Turkmenistan

What is Turkmenistan known for?


news video

Nuclear Programme , 16 October 2007, Rbc.ru where he met with Iranian President (President of Iran) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.


ability quot

, his "outstanding creative ability," and the fact that neither teacher had seen in Mosolov any anti-Soviet disposition. On July 15, 1938, Mosolov's sentence was commuted to a five-year exile—he could not live in Moscow, Leningrad, or Kiev until 1942. Sitsky (#Sitsky94), "Man of Steel," p. 64. His quick release, having only served eight months of his eight year sentence, was possible because he had been imprisoned not on political charges but on an overblown accusation of "hooliganism" brought by Mosolov's enemies in the Composers' Union. Taruskin (#Taruskin01), ''Defining Russia Musically'', p. 92n19. The Soviet Union was dissolved (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) by the end of 1991, resulting in 14 countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) declaring their independence from the Soviet Union and the bulk of the country being succeeded by the Russian Federation. Communism was abandoned in Albania and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992, the latter splitting into five successor states by 1992: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later renamed Serbia and Montenegro, and later still split into two states, Serbia and Montenegro). Czechoslovakia too was dissolved three years after the end of communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992. http: www.cecl.gr RigasNetwork databank Constitutions Yugoslavia.html The impact was felt in dozens of Socialist countries (List of socialist countries). Communism was abandoned in countries such as Cambodia (People's Republic of Kampuchea), Ethiopia (People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), and Mongolia (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) and South Yemen. The collapse of Communism led commentators to declare the end of the Cold War. - align center rowspan 2 December 8 bgcolor #FFDDDD '''Turkmenistan''' gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Ashgabat is the capital. - Saw-scaled viper style "width:35%" Southeastern Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Masirah and eastern UAE (United Arab Emirates)), southwestern Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan (including Urak near Quetta and Astola Island off the Makran Coast (Makran)), India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. - * The various Turkic (Turkic peoples) and Iranian (Iranian peoples) hybrid traits pertaining to culture, dynasties as well population genetics of various peoples in Central Asia, as well as parts of West Asia (Southwest Asia) and South Asia. ''See also'': Persianate, Turko-Persian Tradition * The Oghuz (Oghuz languages) and Iranian (Iranian Languages) speaking countries such as Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan whose cultures are based and or have been heavily influenced by the Perso-Islamic culture (Persianate society) and who are a part of the Iranian Cultural Continent (Greater Iran) Sh.J. Boss, on the Encyclopaedia Iranica: ''"Comprehensive research project about the ''Iranian Cultural Continent'' thrives on Riverside Drive"'', Columbia College Today (Columbia College of Columbia University), (LINK) . * The Turkic (Turkic languages) speaking minorities of Iran, e.g. Azeris, Qashqais. (See Iranian Turks (disambiguation).) '''Rolan Gusev''' ( Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


ancient writing

authorlink coauthors title Ancient writing found in Turkmenistan. url http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi asia-pacific 1330705.stm quote A previously unknown civilisation was using writing in Central Asia 4,000 years ago, hundreds of years before Chinese writing developed, archaeologists have discovered. An excavation near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, revealed an inscription on a piece of stone that seems to have been used as a stamp seal. publisher BBC accessdate 2008-03-30 date 2001-05-15 * Europe: Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, Liechtenstein, Vatican City, Malta, Luxembourg, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Armenia * Asia: Israel, Lebanon, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Brunei, Singapore, Philippines, Japan, Mongolia * Oceania: Tonga, Cook Islands, Samoa, Niue, Palau, Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia), Marshall Islands - Turkmenistan Ashgabat - Non-members are: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Belarus, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cook Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Namibia, Nauru, Niue, North Korea, Qatar, Romania, San Marino, Seychelles, Suriname, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela. The remaining non-members are states with limited recognition (List of states with limited recognition). The other non-member states are: Andorra, Australia, Bahrain, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia), Monaco, Montenegro, Nauru, Palau, Poland, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Sudan, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Vatican City and the states with limited recognition (List of states with limited recognition). On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan – signed the Alma-Ata Protocol and joined the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11. Alma-Ata Declaration: 11 countries accede to the CIS, 21 December 1991 ('''English translation'''). '''Russian''' text here Georgia (country) Georgia joined two years later, in December 1993. As of that time, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS. Three former Soviet Republics, the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, chose not to join. Organization of Central Asian Cooperation Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan formed the OCAC in 1991 as Central Asian Commonwealth (CAC). The organization continued in 1994 as the Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU), in which Tajikistan and Turkmenistan did not participate. In 1998 it became the Central Asian Economic Cooperation (CAEC), which marked the return of Tajikistan. On 28 February 2002 it was renamed to its current name. Russia joined on 28 May 2004. Central Asian Cooperation Organization On 7 October 2005 it was decided between the member states that Uzbekistan will join Working group discusses Uzbekistan's accession to EurAsEC the Eurasian Economic Community and that the organizations will merge. Collective Security: A Timeline The organizations joined on 25 January 2006. It is not clear what will happen to the status of current CACO observers that are not observers to EurAsEC (Georgia (Georgia (country)) and Turkey). The following countries are members and recipients of investments: Countries of Operations EBRD - Basic facts] Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. thumb right 250px Mountain sheds like these are used by the rural populace as shelter for cattle in summer months as they take them for grazing in higher altitudes. (Image:yumthanghimalayas.jpg) Some of the world's major rivers, the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween, Red River (Asia), Xunjiang, Chao Phraya, Irrawaddy River, Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Tarim River and Yellow River, arise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, People's Republic of China, India (almost half of the population of India live within 500 km of the Himalayan range), Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


prominent modern

folk forms (folk music). Kyrgyz folk music is characterized by the use of long, sustained pitches, with Russian (Ethnic Russian music) elements also prominent. Modern Age thumb Khwarezm (''Karasm''), on a 1734 French map. The Khanate on the map surrounds the Aral Sea (File:CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Central-Asia-2574.jpg) (depicted as much smaller than it actually was in those days) and includes much of the today's Kazakhstan's and Turkmenistan's


popular scientific

of and first year after World War II the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific literature, and for museums and archives), a laboratory for scientific photography and cinematography and Academy of Science Press departments external to the divisions; 7 filials (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Ural (Ural (region))s, and West Siberian), and 8 independent of central Academies in Ukraine, Belorussia, Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Lithuania, Uzbekistan, Latvia, and Estonia. Ashby, Eric. 1947. "Scientist in Russia". Pelican books * The part of the Paraná River between the Salto Grande de Sete Quedas and the mouth of the Iguassu River is shared in condominium by Brazil and Paraguay. * It has been proposed by Iran that the Caspian Sea is a condominium of Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan (its five littoral states), but it is not in fact. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


major opposition

, there is even a creation myth surrounding him. Soucek, Svat. 2000. ''A History of Inner Asia.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. During Niyazov's rule there was no freedom of the press nor was there freedom of speech. This further meant that opposition to Niyazov was strictly forbidden and "major opposition figures have been imprisoned, institutionalized, deported, or have fled the country, and their family members


famous science

the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) Emperor Romanus IV, many Byzantine Greeks were taken as slaves to Central Asia. The most famous among them was Al-Khazini, a Byzantine Greek slave taken to Merv, then in the Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) province of Persia (Persian Empire) but now in Turkmenistan, who was later freed and became a famous Muslim scientist (Science in medieval Islam). Klotz, "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure


work+theme

Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


education sponsorship

, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Iraq and Yemen. large number of international students are from Pakistan & Sudan , local and international, study under convertible loans or scholarships from the Education Sponsorship Unit of Petronas itself. Most Bukharan Jews lived in the Emirate of Bukhara (currently Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), while a small number lived in Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and some other parts of the former Soviet Union. In the Emirate of Bukhara, the largest concentrations were in Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khokand. In Tajikistan, they similarly were mainly concentrated in the capital, Dushanbe. History The first primary written account of Jews in Central Asia dates to the beginning of the 4th century CE. It is recalled in the Talmud by Rabbi Shmuel bar Bisna, a member of the Talmudic academy in Pumbeditha, who traveled to Margiana (present-day Merv in Turkmenistan) and feared that the wine and alcohol produced by local Jews was not kosher. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Aboda Zara, 31b, and Rashi The presence of Jewish communities in Merv is also proven by Jewish writings on ossuaries from the 5th and 6th centuries, uncovered between 1954 and 1956. Ochildiev, D; R. Pinkhasov, I. Kalontarov. ''A History and Culture of the Bukharian Jews'', Roshnoyi-Light, New York, 2007. He returned to Turkestan after the war, and in 1880 and 1881 further distinguished himself by retrieving the disasters inflicted by the Tekke Turkomans: following Siege of Geoktepe he captured the city (Geok Tepe), and, after much slaughter, reduced the Akhal-Tekke (Turkmenistan) country to submission. Lansdell, Henry (1885) ''Russian Central Asia: Including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv'' S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, London, pp. 464-465 He was advancing on Ashkhabad and Kalat i-Nadiri when he was disavowed and recalled. He was given the command at Minsk. thumb The Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque (File:Afghanistan 14.jpg) in Kabul Khurasan (Greater Khorasan) was the second largest province of the Sassanid Empire. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. Its capital was Balkh, in northern Afghanistan. In late 643 the mission of conquering Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a short and less frequented route via Rey (Rey, Iran) and Nishapur. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. From Nishapur Ahnaf marched to Herat which is in western Afghanistan. Herat was a fortified town, the Siege of Herat lasted for a few months before surrendering. With the surrender of Herat, the whole of southern Khurasan came under Muslim control. With Herat under his firm control, Ahnaf marched north directly to Merv, in present Turkmenistan. The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 978-0-19-597713-4, Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegred III left for Balkh. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without firing a shot. Ahnaf stayed at Merv and waited for reinforcement from Kufa. Meanwhile Yazdgird had also gathered considerable power at Balkh and also sought alliance with the Khan of Farghana, who personally led the Turkish contingent to help Yazdegred III. Umar ordered that Yazdgird’s allied forces should be weaken by breaking up the alliance with the Turks. Ahnaf successfully broke up the alliance and the Khan of Farghana pulled back his forces realizing that fighting with the Muslims was not a good idea and that it might endanger his own kingdom. Yazdgird's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. Yazdegred III had a narrow escape and fled to China. Balkh was occupied by the Muslims, and with this occupation the Persian war was over. The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. Beyond that lay the lands of the Turks (Turkic peoples) and still further lay China. The old mighty empire of the Sassanids had ceased to exist. Ahnaf returned to Marv and sent a detail report of operations to Umar, a historic letter Umar was anxiously waiting for, subject of which was the downfall of the Persian Empire, and with which permission was sought to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. Umar ordered Ahnaf to desist and instead to consolidate his power south of Oxus. thumb The Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque (File:Afghanistan 14.jpg) in Kabul Khurasan (Greater Khorasan) was the second largest province of the Sassanid Empire. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. Its capital was Balkh, in northern Afghanistan. In late 643 the mission of conquering Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a short and less frequented route via Rey (Rey, Iran) and Nishapur. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. From Nishapur Ahnaf marched to Herat which is in western Afghanistan. Herat was a fortified town, the Siege of Herat lasted for a few months before surrendering. With the surrender of Herat, the whole of southern Khurasan came under Muslim control. With Herat under his firm control, Ahnaf marched north directly to Merv, in present Turkmenistan. The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 978-0-19-597713-4, Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegred III left for Balkh. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without firing a shot. Ahnaf stayed at Merv and waited for reinforcement from Kufa. Meanwhile Yazdgird had also gathered considerable power at Balkh and also sought alliance with the Khan of Farghana, who personally led the Turkish contingent to help Yazdegred III. Umar ordered that Yazdgird’s allied forces should be weaken by breaking up the alliance with the Turks. Ahnaf successfully broke up the alliance and the Khan of Farghana pulled back his forces realizing that fighting with the Muslims was not a good idea and that it might endanger his own kingdom. Yazdgird's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. Yazdegred III had a narrow escape and fled to China. Balkh was occupied by the Muslims, and with this occupation the Persian war was over. The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. Beyond that lay the lands of the Turks (Turkic peoples) and still further lay China. The old mighty empire of the Sassanids had ceased to exist. Ahnaf returned to Marv and sent a detail report of operations to Umar, a historic letter Umar was anxiously waiting for, subject of which was the downfall of the Persian Empire, and with which permission was sought to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. Umar ordered Ahnaf to desist and instead to consolidate his power south of Oxus. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


building prominent

. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, Harappa in the Pakistani province of Punjab (Punjab (Pakistan)). The IVC might have been known to the Sumerians as the Meluhha, and other trade contacts may have included Egypt, Africa, however the modern world discovered it only in the 1920s as a result of archaeological excavations and rail road building. Prominent historians of Ancient India would include Ram Sharan Sharma and Romila Thapar. *The first Eurasian transcontinental railroad was the Trans-Siberian railway (with connecting lines in Europe), completed in 1905 which connects Moscow with Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. There are two connections from this line to China. It is the world's longest rail line at Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030

Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.

A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.

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