Tver

What is Tver known for?


educational development

When Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic (East Slavs) states, including Kiev, Chernihiv, Novgorod, Pereiaslav (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi), Vladimir-Suzdal', Muscovy, Tver, Halych-Volynia, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There are also admirable works of early travellers, as the igumen Daniel, who visited the Holy Land at the end of the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth century. A later traveller was Afanasiy Nikitin, a merchant of Tver, who visited India in 1470. He has left a record of his adventures (A Journey Beyond the Three Seas), which has been translated into English and published for the Hakluyt Society. History Klin has been known since 1317. In 1482, it was incorporated into Muscovy with the rest of the Grand Princedom of Tver. Among several churches, the most noteworthy are the 16th century church of the Dormition cloister and the baroque Resurrection cathedral (1712). Town status was granted in 1781. In 1108, Yuri was sent by his father to govern in his name the vast Rostov-Suzdal (Vladimir-Suzdal) province in the north-east of Kievan Rus'. In 1121, he quarrelled with the boyars of Rostov and moved the capital of his lands from that city to Suzdal. As the area was sparsely populated, Yuriy founded many fortresses there. He established the towns of Ksniatin in 1134, Pereslavl-Zalesski and Yuriev-Polski in 1152, and Dmitrov in 1154. The establishment of Tver, Kostroma, and Vologda is also popularly assigned to Yuri. The Soviet command began constructing extensive defenses around the city. The first part, the Rzhev-Vyazma defense setup, was built on the Rzhev–Vyazma–Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. ref name "MosEnc


defensive stance

stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver


successful commercial

in 1371, Vladimir still loyally supported Dmitry in his struggle against the Lithuanians. The Mongols (Mongol invasion of Rus') looted the country so thoroughly that even capitals (such as Moscow or Tver) could not afford new stone churches for more than half a century. Novgorod and Pskov escaped the Mongol yoke, however, and evolved into successful commercial republics; dozens of medieval churches (from the 12th century and after) have been preserved in these towns


drawings made

contains spelling lessons and drawings made by a boy named Onfim; based on draftsmanship, experts estimate his age as between 6 and 7 at the time. death_date wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver


characters+character

, Ru Taisu, sends a 17,000 character-long (Chinese characters) memorial to the throne, to be read aloud to the Hongwu Emperor. By the 16,370th character, the emperor has been offended by several passages, and has Ru Taisu summoned to court and flogged for the perceived insult. The next day, having had the remaining characters read to him, he likes four of Ru's recommendations, and instates these in reforms. Ru is nevertheless castigated for having forced the emperor to hear thousands


education published

seminars and conferences for the teachers. During the time when the intensive rethinking of media education approaches was on the upgrade in the Western hemisphere, in Russia of the 1970s–1980s media education was still developing within the aesthetic concept. Among the important achievements of 1970s-1990s one can recall the first official programs of film and media education, published by Ministry of Education, increasing interest of Ph.D. to media education, experimental theoretic and practical


view huge

that the underwater world of Lake Brosno has a structure of several levels. From time to time, burbots and yellow perch can be found in the lake. For example, herring can be found in a lake in Peno District in the Tver Region. Some consider it strange that sea fish may live in the lake at all. Smelt (Smelt (fish)) shoals can be found in Lake Brosno as well. The phenomenon of Brosnya can be explained from the physical point of view: huge smelt shoals are reflected on the water


numerous buildings

. The churches of Novgorod (such as the Saviour-on-Ilyina-Street, built in 1374), are steep-roofed and roughly carved; some contain magnificent medieval frescoes. The tiny and picturesque churches of Pskov feature many novel elements: corbel arch (kokoshnik)es, church porches, exterior galleries and bell towers (belltower). All these features were introduced by Pskov masons to Muscovy, where they constructed numerous buildings during the 15th century (including the Deposition Church of the Moscow Kremlin (1462) and the Holy Spirit Church of the Holy Trinity Lavra (Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra), built in 1476). thumb 250px righr The site of the Khazar fortress of Sarkel (File:Sarkel.jpg), which was discovered and excavated by Artamonov in the 1930s. '''Mikhail Illarionovich Artamonov''' ( wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver


scientific works

wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver


scientific+musical

in Saint Petersburg and Ivan Grzhimali (Jan Hřímalý) in Moscow. In 1901, he founded his own music school in the city of Tver. From 1903-1910, he lived in Moscow and toured Germany giving concerts. Maykapar was an active participant and the Secretary of Sergei Taneyev's ''Scientific-Musical Circle'' in Moscow. In 1915 he became professor of music at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. In 1927, for seven nights in a row, the composer performed 32 Beethoven (Ludwig van Beethoven) sonatas in the Small Hall of the Conservatory as part of the ''Beethoven Centennial Celebrations''. He composed over three hundred music pieces and wrote several scientific works. He was granted a boyar dignity in 1562. Four years later, following the death of his brother Daniil Romanovich (Daniil Romanovich Zakharyin-Yuriev), he became the governor of Tver. He commanded detachments of the Muscovite army during the winter campaign of 1572 in Novgorod and against Sweden. He also took part in the Livonian campaigns of 1573 and 1577. Transport A114 highway (A114 highway (Russia)), connecting Vologda to Cherepovets and Saint Petersburg, passes north of Ustyuzhna. There is a road connecting Ustyuzhna with the highway. Ustyuzhna is also connected by roads with Tver via Vesyegonsk, Bezhetsk via Sandovo, and Borovichi via Pestovo. There are also local roads. birth_date wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver

Tver

'''Tver''' (

Located north of Moscow, Tver was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga (Volga River) and Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as '''Kalinin''' ( ) from 1931 to 1990.

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Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017