Turkmenistan

What is Turkmenistan known for?


fine views

Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


science technical

of and first year after World War II the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific


series opening

-hunt.com lectures LectureOpen.htm Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000 . Retrieved 1 October 2007. and holds an important position in international energy security (Energy superpower#Iran) and world economy (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas. Iran has the second largest proven natural gas reserves in the world and the fourth largest


high religious

: www.nationmaster.com country gg-georgia rel-religion NationMaster - Georgian Religion statistics have high religious populations.


frequently quot

in sources from Sassanid (Sassanid Empire) and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan (Khorasan Province) in Iran. It also included parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikstan Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


famous science

the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) Emperor Romanus IV, many Byzantine Greeks were taken as slaves to Central Asia. The most famous among them was Al-Khazini, a Byzantine Greek slave taken to Merv, then in the Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) province of Persia (Persian Empire) but now in Turkmenistan, who was later freed and became a famous Muslim scientist (Science in medieval Islam). Klotz, "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure


research published

name "cf_Gronke_1993_59_60" ''cf.'' . Also Arabic sources of the same period and the same region of historical Persia consider Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (Iran)) as the birth place of Zarathustra. Solomon Alexander Nigosian, ''The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research'', Published by McGill-Queen's University Press – MQUP, 1993, ISBN 0-7735-1144-X, p. 17. The regional capital, Batumi


extensive short

web url https: www.cia.gov library publications the-world-factbook geos tx.html title Turkmenistan publisher CIA World Factbook date accessdate 2013-11-25 Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply because of increases in international oil and gas prices. Economic


big independent

and North America. As a whole, ITERA has over 150 branches, representative offices, branches, and affiliated companies all over the world. Itera Group. Being a big independent player on the Russian gas market, ITERA closely teams up with the Russian gas giant Gazprom on developing infrastructure to deliver gas condensate from production sites. Itera. The company was originally started in the United States under the name Itera International Energy Corporation as a basic commodities trading company. In 1994, after a sale of sugar to the country of Turkmenistan, Itera obtained rights to sell Turkmeni natural gas as payment for its sugar transaction. Itera began sales to the Ukraine of the Turkmeni gas in 1995 and, based on that success, continued to expand its natural gas trading activities throughout the former Soviet Union, becoming the second largest seller of natural gas in the FSU in the late 1990s. Its subsidiary Itera USA provides representation for Itera Group projects in North America, with corporate headquarters in Jacksonville, Florida. Itera USA provides solutions in energy, bioenergy, timber and real estate. Itera USA is purportedly at work on a project that would use new, patented technology to produce bioethanol and other specialty chemicals. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


education sponsorship

, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Iraq and Yemen. large number of international students are from Pakistan & Sudan , local and international, study under convertible loans or scholarships from the Education Sponsorship Unit of Petronas itself. Most Bukharan Jews lived in the Emirate of Bukhara (currently Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), while a small number lived in Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and some other parts of the former Soviet Union. In the Emirate of Bukhara, the largest concentrations were in Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khokand. In Tajikistan, they similarly were mainly concentrated in the capital, Dushanbe. History The first primary written account of Jews in Central Asia dates to the beginning of the 4th century CE. It is recalled in the Talmud by Rabbi Shmuel bar Bisna, a member of the Talmudic academy in Pumbeditha, who traveled to Margiana (present-day Merv in Turkmenistan) and feared that the wine and alcohol produced by local Jews was not kosher. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Aboda Zara, 31b, and Rashi The presence of Jewish communities in Merv is also proven by Jewish writings on ossuaries from the 5th and 6th centuries, uncovered between 1954 and 1956. Ochildiev, D; R. Pinkhasov, I. Kalontarov. ''A History and Culture of the Bukharian Jews'', Roshnoyi-Light, New York, 2007. He returned to Turkestan after the war, and in 1880 and 1881 further distinguished himself by retrieving the disasters inflicted by the Tekke Turkomans: following Siege of Geoktepe he captured the city (Geok Tepe), and, after much slaughter, reduced the Akhal-Tekke (Turkmenistan) country to submission. Lansdell, Henry (1885) ''Russian Central Asia: Including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv'' S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, pp. 464-465 He was advancing on Ashkhabad and Kalat i-Nadiri when he was disavowed and recalled. He was given the command at Minsk. thumb The Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque (File:Afghanistan 14.jpg) in Kabul Khurasan (Greater Khorasan) was the second largest province of the Sassanid Empire. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. Its capital was Balkh, in northern Afghanistan. In late 643 the mission of conquering Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a short and less frequented route via Rey (Rey, Iran) and Nishapur. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. From Nishapur Ahnaf marched to Herat which is in western Afghanistan. Herat was a fortified town, the Siege of Herat lasted for a few months before surrendering. With the surrender of Herat, the whole of southern Khurasan came under Muslim control. With Herat under his firm control, Ahnaf marched north directly to Merv, in present Turkmenistan. The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 978-0-19-597713-4, Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegred III left for Balkh. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without firing a shot. Ahnaf stayed at Merv and waited for reinforcement from Kufa. Meanwhile Yazdgird had also gathered considerable power at Balkh and also sought alliance with the Khan of Farghana, who personally led the Turkish contingent to help Yazdegred III. Umar ordered that Yazdgird’s allied forces should be weaken by breaking up the alliance with the Turks. Ahnaf successfully broke up the alliance and the Khan of Farghana pulled back his forces realizing that fighting with the Muslims was not a good idea and that it might endanger his own kingdom. Yazdgird's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. Yazdegred III had a narrow escape and fled to China. Balkh was occupied by the Muslims, and with this occupation the Persian war was over. The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. Beyond that lay the lands of the Turks (Turkic peoples) and still further lay China. The old mighty empire of the Sassanids had ceased to exist. Ahnaf returned to Marv and sent a detail report of operations to Umar, a historic letter Umar was anxiously waiting for, subject of which was the downfall of the Persian Empire, and with which permission was sought to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. Umar ordered Ahnaf to desist and instead to consolidate his power south of Oxus. thumb The Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque (File:Afghanistan 14.jpg) in Kabul Khurasan (Greater Khorasan) was the second largest province of the Sassanid Empire. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. Its capital was Balkh, in northern Afghanistan. In late 643 the mission of conquering Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a short and less frequented route via Rey (Rey, Iran) and Nishapur. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. From Nishapur Ahnaf marched to Herat which is in western Afghanistan. Herat was a fortified town, the Siege of Herat lasted for a few months before surrendering. With the surrender of Herat, the whole of southern Khurasan came under Muslim control. With Herat under his firm control, Ahnaf marched north directly to Merv, in present Turkmenistan. The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 978-0-19-597713-4, Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegred III left for Balkh. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without firing a shot. Ahnaf stayed at Merv and waited for reinforcement from Kufa. Meanwhile Yazdgird had also gathered considerable power at Balkh and also sought alliance with the Khan of Farghana, who personally led the Turkish contingent to help Yazdegred III. Umar ordered that Yazdgird’s allied forces should be weaken by breaking up the alliance with the Turks. Ahnaf successfully broke up the alliance and the Khan of Farghana pulled back his forces realizing that fighting with the Muslims was not a good idea and that it might endanger his own kingdom. Yazdgird's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. Yazdegred III had a narrow escape and fled to China. Balkh was occupied by the Muslims, and with this occupation the Persian war was over. The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. Beyond that lay the lands of the Turks (Turkic peoples) and still further lay China. The old mighty empire of the Sassanids had ceased to exist. Ahnaf returned to Marv and sent a detail report of operations to Umar, a historic letter Umar was anxiously waiting for, subject of which was the downfall of the Persian Empire, and with which permission was sought to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. Umar ordered Ahnaf to desist and instead to consolidate his power south of Oxus. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030

Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.

A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017