the rungs of the Soviet (Soviet Union) football system, eventually being promoted to the Soviet Top League in 1960. After a difficult period which included relegation, Metalist was promoted to the Top League again in 1982, where it remained until the league's dissolution. The club won the Soviet Cup once, and were also runners-up once. They have also won the bronze title of the Ukrainian Premier League five times in a row, starting in the 2006–07 season (2006–07 Ukrainian Premier League). Ukrainian Premier League After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the formation of an independent Ukraine, Metalist joined the inaugural season of the Ukrainian Premier League in 1996. The club finished in 5th place, an achievement it would never top until the 2006–07 season (Ukrainian Premier League 2006-07), finishing in 5th place three more times since, the most notable coming during the 2001–02 (Ukrainian Premier League 2001-02) season. The club finished with 40 points, on a par with FC Metalurh Zaporizhzhya and FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk for a three-way tie. Metalist was expected to take 4th place (and subsequently compete in the UEFA Cup) by virtue of having the best three-way head-to-head record among the three teams (which is the official tie-breaker to be used in domestic competitions), but following a protest by FC Metalurh Zaporizhzhya and an arbitrary decision by PFL (the administrative body of the UPL), FC Metalurh Zaporizhzhya was awarded 4th place on grounds that they had better head-to-head records independently against either side. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
on the Eastern Front in October 1941 thumb Oleksandr Zinchenko in December 2005 (File:Zinchenko oleksandr december05.jpg) '''Oleksandr Oleksiovich Zinchenko''' ( ; born April 16, 1957 in Slavuta – died June 9, 2010 in Kiev ) was a Ukrainian (Ukraine) politician who was Director-General of the National Space Agency of Ukraine from 2009 to 2010. Oleksandr Zinchenko had a controversial career that includes Soviet
of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. The great churches of the Rus' (Architecture of Kievan Rus), built after the adoption of Christianity (Baptism of Kievan Rus') in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. The architectural style of the Kievan state, which quickly established itself, was strongly influenced by the Byzantine (Byzantine architecture). Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, with the simplest form of church becoming known as a cell church. Major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes, which led some art historians to take this as an indication of the appearance of pre-Christian pagan Slavic temples. Several examples of these churches survive; however, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, many were externally rebuilt in the Ukrainian Baroque style (see below). Examples include the grand St. Sophia of Kiev (Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev) – the year 1017 is the earliest record of foundation laid, Church of the Saviour at Berestove – built from 1113 to 1125 and St. Cyril's Church (St. Cyril's Monastery), circa 12th-century. All can still be found in the Ukrainian capital. Several buildings were reconstructed during the late-19th century, including the Assumption Cathedral (:File:WladimirWolynsk Uspenski Cathedral.jpeg) in Volodymyr-Volynskyi, built in 1160 and reconstructed in 1896–1900, the Paraskevi church in Chernihiv (:File:AX Chernigiv Pyatnitska Church.jpg), built in 1201 with reconstruction done in the late 1940s, and the Golden gates in Kiev (Golden Gate (Kiev)), built in 1037 and reconstructed in 1982. The latter's reconstruction was criticised by some art and architecture historians as a revivalist fantasy. Unfortunately little secular or vernacular architecture of Kievan Rus' has survived. As Ukraine became increasingly integrated into the Russian Empire, Russian architects had the opportunity to realise their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered. St. Andrew's Church of Kiev (1747–1754), built by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, is a notable example of Baroque architecture, and its location on top of the Kievan mountain made it a recognisable monument of the city. An equally notable contribution of Rasetrelli was the Mariyinsky Palace, which was built to be a summer residence to Russian Empress Elizabeth (Elizabeth of Russia). During the reign of the last Hetman of Ukraine (Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks), Kirill Razumovsky, many of the Cossack Hetmanate's towns such as Hlukhiv, Baturyn and Koselets had grandiose projects built by Andrey Kvasov. Russia, winning successive wars over the Ottoman Empire and its vassal Crimean Khanate, eventually annexed the whole south of Ukraine and Crimea. Renamed New Russia, these lands were to be colonised, and new cities such as the Nikolayev (Mykolayiv), Odessa, Kherson and Sevastopol were founded. These would contain notable examples of Imperial Russian architecture. Commons:Category:Ukraine WikiPedia:Ukraine Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine
in the Ukraine. Köblös came under severe criticism at that party gathering for perceived errors in the Romanian party's political line and despite engaging in public self-criticism for these alleged shortcomings, Köblös was not re-elected to the party's Central Committee. Ruslana performed "The Same Star", as well as "Heart on Fire", at the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 2005
of his reporting denounced by Lyons, Duranty, and others in the Moscow press corps. Lyons later self-critically recalled, "throwing down Jones was as unpleasant a chore as fell to any of us in years of juggling facts to please dictatorial regimes-—but throw him down we did, unanimously and in almost identical formulas of equivocation. Poor Gareth Jones must have been the most surprised human being alive when the facts he so painstakingly garnered from our mouths were snowed under by our
) http: www.st-lazarus.net (Malta obedience) *Kevin Hunter (??—): English guitarist; performs punk rock; former member of Flux Of Pink Indians. *Eugene Hutz Ukraine singer performs gypsy punk, member of Gogol Bordello !--Add new musicians in alphabetical order. Cease listing bands. Only list band members, linking to band articles if individual articles do not yet exist.-->
replaced 30 years later by trolleybuses (electric buses which get their power from overhead lines similar to those of a tram). For this reason the previous cobbles were replaced with an asphalt surface. In 1935 Moscow's first Metro station (Moscow Metro) opened on Arbatskaya Square. The fact that the Arbat remained part of the road between Moscow and Smolensk facilitated trade, and made the Arbat into a busy shopping street with a large number of renowned boutiques. The most intense business activity
. A location with an over 1000 years history, it was incorporated as a city in 1796. The city has hosted Vasilkov air base (Vasilkov (air base)) during the Cold War years. Population 40,800 (census 1991). Early life Artsybashev was born in Khutor Dubroslavovka, Akhtyrka (Okhtyrka) Uezd, Kharkov (Kharkiv) Gubernia (currently Sumy Oblast, Ukraine). His father was a small landowner and a former officer. His mother died of tuberculosis when he was only 3 years old
;Zamoyski pages 329-330. A biologist of some repute, he attained great prestige within the Polish community for his scientific accomplishments. Between 1898-1900, he resided in both France and Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). In the face of an ascendant Germany, he argued for tactical Polish cooperation with Tsarist Russia and brought about a pro-Russian orientation within the National-Democratic Party. In 1901 he took up residence in Kraków
'''Ukraine''' ( Ukraine borders (State Border of Ukraine) Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
During the Middle Ages, the area of modern Ukraine was the key center of East Slavic culture (List of Slavic cultures), as epitomized by the powerful state of Kievan Rus'. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic (Cossack Hetmanate) emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but Ukraine's territories remained divided until they were consolidated into a Soviet republic (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) in the 20th century. It became independent (Sovereign state) in 1991.
Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands. In 2011 it became the world's third-largest grain exporter, with a higher than average yield; The country also has a well-developed manufacturing sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment.
Ukraine is a unitary republic (unitary state) under a semi-presidential system with separate powers (Separation of powers): legislative (Legislature), executive (executive branch), and judicial branches. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine continues to maintain the second-largest military (Military of Ukraine) in Europe, after that of Russia, when reserves and paramilitary personnel are taken into account. IISS 2010 (#IISS2010), pp. 195–197 The country is home to 45.4 million people (including Crimea (Autonomous Republic of Crimea)), country Economy 2014 demographics 77.8% of whom are Ukrainians by ethnicity, and with a sizable minority of Russians (17%), as well as Romanians Moldovans, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, and Hungarians. Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) is the official language of Ukraine; its alphabet is Cyrillic (Ukrainian alphabet). The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy (Eastern Orthodox Church), which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature (Ukrainian literature) and music (Music of Ukraine).