largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a regional power,
-hunt.com lectures LectureOpen.htm Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000 Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
web url https: www.cia.gov library publications the-world-factbook geos tx.html title Turkmenistan publisher CIA World Factbook date accessdate 2013-11-25 Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply because of increases in international oil and gas prices. Economic
Chuvash , Yakut (Sakha language) and Dolgan (Dolgan language). These languages have been geographically separated from the other Turkic languages for extensive period of time and Chuvash language stands out as the most divergent from other Turkic languages. There are also Gagauz speakers in the Moldavia and Urum Speakers in Georgia (Georgia (country)). It breeds on open grassland in Russia and Kazakhstan. Three to five eggs are laid in a ground nest. These birds
). Cost: 60,000 rial for 2, or less if you can. Duration: about 1h. * At Bajgiran, go to the border (opening time: 07.30-15.30 Iran time). Crossing the border can take up to 2 hours. Turkmen police will ask for an entry tax of $10 (per person) + $2 of bank fees (per group), to be paid in US dollars only. * In the Turkmenistan side, take a taxi to Ashgabat, which can cost up to $15 per person. Duration: about 1h. From Uzbekistan Each crossing may require 15 minutes' walk across no-mans
The task for modern Turkmen architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment. Most buildings are faced with white marble. Major projects such as Turkmenistan Tower, Bagt köşgi (Wedding Palace (Ashgabat)), Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center have transformed the country's skyline and promotes its contemporary identity. Transportation
of and first year after World War II the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific literature, and for museums and archives), a laboratory for scientific photography and cinematography and Academy of Science Press departments external to the divisions; 7 filials (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Ural (Ural (region))s, and West Siberian), and 8 independent of central Academies in Ukraine, Belorussia, Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Lithuania, Uzbekistan, Latvia, and Estonia. Ashby, Eric. 1947. "Scientist in Russia". Pelican books * The part of the Paraná River between the Salto Grande de Sete Quedas and the mouth of the Iguassu River is shared in condominium by Brazil and Paraguay. * It has been proposed by Iran that the Caspian Sea is a condominium of Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan (its five littoral states), but it is not in fact. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
and North America. As a whole, ITERA has over 150 branches, representative offices, branches, and affiliated companies all over the world. Itera Group. Being a big independent player on the Russian gas market, ITERA closely teams up with the Russian gas giant Gazprom on developing infrastructure to deliver gas condensate from production sites. Itera. The company was originally started in the United States under the name Itera International Energy Corporation as a basic commodities trading company. In 1994, after a sale of sugar to the country of Turkmenistan, Itera obtained rights to sell Turkmeni natural gas as payment for its sugar transaction. Itera began sales to the Ukraine of the Turkmeni gas in 1995 and, based on that success, continued to expand its natural gas trading activities throughout the former Soviet Union, becoming the second largest seller of natural gas in the FSU in the late 1990s. Its subsidiary Itera USA provides representation for Itera Group projects in North America, with corporate headquarters in Jacksonville, Florida. Itera USA provides solutions in energy, bioenergy, timber and real estate. Itera USA is purportedly at work on a project that would use new, patented technology to produce bioethanol and other specialty chemicals. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
no later than the beginning of the 15th century. Michael E. Meeker, “The Dede Korkut Ethic”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1992), 395-417. excerpt: The Book of Dede Korkut is an early record of oral Turkic folktales (Turkish Folklore) in Anatolia, and as such, one of the mythic charters of Turkish nationalist ideology. The oldest versions of the Book of Dede Korkut consist of two manuscripts copied in the 16th century. The twelve stories
River runs in a southeast-northwesterly direction through the lowlands. Military campaigns Kalhana in his ''Rajatarangini'' credits king Lalitaditya with leading an aggressive military campaigns in Northern India (North India) and Central Asia. He broke into the Uttarapatha and defeated the rebellious tribes of the Kambojas, Tukharas (Tushara Kingdom) (Turks (Turkic peoples) in Turkmenistan and Tocharians in Badakhshan), Bhautas (Tibetans (Tibetan people) in Baltistan and Tibet) and Daradas (Dards (Dard people)). His campaign then led him to subjugate the kingdoms of Pragjyotisha, Strirajya and the Uttarakurus. Kalhana (1147-1149). ''Rajatarangini''. Sheldon Pollock (2006). ''The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India'' (p. 241-242). Sunil Fotedar (June 1984). ''The Kashmir Series: Glimpses of Kashmiri Culture - Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari'' (p. 57). Breed history It is not known where the Barb horse developed; some believe the breed originated in northern Africa during the 8th century, about the time that Islamic invaders reached the region. There is controversy over whether the Barb and Arabian (Arabian horse) horses share a common ancestor, or if the Arabian was a predecessor of the Barb. Native horses of the region may have been influenced by the crossing of "oriental" breeds, including the Arabian horse, Turkmenian (Turkmenistan) or Akhal-Teke, and Caspian horse (Caspian Pony), with Iberian horses brought back from Europe by the Moorish invaders after they conquered southern Spain. Nissen, Jasper, ''The Young Specialist Looks At Horses''. London: Burke Publishing Co. Ltd, 1963, p. 46. Today the several varieties of Barb include the Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian. Central Asia can include: * The Central Asian republics of UN Regional Code 143: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan * Afghanistan, Mongolia and the western regions of China in addition The embassy to Samarkand Clavijo, a nobleman of Madrid and chamberlain to the king, set sail from Cadiz on May 21, 1403 in the company of Timur's ambassador, Muhammed al-Kazi, a Dominican friar, Alfonso Páez de Santa María, one of the king's guards, Gómez de Salazar, and other unnamed Castilians. Clavijo sailed through the Mediterranean, passing Majorca, Sicily and Rhodes to Constantinople. Using modern names for the countries through which he passed, Clavijo sailed along the Black Sea coast of Turkey to Trabzon and then overland through Armenia, Iran and Turkmenistan to Uzbekistan. He visited Tehran, Persia (Iran), in 1404. The original intention was to meet with Timur at his winter pasturage in what is now modern Georgia (Georgia (country)), but due to foul weather conditions and a shipwreck, the embassy was forced to return to Constantinople and spend the winter of 1403-1404 there. * Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030
Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.
A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.