and East European Plain on Caucasian (Scythian (Scythians)) peoples with relatively little genetic admixture, another possible example of a language shift through elite dominance (Dominant minority). cognition+++elite+dominance&hl bg&ei 3koDTY7TB4r2sgagubmMCg&sa X&
;oi book_result&ct result&resnum 1&ved 0CCUQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q&f false Becoming eloquent: advances in the emergence of language, human cognition, and modern cultures, Francesco D'Errico, Jean Marie Hombert, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2009, ISBN 90-272-3269-5, pp. 175-176. Origin and evolution of languages: approaches, models, paradigms, Bernard Laks, Equinox, 2008, ISBN 1-84553-204-X, pp. 46-49. Ibn Fadlan, who visited Volga
. , born 1952 in Kiev, in the Ukrainian SSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) of the Soviet Union—in present-day Ukraine) is a Ukrainian painter, poet, playwright and performer. He is most famous (or infamous) for his absurd, highly satirical (satire), and at times politically incorrect and obscene short plays
''), Andorra Catalonia (''home llop''), Hungary (''Vérfarkas'' and ''Farkasember''), Estonia (''libahunt''), Finland (''ihmissusi'' and ''vironsusi''), and Italy (''lupo mannaro''). In northern Europe, there are also tales about people changing into animals including bears, as well as wolves. 300px thumb right A German woodcut from 1722 (File:GermanWoodcut1722.jpg) * '''Diversity (Multiculturalism):''' Characters within the X-Men mythos hail from a wide variety of nationalities. These characters also reflect religious, ethnic or sexual minorities. Examples include Shadowcat (Kitty Pryde), Sabra (Sabra (comics)) and Magneto (Magneto (comics)) who are Jewish, Dust (Dust (comics)) who is a devout Muslim, Nightcrawler (Nightcrawler (comics)) who is a devout Catholic (Roman Catholic Church), and Neal Shaara Thunderbird (Neal Shaara) who is Hindu (Hinduism). Storm (Ororo Munroe) represents two aspects of the African diaspora as her father was African American and her mother was Kenyan. Karma (Karma (comics)) was portrayed as a devout Catholic from Vietnam, who regularly attended Mass and confession when she was introduced as a founding member of the New Mutants. This team also included Wolfsbane (Wolfsbane (comics)) (a devout Scots Presbyterian), Danielle Moonstar (a Cheyenne Native American) and Cannonball (Cannonball (comics)), and was later joined by Magma (Magma (comics)) (a devout Greco-Roman classical religionist). Different nationalities included Wolverine (Wolverine (comics)), Aurora (Aurora (comics)), Northstar and Transonic (Transonic (comics)) as Canadians; Colossus (Colossus (comics)) and Magik (Magik (comics)) from Russia; Banshee (Banshee (comics)) and Siryn from Ireland; Gambit (Gambit (comics)) who is a Cajun, the original Thunderbird (Thunderbird (comics)) who was an Apache Native American; Psylocke, Wolfsbane and Chamber (Chamber (comics)) from the U.K.; Armor (Armor (comics)), Surge (Surge (comics)) and Zero (Zero (Marvel Comics)) from Japan; Nightcrawler from Germany; Legion (Legion (Marvel Comics)) from Israel; Omega Sentinel (Karima Shapandar), Neal Shaara, Kavita Rao and Indra (Indra (comics)) from India; Velocidad (Velocidad (comics)) from Mexico; Oya (Oya (comics)) from Nigeria; Primal (Primal (comics)) from Ukraine; etc. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
of Stars '' (''Пригорща зірок'') was released on September 21, 2010, via Season of Mist. Critics and fans noticed the changes in style and sound: it was much clearer than previous efforts and was obviously influenced by post-rock and such bands as Alcest. Due to these features record received the mixed reviews, though it appeared in ''Haunting the Chapel'''s Top 50 Albums of 2010 at 8 position. Again, for lyrics was used the poetry of Ukraine Ukrainian authors, such as Oleksa Stefanovych and Svyatoslav Gordynskyj. The release of new Drudkh full-length was supported with '' Slavonic Chronicles '' mini album, which consisted two covers of Master's Hammer and Sacrilegium (Sacrilegium (band)). It was released as a CD only with deluxe edition of ''Handful of Stars'' and also as 10" LP including download card to get the digital version of the record. As opposed to ''Handful of Stars'', ''Slavonic Chronicles'' was much more stylistically similar to their older works like ''Blood in Our Wells''. Biography Dorfman was born in Kamianets-Podilskyi Kamenetz-Podolsk in western Ukraine and became a Breslover Hasid in his early teens. He moved to Uman at the age of 15, where he married Rivkah, the granddaughter of Rabbi Abraham Sternhartz, a leading Breslover figure. A Message From Earth (AMFE) is a high-powered digital radio signal that was sent on 9 October 2008 toward Gliese 581 c. The signal is a digital time capsule containing 501 messages that were selected through a competition on the social networking site Bebo. The message was sent using the RT-70 (Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope) radar telescope of Ukraine's National Space Agency (National Space Agency of Ukraine). The signal will reach Gliese 581 in early 2029. * The People's Republic of China jails five people for eight years for selling fake infant formula, which has caused the deaths of at least 13 infants and illness in 189. (Reuters Alertnet) * The Ukrainian (Ukraine) Supreme Court rejects Viktor Yanukovych's appeal against the electoral commission's decision that he lost the presidential election. (BBC) (Reuters) * Chilean officials search the offices of Augusto Pinochet and investigate his U.S. (United States) bank accounts. (BBC) * The Republic of Ireland, one of the last countries to use non-metric (Metric system) speed limits, officially changes (metrication) all road signage and regulations to use kilometres per hour (km h). Speed limits in Northern Ireland remain in miles per hour (mph). (RTÉ) (BBC) * In Ukraine, the Supreme Court dismisses prime minister Viktor Yanukovych's appeal and confirms that Viktor Yushchenko has won the presidential election. (Bloomberg) (ITAR-TASS) (Reuters) (BBC) * President (Heads of State of Guinea) of Guinea Lansana Conté survives an apparent assassination attempt. (IAfrica) (Reuters) Pilgrimage established by Reb Noson Reb Noson arranged the first Rosh Hashana kibbutz the following year (1811) and continued to run it until his death in 1844. In the following decades, hundreds of Hasidim arrived annually from Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Poland. So many joined the pilgrimage, in fact, that the local synagogue was unable to accommodate them. Fearing that people would stop attending the kibbutz, Reb Noson acquired a property, applied for a government permit, raised funds and oversaw the construction of a large Breslover synagogue in Uman in 1834. Known as the ''kloyz'', it housed the annual Rosh Hashana kibbutz through the 1930s. Biography Vitaliev was born in Kharkov, Ukraine. He graduated from Kharkov University in French (French language) and English (English language), working as an interpreter and translator before becoming a journalist in 1981. He worked as a special correspondent for ''Krokodil'' magazine in Moscow when he appeared as Clive James' 'Moscow Correspondent' on ''Saturday Night Clive''. On 31 January 1990 he and his family 'defected', moving first to London, then taking up residence (and citizenship) in Australia. After a few years there he moved back to the UK (United Kingdom), living in London. He is now back in London again after spending some time in Edinburgh and Dublin. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
. If you are travelling to Ukraine, learn either basic Ukrainian or basic Russian beforehand (know your phrase book well) and or have some means of access to a bilingual speaker, a mobile cell handy number (almost everyone has a mobile phone) can be a godsend. Virtually nobody in any official position (train stations, police, bus drivers, information desks, etc.) will be able to speak any language other than Ukrainian and Russian. If you already know another Slavic language, you will, however, be able to communicate as the Slavic languages are closely related. It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the Cyrillic alphabet to save you a lot of time and difficulty. Sometimes certain words if you can read the Cyrillic are close to English like ''telefon'' (telephone), you would understand if you saw it, so it helps a lot just knowing the alphabet. class "wikitable" border 1 + Cyrillic letters in latin: ! colspan "4" Common for ukrainian and russian languages - А - A Б - B В - V Г - G Д - D Ж - Zh З - Z И - I Й - Y К - K Л - L М - M Н - N О - O П - P Р - R С - S Т - T У - U Ф - F Х - Kh Ц - Ts Ч - Ch Ш - Sh Щ - Shch Ь - ' Ю - Yu Я - Ya - ! colspan "2" Ukrainian language ! colspan "2" Russian language - colspan "2" Ґ - G Е - E Є - Ye І - I Ї - Yi colspan "2" E - Ye Ё - Yo Ъ - ' Ы - I Э - E See thumb The Kiev Pechersk Lavra in Kiev (File:2005-08-15 Pechersk Lavra seen from river Dnepr Kiev 311 cropped.jpeg), Ukraine, first built in 1051. thumb Pelicans in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (File:Pelicans.jpg) Vast in size and diverse in culture and landscapes, Urkaine has a range of great attractions to offer. Largely unknown to the world, the country's main draws include some great and quintessentially Slavic cities, impressive cultural heritage and of course top class natural areas. Head to the historic city of '''Lviv''', listed as a Unesco World Heritage Site but still a bustling place and a true centre for learning and culture in the country. Its cobblestoned streets are packed with monuments going back to Medieval times, seemingly untouched by the destructive force of wars that have changed some of Ukraine's other cities so thoroughly. Even the extensive Soviet planning that has shaped many other places on the far east side of Europe have left only a minimal mark on the colourful mix of building styles. Highlights include the '''Korniakt Palace''' (right on the market square) and several beautiful churches. For an even more sophisticated taste of culture, try the fine collection of the '''Lviv National Art Gallery'''. Then there's the must-see's of '''Kiev''', a colourful place where the golden roofs of the Unesco World Heritage sites '''Saint-Sophia Cathedral''' and '''Pechersk Lavra''' make for some excellent highlights. Take an afternoon stroll through '''Andriyivsky Uzviz''', the Montmartre of Kiev, where you'll find a bustling mix of artist and souvenir sellers. Follow in the footsteps of Apostle Andrew, who - according to legend - climbed the steep stairs of this bohemian neighbourhood two thousand years ago, to the top where you'll now find a church with his name. Don't miss the excellent '''Pyrohovo Museum of Folk Architecture'''. Last but not least, Kiev is one of the best spots to visit Ukraine's lively '''markets''' (but Odesa or Kharkiv have good ones too). Also, consider a trip to the Residence of Bukovinian and the Dalmatian Metropolitans in '''Chernivtsi'''. In terms of natural attractions, the lovely '''Carpathian Mountains''' are among the best destinations this otherwise remarkably flat country has to offer. They hold beautiful panoramas of forested hills, lush valleys and snowy peaks and offer ample opportunities for hiking and biking as well as for winter sports. The rather little explored '''Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve''' is another great pick for nature lovers and bird watchers. Base yourself in the charming town of Vylkovo, with its many canals, and go boating and bird-watching during the day. Do * '''Hike''' in Carpathian Mountains around Rakhiv * '''Conquer''' 2,061m Hoverla, part of the Chornohora mountain range * '''Kayak''' down Dniester and admire Kamianets-Podilskyi and Khotyn castles * Visit one of forty National Parks (total area more than ten thousand km²) Buy thumb 100 hryvnia note (File:100 hryvnia 2005 b.jpg) The unit of currency is the ''hryvnia'' ('''UAH'''). It is spelt гривня and pronounced ''hryvnia'' in Ukrainian and ''grivna'' in Russian. Just to make it a little more confusing, Russian speakers in the east often refer to it as ruble and it is sometimes shown as "₴" both before and after the amount and with and without spaces. National Bank actual rates. Money Every reasonably sized town will have exchanges booths and banks that will convert euro, USD or Russian rubles to UAH, just look for signs with exchange rates. British pounds are also often exchangeable, though at poor rates. In tourist areas, a much wider range of currencies can be changed. Shop around as offered rates often vary. Booths and banks will generally not try to scam you, but count your notes to be sure. At many places bank clerks would refuse money with even minor damages or grease spots. A tear in the paper longer than five millimetres can be too much. ATMs ATMs (банкомат, ''bankomat'') are common throughout the country and generally work with international cards. They nearly always dispense UAH, though you may find some give USD. They mostly do not charge fees to foreign cards. (unless you are withdrawing dollars). Debit cards such as maestro do work in ATMs. Cirrus Maestro Plus bank cards could be most effective way to get cash in Ukraine. Not all ATMs indicate that they support the Plus system, but in most cases they do support it if they support Visa. PrivatBank ATMs indicate that they support Plus, but they do not work with North American cards. Banks Changing money in banks is time consuming—there is a lot of paperwork involved. Bank staff may be unwilling to go through all the procedures just to change your USD100 bill and may try to fob you off with an excuse: "sorry, we don't have the money" is common. If you absolutely must change money there, you might be able to persuade them to change their minds; but if you can go somewhere else, you'll probably save time. At a bank, you will also need to show your passport. Banks may also only let you buy UAH; they may prevent you from buying "hard" currency. Even at larger branches, you cannot expect English-speaking staff. Doing anything other than currency exchange may require a translator or at least a lot of patience. It is possible to get dollars from most banks using a cash advance from a Visa or MasterCard. There is a small service charge (3%) to do this in addition to whatever your bank charges. Exchange booths Exchange booths, while looking rather unsavoury, are generally the best places to change money. Their rates tend to be better than the banks' (but not always) and you will not need your passport. Service is quick and there's often no paperwork or receipts. Shopping thumb Ukraine is known for its living tradition of elaborately dyed Easter eggs, called pysanka (Ukrainian: писанка) (File:Pysanky2011.JPG) By law, all transactions are required to be in hyrvnia, although less formal transactions may be in euros or US dollars. If you want to buy any kind of artwork (paintings, Easter eggs) in Kiev, the place to visit is Andriivskij Uzviz (''Андріївський узвіз'' in Ukrainian, ''Андреевский спуск'' in Russian). It is illegal to take out of the country any items of historical importance. These includes badges, medals, icons, historical paintings, etc. While you are unlikely to face a bag search, don't wear any old badges or display anything that may arouse suspicion. Eat Ukrainian cuisine is quite tasty, but just like other cuisines in the region uses a lot of fat ingredients, especially in the festive dishes. Traditional local food includes "salo" (salted lard) and soups like "solianka" (''солянка'' in Ukrainian, meat soup) or "borshch" (''борщ'' in Ukrainian) a soup made of red beets. Western Ukraine also has a green version of borshch, with greens and boiled eggs. The first, salo, is perhaps something you might not make yourself try - however is a delicious side dish, as for the soups being a must-have dish. If you are outside a big city or in doubt about food, exercise caution and common sense about where you buy food. Try to buy groceries only in supermarkets or large grocery stores, always check the expiration date, and never buy meat or dairy products on the street (you can buy them at the market but not near the market). In most towns in Ukraine there are some very good restaurants. Read the menu boards posted by the entrance of every establishment to help you to choose. You may also find nice places to eat not by signs, but just by the smoke of traditional wood fires. These are often places where they serve traditional Ukrainian food, including very tasty shashlyky (''шашлики'' in Ukrainian). Restaurateurs are very friendly, and, more often than not, you will be one of their first foreign visitors. Next to the "borshch", you might also ask for "varenyky" (''вареники'' in Ukrainian, dumplings filled with meat, vegetables or fruits) or "deruny" (''деруни'', potato pancakes). You have to try varenyky with potatoes and cottage cheese in a sautéed onion and sour cream sauce, a fantastic dish. These are just starters, but ones that might fill you up quickly. You can also use some internet services, which will help you to find any restaurant you want. They usually have a lot of options and English translation making your search easier. These services are free and provide information about major cities. If there is no possibility of internet connection you can ask people about restaurants, but remember that knowledge of English among Ukrainians is low and you can also meet unfriendly people. But in most cases English or other foreign language makes people more amiable. Drink The Ukrainian speciality is ''horilka'' (the local name for vodka) with pepper. Other kinds of vodka are also quite popular - linden (tilia), honey, birch, wheat. Prices range €1-20 for 1L. Souvenir bottles are available for higher prices (some bottles reach upwards of €35 for 0.5L. There is a great choice of wine, both domestic and imported. The domestic wines mostly originate in the south, although wines from the Carpathian region of Uzhorod are also quite tasty. Ukraine is also famous for it's red sparkling wines. Prices for local wine range €2-35 per bottle of 0.75L (avoid the cheapest wines, €1 or less, as these are sometimes bottled as house wines but sold as local vintages), however, one can find genuine Italian, French, Australian wines from €50 per bottle and more in big supermarkets and most restaurants. The price of imported wines dropped significantly over the last number of years and trends indicate further reductions in price. There are a lot of beverages (both alcoholic and non-alcoholic). Ukrainian beer is of very good quality. Beer from barrels or kegs (more common in cafes) is often watered down. Canned beer is not very common in Ukraine and sometimes not of the same quality as the same variety sold in bottles. The best beers are brewed by Lvivske, Obolon and PPB (Persha Privatna Brovarnia). Imported beers are also widely available but more expensive – for instance, a bottle of Austrian Edelweiss can cost upwards of €2 while average price of Ukrainian beer is €0.50. All told, Ukrainian beers are very tasty and gaining popularity elsewhere in Europe. Of non-alcoholic beverages, one should try kvas – a typically Slavic drink made of rye or wheat. During the summer one can easily buy it from designated street vendors. There are a lot of yellow barrels with kvas around the city in summer. It’s better to buy it in bottles due of unknown cleanness of the barrel. Milk drinks, of all sorts, are also available, although mostly in supermarkets. Bottles of mineral water are available everywhere, as well as lemonades, beer, and strong drinks. When seeking to buy bottled water make sure to ask for "voda bez hazu" (water without gas) otherwise you are likely to be handed the carbonated drink. Never buy vodka or konjak (the local name for brandy) except from supermarkets or liquor stores as there are many fakes. Every year a few die or go blind as a result of poisoning from methyl alcohol, a compound used to make fake vodkas. In Ukraine it's possible to buy alcohol produced in other former Soviet republics. The Moldavian and Armenian cognacs are quite good and not expensive. Georgian wines are quite unusual and fragrant, if overly sweet. Sleep Hotels might be a traumatic experience for a westerner anywhere outside Kiev. The cheaper the hotel, the larger the chance of some quite unfortunate surprises, especially for those not familiar with the Soviet-style level of service which still remains in many places. There are many mid-range (€25-45) options outside Kiev. For instance in Ivano-Frankivsk (near the Carpathians), the going rate is approximately €35 for a suite (bedroom and sitting room) in one such hotel. Many hotels have the choice between renovated rooms suites ("western style") and not renovated rooms (East European style). The last choice is more than 50% cheaper and gives you a spacious old fashioned 2 room suite, basic but clean! There are a number of 5-star hotels in Kiev and one in Donetsk; see guides for those cities for listings. At one such hotel in Lviv, the going rate ranges from €40-60 a night. Another option is to rent an apartment on the internet before you leave your country. There are many to choose from in Kiev and Odessa. What many people from ex-Soviet countries do is to go to the railway station, where they try to find people who are willing to rent a room. Prices are usually much cheaper and if there are enough people, offering the room you can make great deals. These deals are usually not legal and they will take you to a corner before negotiating. Make sure they have warm water, and don't be afraid to say it's not what you expected when seeing the room. Learn There are a lot of foreign students at Ukrainian universities. Bribery is common, and you can even obtain a diploma here by having attended only twice (the first and last days of the term), if you have the money. That's hyperbole, of course, but in real life it is not much different. Of course if one wants to obtain good knowledge they will, but motivation in such a situation is low. After graduation many students find work which is not concerned with their education, but this doesn’t mean that the educational system is bad. This happens because of economical instability. The educational system itself is comprehensive and competitive, and a lot of foreign students can be a confirmation of this fact (not only in the previously mentioned hyperbole). Work Getting a work permit (visa) is a necessity for foreigners if they are going to be employed by any legal entity (exceptions apply only for international institutions and representative offices of foreign companies). The work permit is more of a hiring permit. The potential employer has to apply with the labour administration for hiring an non-resident employee. With the application a complete cv, as well as documents showing an accredited education, have to be submitted. Stay safe Many people will tell you that you can take a copy of your visa with you. Sadly, some people experience trouble over this. It's always better to carry your passport with you. A photocopy can be refused as proof of identity. A phone call to a local who can help can prove very effective. Get the details of your local embassy and or consulates in advance and note their emergency numbers. If you can it is useful to have a bilingual acquaintance who can be called in an emergency or if you encounter difficulties. If staying for any length of time, it is advisable to get a local SIM card for your mobile for emergencies and for cheaper local calls texts. These are widely available, cheap (often free) and easy to 'top-up', Crime issues As in any other country, using common sense when travelling in Ukraine will minimize any chances of being victim of petty crime and theft. Try not to publicize the fact that you're a foreigner or flaunt your wealth, through your choice of clothing or otherwise. With the exception of Kiev, Odessa, and other large cities, Western tourists are still quite rare. As in any other country, the possibility of petty theft exists. In Kiev, make sure to guard your bags and person because pickpocketing is very common, especially in crowded metro stations. Guides have told tourists to watch certain people because they heard people say: "They look like Americans: let's follow them for a while and see what we can get." Robberies and scams on tourists are fairly common, especially the wallet scam in Kiev. But if you are arrested by police or other law enforcement, do your best to inform them that you're a foreign visitor. Not many police officials speak foreign languages freely, but many people are eager to assist in translation. Don't drink alcohol in the company of unknown people (which may be suggested more freely than in the West). You don't know how much they are going to drink (and convince you to drink with them) and what conflicts may arise after that. Also, many Ukrainians, known for a penchant for a good drink, can sometimes consume such an amount of vodka that would be considered lethal for the average beer-accustomed Westerner. Financial security Ukraine is a predominantly cash economy. The network of bank offices and ATMs (Bankomats) has grown quickly and are now readily available in all but the smallest villages. Do check the security of the machine - it would be wise to use one that is obviously at a bank, rather than in another establishment. V PAY-cards are not accepted in the country. You can use your credit cards (mostly MasterCard & Visa) or cash traveler's cheques easily. Credit and debit cards are accepted by the supermarkets. But avoid using your credit debit cards for payments at establishments in smaller towns as retailers are not trained and controlled enough to ensure your card privacy. Instead, it is widely acceptable to pay cash. Locals (especially businesspeople) sometimes carry and pay in cash amounts considered unusually large in other countries. Don't suspect criminal activity in every such case. Also, it is strongly recommended to avoid individual (street) currency exchangers as there are thieves among such exchangers, that may instead give you old, Soviet-era currency or also coupons that have been withdrawn from circulation since the mid 1990s. Use special exchange booths (widely available) and banks; also be wary of exchange rate tricks like 5.059 5.62 buy sell instead of 5.59 5.62. The euro and US dollar are generally accepted as alternative forms of currency, particularly in tourist areas. They are also the most widely accepted convertible currency at the exchange booths, with English pounds sterling in third place. Racism The area around the American embassy in Kiev is known for the provocateur groups targeting black people, and there have been reports of such attacks on Andriyivski, the main tourist street that runs from Mykhailivska down into Podil. Particularly in rural areas, having dark skin is often a source of prejudice. Antisemitism is still a lingering problem in some Western regions and or other parts of Ukraine. However there are two Jewish mayors elected in Kherson and Vinnitsa. Russophobia is on the rise as a result of the Russian annexation of Crimea in early 2014, especially in the European Union-friendly western regions of the country. Russian citizens may encounter negative perceptions due to continuing war being waged (as of 2014) against Ukraine by Russian-backed separatist rebels in the eastern portion of the country. There have been ethnic clashes between Russians and Ukrainians in Odessa. On 17 July 2014, Russian-backed rebels shot down a civilian air liner over Ukraine which was carrying hundreds of EU (European Union) citizens; this has led to an escalation of economic sanctions by both the West and Russia and polarised an already-tense situation on the ground. Anecdotal experience suggests that in Ukraine, indeed much of the former Soviet Union, migrants from Middle and Central Asia and Romani Sinti people receive much closer and more frequent attention from the militsiya (police). Always have your passport (or a photocopy of the main pages if you're concerned about losing it or if you're staying in a hotel that is holding it) as foreigners are treated more favourably than others. This is not to say that it is unsafe or threatening, but it is better to be forewarned of the realities. Accidents While there's a lot of swimming and diving attractions throughout Ukraine, local water rescue is tremendously underfunded. It is unlikely that you would be noticed while drowning, especially on the river. Use only officially established beaches. Ukraine has some of the worst statistics for road related deaths and injuries in the world so act accordingly. Take care when crossing the roads; walk and drive defensively: be aware that traffic overtakes on both the inside and outside. Sometimes you even need to take care when using the footpaths, as in rush-hours the black, slab-sided Audi BMW Mercedes sometimes opt to avoid the traffic by using the wide pavements; pedestrians or not. Owners drivers of expensive cars have been known, at times, to be more careless of the safety of pedestrians. Drivers rarely grant priority to pedestrians crossing a road unless there are pedestrian lights. Always watch out for your safety. Also be warned that pavements suffer in the same way as the roads in terms of collapsing infrastructure. Take care when walking, especially in the dark and away from the downtown areas of the main cities (a torch is a useful possession) as the streets are poorly lit, as are most of the entries stairwells to buildings, and the street and pavement surfaces are often dangerously pot-holed. Don't step on man-hole covers, as these can 'tip' dropping your leg into the hole with all the potential injuries! Prohibitions It is illegal to smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol in public places in Ukraine. Despite the prohibition you can see some local citizens doing that, but don’t be misled. These are bad examples. Local policemen can insist on a bribe if they see a foreigner breaking the prohibition. So be wise and avoid unnecessary problems. Emergencies Emergency telephone numbers in Ukraine: '''112''' - common 101 - fire brigade 102 - police 103 - ambulance 104 - gas leaks Stay healthy Water As a rule, avoid drinking tap water. The major reason for this is that water in many regions is disinfected using chlorine, so taste is horrible. Whenever possible buy bottled water, which is widely available and generally OK. Infectious Diseases Ukraine has the highest adult '''HIV''' prevalence rate in Europe at nearly '''1.5%''' or '''1 in 66''' adults. Be Safe. Radiation There is radiation contamination in the northeast from the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. However the effect is negligible unless you permanently live in Chernobyl area itself. There are even tours to the town of Prypyat' which is the closest to the station. The town is famous for the haunting scenery of blocks of apartment buildings abandoned in 1986, now standing out amid the vegetation which spawned from years of neglect. Respect Respect the fact that Ukraine is an independent nation. You may find that people here are sensitive about being classified as "Russians". The Ukrainians have their own ethnicity and do not like being seen as Russians. Don't say "the Ukraine," because that usage is outdated and implies that Ukraine is a region and not a country. Ukraine is by no means a conservative country with respect to clothing or behavior, and overcharges you if they can get by with it, getting what you paid for (quality). However, homosexuals are not liked there. Raising the issue of Ukraine in the context as being part of the Soviet Union may not be welcomed by the locals. The Holodomor, like the Holocaust, is a sensitive issue. It is best to not praise the Soviet Union or Joseph Stalin, Soviet leader during the time of WWII and architect of the Holodomor. Nevertheless, some Ukrainians also remember the recent period of the Soviet Union as a time of economic prosperity. Connect Phone Ukrtelekom is the main telecom operator. The country code for Ukraine is 380. Mobile The biggest mobile phone operators Kyivstar, MTS, life:). Internet Mobile GPRS access is available in vast majority of Ukraine's territory. 3G mobile access is steadily developing. Public Wi-Fi hotspots are widespread throughout cities. There are plans and projects for providing mass wireless broadband access in urban open spaces, on Ukrzaliznytsia long-distance trains and in urban public transport vehicles. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
a large research institute in mining safety. '''Lukyanivska Prison''' ( Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
, and ''Red Arrow'' were closed down. History The Black Russian Terrier was developed in the former USSR (Soviet Union) by the state for use as a military working dogs. The breeding stock was largely imported from the occupied countries, especially East Germany. Breeds used in the development include the Airedale Terrier, Caucasian Ovcharka, Newfoundland (Newfoundland (dog)), Giant (Giant Schnauzer) and Standard Schnauzers and the now extinct Moscow Water Dog. BRT were bred for working ability, rather than appearance, and early examples only resembled today's Black Russian Terrier in their build and coat type. The BRT was bred solely by the state owned Red Star Kennel until 1957, when some puppies were sold to civilian breeders. These breeders began to breed for looks (as the original was rather plain) while retaining working ability. In time, the breed spread to the Balkans, Ukraine, and Siberia, and later to Finland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the United States. In the first half of 2009, Ensiferum performed at a string of festivals (metal festival) including Frostrock in Belgium, Finnish Metal Expo and Tuska Open Air in Finland, Winterfire, Rocktower, Legacy and Rock am Härtsfeldsee in Germany, Summer Nights in Austria, and Z7 Metal Dayz in Switzerland. In June and July they toured North America as part of the Summer Slaughter Tour with Necrophagist, Darkest Hour (Darkest Hour (band)), Suffocation (Suffocation (band)), Blackguard, Dying Fetus, Beneath the Massacre, Origin (Origin (band)), and Winds of Plague. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
with the Ukrainian (Ukraine) club BC Donetsk.view story&id 23472§ionId 1 ANDRE OWENS POTPISAO UGOVOR U UKRAJINI Azeri pilots are trained at the Azerbaijan Air Force School and then develop their skills further within their units. Azerbaijan has an experience exchange with Turkey, the United States, Ukraine, and a number of other NATO countries. Turkish Air Force Academy Turkish Air
as England manager. ), made in 1996 (Hong Kong films of 1996), is the only film in the ''Police Story'' series made partially in English (English language). The action
'''Ukraine''' ( Ukraine borders (State Border of Ukraine) Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
During the Middle Ages, the area of modern Ukraine was the key center of East Slavic culture (List of Slavic cultures), as epitomized by the powerful state of Kievan Rus'. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic (Cossack Hetmanate) emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but Ukraine's territories remained divided until they were consolidated into a Soviet republic (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) in the 20th century. It became independent (Sovereign state) in 1991.
Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands. In 2011 it became the world's third-largest grain exporter, with a higher than average yield; The country also has a well-developed manufacturing sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment.
Ukraine is a unitary republic (unitary state) under a semi-presidential system with separate powers (Separation of powers): legislative (Legislature), executive (executive branch), and judicial branches. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine continues to maintain the second-largest military (Military of Ukraine) in Europe, after that of Russia, when reserves and paramilitary personnel are taken into account. IISS 2010 (#IISS2010), pp. 195–197 The country is home to 45.4 million people (including Crimea (Autonomous Republic of Crimea)), country Economy 2014 demographics 77.8% of whom are Ukrainians by ethnicity, and with a sizable minority of Russians (17%), as well as Romanians Moldovans, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, and Hungarians. Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) is the official language of Ukraine; its alphabet is Cyrillic (Ukrainian alphabet). The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy (Eastern Orthodox Church), which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature (Ukrainian literature) and music (Music of Ukraine).