Tyre, Lebanon

What is Tyre, Lebanon known for?


ancient cultural

As Herodotus himself reveals, Halicarnassus, though a Dorian city, had ended its close relations with its Dorian neighbours after an unseemly quarrel (I, 144), and it had helped pioneer Greek trade with Egypt (II,178). It was therefore an outward-looking, international-minded port within the Persian Empire and the historian's family could well have had contacts in countries under Persian rule, facilitating his travels and his researches. His eye-witness accounts indicate that he travelled in Egypt probably sometime after 454 BC or possibly earlier in association with Athenians


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the PLO for endangering Lebanese civilians with their attacks. Nergal Shalmaneser III of Assyria wiped out Jerusalem and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in this world in 854 B.C., and his successors destroyed the Greek city-states (Archaic period in Greece) a century later. In the "current year" of 1678, various empires based on slavery and human sacrifice cover the globe (except for an Infinity Patrol-supported haven in southern Africa) while an anomalous ice age threatens to wipe out those unfortunate to live in a world where monotheism, democracy and the Greek (Greek alphabet) and Latin (Latin alphabet) alphabets were destroyed almost before they could begin. Eusebius characterizes Urbanus as a man who enjoyed some variety in his punishments. One day, shortly after Easter 307, he ordered the virgin Theodosia from Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) (Ṣūr, Lebanon) thrown to the sea for conversing with Christians attending trial and refusing sacrifice; the Christians in court, meanwhile, he sent to Phaeno. Eusebius, ''De Martyribus Palestinae'' 7.1f, cited in Barnes, ''Constantine and Eusebius'', 152. On a single day, November 2, 307, Urbanus sentenced a man named Domninus to be burned alive, three youths to fight as gladiators, and a priest to be exposed to a beast. On the same day, he ordered some young men to be castrated, sent three virgins to brothels, and imprisoned a number of others, including Pamphilus of Caesarea, a priest, scholar, and defender of the theologian Origen. Eusebius, ''Historia Ecclesiastica'' 8.13.5; ''De Martyribus Palestinae'' 7.3ff; 13; Barnes, ''Constantine and Eusebius'', 152–53; Keresztes, 388. Soon after, and for unknown reasons, Urbanus was stripped of his rank, imprisoned, tried, and executed, all in one day of expedited proceedings. Eusebius, ''De Martyribus Palestinae'' 7.7; Barnes, ''Constantine and Eusebius'', 153. His replacement, Firmilianus (Firmilian (Roman governor)), was a veteran soldier and one of Maximinus's trusted confidants. Eusebius, ''De Martyribus Palestinae'' (L) 8.1; (S) 11.31; Barnes, ''Constantine and Eusebius'', 153. The M107 was also used by the Israel Defense Forces in the various Arab–Israeli conflicts. When these guns were outranged by rocket fire from Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), they were upgraded with the addition of extended range, full bore ammunition and new powder supplied by Gerald Bull's Space Research Corporation. This allowed operations over 50 km with increased accuracy. Jesus then "withdraws", ''anechōrēsen'', and goes down by a lake, presumably the Sea of Galilee, and people follow him there. Some see the word as meaning flight as it comes after Mark talks about the plot against Jesus, but it could just as easily mean leaving Capernaum to go to the sea. Mark says the people had come from "...Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea (Edom), and the regions across the Jordan (Jordan river) and around Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon." ( For this reason, early Christian baptistries (Baptismal font) and tombs typically were shaped as octagons. The practice of octaves was first introduced under Constantine I, when the dedication festivities of the basilicas at Jerusalem and Tyre, Lebanon were observed for eight days. After these one-off occasions, annual liturgical feasts began to be dignified with an octave. The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)). This occurred in the fourth century and served as a period of time for the newly baptized to take a joyful retreat. "Octave", ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' Margaritus first appears as a leader of the fleet alongside Tancred, then just count of Lecce, which took Cephalonia and the Ionian Islands in 1185 and then harassed Isaac Comnenus (Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus)' Cyprus and captured many of his ships, taking them back to Sicily. In Autumn 1187, King William sent him with a fleet to the Holy Land, where, on 2 October, Saladin had captured Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (1187)). Margaritus, with 60 ships and 200 knights, patrolled the Palestine coast constantly, preventing Saladin from taking any of the vital seaports of the Latin crusader kingdom (Kingdom of Jerusalem). In July 1188, he arrived at Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) and forced Saladin to raise the siege of Krak des Chevaliers. Something similar happened at Marqab, Latakia, and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in the following year. On 11 November 1189, William died and his fleet returned. On 4 October 1190, Margaritus, the ''strategos'' Jordan du Pin, and many other nobles of Messina were forced to flee when Richard the Lion-Hearted, king of England, sacked the city and burnt it. Margaritus took little part thereafter in the Third Crusade. *It is metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians (w:Phoenicians) of Tyre (w:Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon (w:Sidon) obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles (w:British Isles). In Ezek (w:Book of Ezekiel) (27:12_ it is said to have been brought from Tarshish (w:Tarshish), which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa (w:Book of Isaiah) (1:25) the word so rendered is generally understood of lead (w:Pead), the alloy with which the silver had become mixed. The fire of the Babylonish Captivity (w:Babylonish Captivity) would be the means of purging out the idolatrous (w:Idolatrous) alloy that had corrupted the people. **In Bible Dictionary quoted in Dictionary in: "tin".


international publications

the Phoenicians whom he affiliated to the ancient patriarchate of Antioch. Paul also preached in Lebanon, he had lingered with the early Christians in Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon.

the possibility that Saint Peter himself was the one who evangelized (Evangelism) the Phoenicians whom he affiliated to the ancient patriarchate of Antioch. Paul also preached in Lebanon, he had lingered with the early Christians in Tyre, Lebanon Tyre


original construction

to debate this topic with Medieval Karaite Jewish sages. For this reason, early Christian baptistries (Baptismal font) and tombs typically were shaped as octagons. The practice of octaves was first introduced under Constantine I, when the dedication festivities of the basilicas at Jerusalem and Tyre, Lebanon were observed for eight days. After these one-off occasions, annual liturgical feasts began to be dignified with an octave. The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)). This occurred in the fourth century and served as a period of time for the newly baptized to take a joyful retreat. "Octave", ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' Margaritus first appears as a leader of the fleet alongside Tancred, then just count of Lecce, which took Cephalonia and the Ionian Islands in 1185 and then harassed Isaac Comnenus (Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus)' Cyprus and captured many of his ships, taking them back to Sicily. In Autumn 1187, King William sent him with a fleet to the Holy Land, where, on 2 October, Saladin had captured Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (1187)). Margaritus, with 60 ships and 200 knights, patrolled the Palestine coast constantly, preventing Saladin from taking any of the vital seaports of the Latin crusader kingdom (Kingdom of Jerusalem). In July 1188, he arrived at Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) and forced Saladin to raise the siege of Krak des Chevaliers. Something similar happened at Marqab, Latakia, and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in the following year. On 11 November 1189, William died and his fleet returned. On 4 October 1190, Margaritus, the ''strategos'' Jordan du Pin, and many other nobles of Messina were forced to flee when Richard the Lion-Hearted, king of England, sacked the city and burnt it. Margaritus took little part thereafter in the Third Crusade. *It is metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians (w:Phoenicians) of Tyre (w:Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon (w:Sidon) obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles (w:British Isles). In Ezek (w:Book of Ezekiel) (27:12_ it is said to have been brought from Tarshish (w:Tarshish), which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa (w:Book of Isaiah) (1:25) the word so rendered is generally understood of lead (w:Pead), the alloy with which the silver had become mixed. The fire of the Babylonish Captivity (w:Babylonish Captivity) would be the means of purging out the idolatrous (w:Idolatrous) alloy that had corrupted the people. **In Bible Dictionary quoted in Dictionary in: "tin".


poetry quot

It appears Egyptian contact peaked during the 19th dynasty (Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt), only to decline during the 20th (Twentieth dynasty of Egypt) and 21st (Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt) dynasties. Although the archaeological evidence seems to indicate a brief resurgence during the 22nd (Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt) and 23rd (Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt) dynasties, it is clear after the Third Intermediate Period the Egyptians started favoring Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon instead of Byblos. Shaw, Ian: "The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt", page 321. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7 In the Persian period (538–332 BC), Byblos was the fourth of four Phoenician vassal kingdoms established by the Persians; the first three being Sidon, Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), and Arwad. The city attracted peoples such as the Babylonians, the Mitanni, the Hittites of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), the Canaanites of Ugarit, the Phoenicians of Byblos and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), the Minoans from the island of Crete. A Hittite prince from Anatolia even came to marry with the widow of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun. The political and military importance of the city, however, faded during the Late Period, with Thebes being replaced as political capital by several cities in Northern Egypt, such as Bubastis, Sais and finally Alexandria. US Secretary of State, Alexander Haig filed a report with US President Ronald Reagan on Saturday 30 January 1982 that revealed Secretary Haig's fear that Israel might, at the slightest provocation, start a war against Lebanon. Reagan, Ronald (Brinkley, Douglas, (ed.)) (2007). ''The Reagan Diaries''. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-087600-5 p. 66: Saturday, 30 January On 21 April 1982, after a landmine killed an Israeli officer while he was visiting a South Lebanese Army gun emplacement in Taibe, Lebanon, the Israeli Air Force attacked the Palestinian-controlled coastal town of Damour, killing 23 people. Fisk, Robert (2001). ''Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War''. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280130-9, and ISBN 978-0-19-280130-2 p. 194. On 9 May, Israeli aircraft again attacked targets in Lebanon. Later that same day, UNIFIL observed the firing of rockets from Palestinian positions in the Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) region into northern Israel, but none of the projectiles hit an Israeli settlement Friedman, Thomas L. "Israeli Jets Raid P.L.O. in Lebanon; Shelling follows". ''The New York Times'', 10 May 1982, p. 1. --the gunners had been ordered to miss. Major-General Erskine (Ghana), Chief of Staff of UNTSO reported to the Secretary-General (United Nations Secretary-General) and the Security Council (S 14789, S 15194) that from August 1981 to May 1982, inclusive, there were 2096 violations of Lebanese airspace and 652 violations of Lebanese territorial waters (Chomsky, 1999, p. 195; Cobban, 1984, p. 112). There were more than 240 PLO attacks against Israeli targets, and Israel considered them violations of the ceasefire. Herzog & Gazit (2005), pp. 350–351 The freedom of movement of UNIFIL personnel and UNTSO observers within the enclave remained restricted due to the actions of Amal (Amal Movement) and the South Lebanon Army under Major Saad Haddad's leadership with the backing of Israeli military forces. IDF forces totalled 78,000 men, 1,240 tanks and 1,500 armoured personnel carriers. IDF troops were deployed in five divisions and two reinforced brigade-size units. The IDF maintained additional forces on the Golan Heights as an area reserve. IDF forces were divided into three main axis of advances called sectors: Israeli Elite Units since 1948, Samuel Katz, Osprey Elite series 18, * Coastal Sector, (from Rosh Hanikra (Rosh HaNikra Crossing) north to Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), Sidon, Damour and Beirut.) – Forces included Division 91 (91st Division (IDF)) with three brigades including the 211th and the Golani Brigade. The 35 Paratroop Brigade (Paratroopers Brigade) and the Na'hal (Nahal) 50th Paratroop Battalion were attached to the division as needed. The Israeli Navy provided naval interdiction, shore gunfire support and landed a mixed brigade from Division 96 (96th Division (IDF)) at the mouth of the Awali River near Sidon. Israeli Naval commandos (Shayetet 13) had landed there previously. * Central Sector (from Beaufort Castle (Beaufort Castle, Lebanon) to Nabatiyeh) – Jezzine was the main objective and then on to Sidon to link up with the coastal forces. IDF forces included the Divisions 36 (36th Division (IDF)) and 162 (162nd Division (IDF)). 150px thumb left ''La malagueña'' (1919) by Julio Romero de Torres (File:La malagueña by Julio Romero de Torres.jpg). The Phoenicians


great work

fortress-city with mainland villages along the shore. These mainland settlements were destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II, but after a 13-year siege from 585–573 BC, the King of Tyre made peace with Nebuchadnezzar, going into exile and leaving the island city itself

intact. ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' 43 xxii 452 Alexander the Great used debris from the mainland to build a causeway to the island, entered the city, and plundered the city, sacking it without mercy.


traditional view

-sovereign local entity. The term '''city-state''' which originated in English (alongside the German '''Stadtstaat''') does not fully translate the Greek term. The ''poleis'' were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather a political entity ruled by its body of citizens. The traditional view of archaeologists, that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read


quot literary

page 47 Tyre's name appears on monuments as early as 1300 BC. Philo of Byblos (in Eusebius) quotes the antiquarian authority Sanchuniathon as stating that it was first occupied by Hypsuranius. Sanchuniathon's work is said to be dedicated to "Abibalus king of Berytus"—possibly the Abibaal who was king of Tyre. Vance, Donald R. (March 1994) "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria: The Phœnician Inscriptions" ''The Biblical Archaeologist'' 57(1), pp. 2–19 There are ten Amarna letters dated 1350 BC from the mayor, Abimilku, written to Akenaten. The subject is often water, wood, and the Habiru overtaking the countryside of the mainland, and how it affected the island-city. Early history The commerce of the ancient world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the Aegean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa (Northern Africa), at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cádiz)". from 'Tyre' in Easton's Bible Dictionary The city of Tyre was particularly known for the production of a rare and extraordinarily expensive sort of purple dye, produced from the murex shellfish, known as Tyrian purple. This color was, in many cultures of ancient times, reserved (Sumptuary laws) for the use of royalty, or at least nobility. Bariaa Mourad. ''"Du Patrimoine à la Muséologie : Conception d'un musée sur le site archéologique de Tyr",'' DEA Thesis (doctoral studies); Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN), Study realised in cooperation with the Unesco, Secteur de la Culture, Division du Patrimoine Culturel, Paris, 1998 Tyre was often attacked by Egypt, besieged by Shalmaneser V, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years. From 586 until 573 BC, the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar II For this reason, early Christian baptistries (Baptismal font) and tombs typically were shaped as octagons. The practice of octaves was first introduced under Constantine I, when the dedication festivities of the basilicas at Jerusalem and Tyre, Lebanon were observed for eight days. After these one-off occasions, annual liturgical feasts began to be dignified with an octave. The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)). This occurred in the fourth century and served as a period of time for the newly baptized to take a joyful retreat. "Octave", ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' Margaritus first appears as a leader of the fleet alongside Tancred, then just count of Lecce, which took Cephalonia and the Ionian Islands in 1185 and then harassed Isaac Comnenus (Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus)' Cyprus and captured many of his ships, taking them back to Sicily. In Autumn 1187, King William sent him with a fleet to the Holy Land, where, on 2 October, Saladin had captured Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (1187)). Margaritus, with 60 ships and 200 knights, patrolled the Palestine coast constantly, preventing Saladin from taking any of the vital seaports of the Latin crusader kingdom (Kingdom of Jerusalem). In July 1188, he arrived at Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) and forced Saladin to raise the siege of Krak des Chevaliers. Something similar happened at Marqab, Latakia, and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in the following year. On 11 November 1189, William died and his fleet returned. On 4 October 1190, Margaritus, the ''strategos'' Jordan du Pin, and many other nobles of Messina were forced to flee when Richard the Lion-Hearted, king of England, sacked the city and burnt it. Margaritus took little part thereafter in the Third Crusade. *It is metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians (w:Phoenicians) of Tyre (w:Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon (w:Sidon) obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles (w:British Isles). In Ezek (w:Book of Ezekiel) (27:12_ it is said to have been brought from Tarshish (w:Tarshish), which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa (w:Book of Isaiah) (1:25) the word so rendered is generally understood of lead (w:Pead), the alloy with which the silver had become mixed. The fire of the Babylonish Captivity (w:Babylonish Captivity) would be the means of purging out the idolatrous (w:Idolatrous) alloy that had corrupted the people. **In Bible Dictionary quoted in Dictionary in: "tin".


place history

, with a field between, where the contests should take place. ''History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times'' (London, 1827) and ''The Process of Historical Proof'' (London, 1828) were later remodelled as a single work (1859), in which he attempted to show grounds for accepting literary documents like the Bible as a basis for history. Next appeared an expurgated translation of Herodotus (London, 1829), work which seems to have suggested an anonymous romance, ''The Temple of Melekartha'' (London, 1831), dealing with the prehistoric migration of the Tyrians (Tyre, Lebanon) from the Persian Gulf to the Levant. Taylor is said to have depicted his wife in the heroine. His next and best-known work, ''The Natural History of Enthusiasm'' (London; Boston, 1830; 10th edit. London, 1845), appeared anonymously in May 1829. It was a sort of historico-philosophical disquisition on religious imagination, and had an instant vogue. Taylor developed the subject in his ''Fanaticism'' (London, 1833; 7th edit. 1866) and ''Spiritual Despotism'' (London, 1835, three editions). Three further volumes on scepticism, credulity, and the corruption of morals were included in the author's plan of a ‘morbid anatomy of spurious religion,’ but these complementary volumes were never completed. Those that appeared were praised by John Wilson (John Wilson (Scottish writer)) in ''Blackwood's Magazine'' and the last of the three particularly by Sir James Stephen For this reason, early Christian baptistries (Baptismal font) and tombs typically were shaped as octagons. The practice of octaves was first introduced under Constantine I, when the dedication festivities of the basilicas at Jerusalem and Tyre, Lebanon were observed for eight days. After these one-off occasions, annual liturgical feasts began to be dignified with an octave. The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)). This occurred in the fourth century and served as a period of time for the newly baptized to take a joyful retreat. "Octave", ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' Margaritus first appears as a leader of the fleet alongside Tancred, then just count of Lecce, which took Cephalonia and the Ionian Islands in 1185 and then harassed Isaac Comnenus (Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus)' Cyprus and captured many of his ships, taking them back to Sicily. In Autumn 1187, King William sent him with a fleet to the Holy Land, where, on 2 October, Saladin had captured Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (1187)). Margaritus, with 60 ships and 200 knights, patrolled the Palestine coast constantly, preventing Saladin from taking any of the vital seaports of the Latin crusader kingdom (Kingdom of Jerusalem). In July 1188, he arrived at Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) and forced Saladin to raise the siege of Krak des Chevaliers. Something similar happened at Marqab, Latakia, and Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) in the following year. On 11 November 1189, William died and his fleet returned. On 4 October 1190, Margaritus, the ''strategos'' Jordan du Pin, and many other nobles of Messina were forced to flee when Richard the Lion-Hearted, king of England, sacked the city and burnt it. Margaritus took little part thereafter in the Third Crusade. *It is metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians (w:Phoenicians) of Tyre (w:Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon (w:Sidon) obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles (w:British Isles). In Ezek (w:Book of Ezekiel) (27:12_ it is said to have been brought from Tarshish (w:Tarshish), which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa (w:Book of Isaiah) (1:25) the word so rendered is generally understood of lead (w:Pead), the alloy with which the silver had become mixed. The fire of the Babylonish Captivity (w:Babylonish Captivity) would be the means of purging out the idolatrous (w:Idolatrous) alloy that had corrupted the people. **In Bible Dictionary quoted in Dictionary in: "tin".


ancient books

, with a field between, where the contests should take place. ''History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times'' (London, 1827) and ''The Process of Historical Proof'' (London, 1828) were later remodelled as a single work (1859), in which he attempted to show grounds for accepting literary documents like the Bible as a basis for history. Next appeared an expurgated translation of Herodotus (London, 1829), work which seems to have suggested an anonymous romance, ''The Temple

Tyre, Lebanon

website '''Tyre''' (Arabic (Arabic language): south of Beirut. The name of the city means "rock (rock (geology))" (Bikai, P., "The Land of Tyre", in Joukowsky, M., ''The Heritage of Tyre'', 1992, chapter 2, p. 13) after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built. The adjective for Tyre is ''Tyrian'', and the inhabitants are ''Tyrians''.

Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city and the legendary birthplace of Europa (Europa (mythology)) and Elissa (Dido (Queen of Carthage)) (Dido). Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon Tyre City, Lebanon and houses one of the nation's major ports. Tourism is a major industry. The city has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. Resolution 459 Lebanon's Archaeological Heritage

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