url http: oilprice.com Geopolitics Asia What-is-the-Best-Route-for-Supplying-Landlocked-Afghanistan.html title What is the Best Route for Supplying Landlocked Afghanistan work Oil Price date 30 January 2012 accessdate 31 January 2012 Conversely, Pakistan considers Afghanistan as an important trade route for access to Central Asian resources.
: www.britannica.com eb article-9066688 LINK ): ''"... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."'' O.Özgündenli, ''"Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Chuvash , Yakut (Sakha language) and Dolgan (Dolgan language). These languages have been geographically separated from the other Turkic languages for extensive period of time and Chuvash language stands out as the most divergent from other Turkic languages. There are also Gagauz speakers in the Moldavia and Urum Speakers in Georgia (Georgia (country)). It breeds on open grassland in Russia and Kazakhstan. Three to five eggs are laid in a ground nest. These birds
Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
existence, the most recent level drop was caused by the former Soviet Union building massive irrigation projects in the region. Although the North Aral Sea is currently rising, the South Aral Sea is still dropping, thus expanding the size of the desert. Aral Sea The ''Rigveda'' describes a mobile, semi-nomadic culture, with horse-drawn chariots, oxen-drawn wagons, and metal (bronze) weapons
-hunt.com lectures LectureOpen.htm Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000 Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
(still in print and sanely priced) guide to these carpets, look for books by the California collector Dr. Murray Eiland. If you intend spending a lot on these carpets and especially if you are interested in older carpets, it may be worth looking deeper. The classic book on Turkoman rugs is ''Tappiseries de l'Asie Centrale'' by AA Bogolyubov, who was Tsarist governor of Turkmenistan, published in Russian and French in St. Petersburg in 1905. It was a limited edition with hand-painted
'' (retrieved 10 August 2006). The ancient ashiks were called by various names such as ''bakhshi'' (Baxşı), dede (Dede (religious figure)) (dədə), and uzan or ozan. Among their various roles, they played a major part in perpetuation of oral tradition, promotion of communal value system and traditional culture of their people. These wandering bards or troubadours are part of current rural and folk culture of Azerbaijan, and Iranian Azerbaijan, Turkey, the Turkmen Sahra
Eastern cuisine West Asian cuisine is a fusion of Turkish (Turkish cuisine), Arabian (Arabian cuisine), North African (North African cuisine) and Persian cuisine. It is immensely rich and diverse. The literature is also immensely rich with Arabic (Arabic literature), Turkish (Turkish literature) and Persian literature dominating. One of the most famous literary works of West Asia is 1001 Arabian Nights. Central Asia Central Asia is deemed to consist of the five former Soviet Socialist Republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. However, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan are sometimes included. The predominant religion in Central Asia is Islam. Central Asia has a long rich history mainly based on its historic position on the famous Silk Road. It has been conquered by Mongols, Persians (Persian people), Tatars, Russians, Sarmatian and thus has a very distinct, vibrant culture. The culture is influenced by Chinese (Chinese people), South Asian, Persian (Persian people), Arabian, Turkish (Turkish people), Russian (Russian people), Sarmatian and Mongolian cultures. The people of the steppes of Central Asia have historically been nomadic people but a unifying state was established in Central Asia in the 16th century: The Kazakh Khanate. In November 2008, a Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
of oil equivalent. In 2007, CNPC produced 54 billion cubic metres of natural gas.spun off most of its domestic assets into a separate company, PetroChina , during a restructuring. CNPC has 30 international exploration and production projects with operations in Azerbaijan, Canada, Iran, Indonesia, Myanmar, Oman, Peru, Sudan, Thailand, Turkmenistan
'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030
Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.
A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.