What is Trincomalee known for?

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of Taprobane'' and would go on to write ''2001: A Space Odyssey'' based on his experiences in the city. Trincomalee's Bhadrakali Amman temple provides a setting in Wilbur Smith's novel ''Birds of Prey''. Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories feature multiple settings in the city, including in ''A Scandal in Bohemia'' and ''A Singular Affair at Trincomalee''. Jane Austen's younger brother Charles Austen of the British Royal Navy is buried in Trincomalee. Post

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Nubin 2002 pp 123 He introduced the controversial Sinhala Only Act, recognising Sinhala (Sinhala language) as the sole official language of the government. Although it was partially reversed in 1958, the bill posed a grave concern for the Tamil community, which perceived their language and culture were threatened.

architecture classical

one of the most important surviving buildings of the classical Dravidian architectural period (Dravidian architecture) by the late 16th century. The temple compound was destroyed by Portuguese (Portugal) colonial De Souza d'Arronches, who devastated the entire southern coast. The property was then handed over to Catholics . Tenavaram's splendor and prominence ranked it in stature alongside the other famous Pallava-developed medieval Hindu temple complex

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and Sumatra (Operation Crimson) and returned to Trincomalee on 27 July. The university has two campuses - the main campus in Vantharumoolai near Chenkalady and a second campus in Trincomalee. It also has facilities in Batticaloa. The university currently has seven faculties (Faculty (division)) (Agriculture, Applied Sciences, Arts & Culture, Commerce & Management, Communication & Business Studies, Healthcare Sciences and Science

important literary

and also served as a Head Master of a School. Besides being a Tamil (Tamil language) scholar, he was also fluent in English (English language) language. Wikipedia:Trincomalee Commons:Category:Trincomalee

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and Vaijayanthi and concludes that while these latter temples were well visited by the Hindus, the former had surpassed all the latter temples. It hosted the Hindu funeral of Bhuvanekabahu VII of Kotte. Koneswaram is described by Jesuit friars at this time as being a "... massive structure, a singular work of art. It is of great height, constructed with wonderful skill in blackish granite, on a rock projecting into the sea, and occupies a large space on the summit". Perniola, V. “The Catholic church in Sri Lanka. The Portuguese period”, vol. II, p. 366. The Trincomalee and Batticaloa chiefdoms starting paying direct tributes to the Portuguese commander in Mannar (Mannar Island) from 1582 as Portuguese influence over the entire North east gained momentum. An annual sum of 1280 fanams (Madras fanam) was levied from the Koneswaram temple, and they collected a duty on areca nuts exported through the Trincomalee and Batticaloa ports. Jorge Manuel Flores; Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. (2007). ''Re-exploring the links : history and constructed histories between Portugal and Sri Lanka''. pp.36 Jaffna had given minimal logistical access to its Trincomalee and Batticaloa seaports to the Kandy kingdom to secure military advantages against its enemies; this was used by their influential European overlords to consolidate power in the region. In 1603, the first Dutch fleet arrives at Trincomalee and Batticaloa ports. Robert Montgomery Martin. (1839). ''Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire,... ''. pp.370 In 1612, D. Hieronymo de Azevedo, after great difficulties due to torrential rains, arrived at Trincomalee with a Portuguese contingent from Kandy. Here de Azevedo "was keen on building a fort" to the scope; he called in aid from King Ethirimana Cinkam of Jaffna but not seeing him, he abandoned the enterprise and he marched towards Jaffna. Perniola, V. “The Catholic church in Sri Lanka. The Portuguese period”, vol. II Perniola, V. “The Catholic church in Sri Lanka. The Portuguese period”, vol. III The early death of Cankili I brought upon by the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom saw all the territory of the kingdom of Jaffna, comprising both Trincomalee and Batticaloa, assigned to the "spiritual cures of the Franciscans". The Jesuits followed the Portuguese soldiers to Trincomalee and Batticaloa when they occupied the two localities. This decision was taken by the bishop of Cochin, Dom Sebastião de S. Pedro. Later, an other decree of the same bishop dated 11 November 1622, tracing the one indicated in 1602, entrusted newly to the Jesuits the spiritual cure in the districts of Jaffna, Trincomalee and Batticaloa, giving to them possibility to build churches, to train the sacraments and to convert souls. Early modern The buildings of Trincomalee were of masonry, thatched with leaves of bamboo and rattan, although the Pagodas and the Palace of the King were covered with copper, silver and gold. The metropolis had grown with well-built houses and streets that were cleaned regularly and were well adorned. The Danish (Denmark) arrived in Trincomalee to the end of 1619 with a first ship, called "Øresund" under the command of Roelant Crape. This small expedition was the vanguard of another Danish fleet, composed of four vessels and 300 soldiers, commanded by Ove Giedde, that reached the island in May 1620. They wanted to try their fortune in the Asian seas; the Danish expedition occupied Koneswaram temple. It was here that the Danes began the works for the fortification of the peninsula. Barner Jensen, U. “Danish East India. Trade coins and the coins of Tranquebar, 1620–1845”, pp. 11–12; Holden Furber “Imperi rivali nei mercati d’oriente, 1600–1800”, note n° 66, p. 326: "Senarat of Kandy sent to Trincomalee 60 Sinhala men in order to help the Danes in the construction of their fort. During their permanence in Trincomalee, the Danesh coined also some "Larins", on which were recorded the words ‘Don Erich Grubbe’, of these coins, today do not remain trace, if not in the diary of Ove Giedde." Following the destruction of the Koneswaram compound and the ''Fort of Triquinimale'' built from its ruins, Trincomalee had a Portuguese force during the reign of Rajasinghe II of Kandy. Constantino de Sá de Noronha who destroyed one of the temples had a copy of the oldest inscription in Tamil Brahmi sent to Portugal for the purpose of identification. The Tamil inscription contains a prophesy on the city and its temple, a copy of which was sent and is retained in The Hague. In a 1638 letter to Dutch Colonial Governor Anthony van Diemen, an officer mentions that Trincomalee is a "fort built rather strongly of hard stones from an old pagoda round the hillock. On each side there is a sandy and rocky bay and it is like a peninsula." Rajasinghe finally formed an alliance with the Dutch (Duth Republic), who captured the Fort of Triquinimale in 1639 and handed it to the Kandyans for destruction in 1643. In 1660, the Dutch built the present Fort Fredrick at the foot of the promontory which they called Pagoda Hill, and another fort at the mouth of the harbour home to Dutch officers, Fort Ostenburg. An English sea captain and writer named Robert Knox (Robert Knox (sailor)) came ashore by chance near Trincomalee and surrendered to the Kandyan king in 1659. The Kandyans then pursued a scorched earth policy to try and oust the Dutch and take Trincomalee and Batticaloa on the east coast. The French (France) set up base in Trincomalee in the Spring of 1672, and tried to make overtures to the Kandyans, but an alliance was not sealed; by July 1672, Trincomalee was retaken by the Dutch fleet. Professor Jeremy Black, Jeremy Black. From Louis XIV to Napoleon: The Fate of a Great Power. pp.1678 The city had rejoined the Coylot Vanni Country by the start of the 18th century, with much of the city's population having moved across the district following the temple's destruction. Wikipedia:Trincomalee Commons:Category:Trincomalee

scenic landscapes

built at Hambantota (Ruhunu Magampura International Port). Its flag carrier airline is the SriLankan Airlines. Destinations The Sri Lankan railway network covers one of the most scenic landscapes in the world, the best of which is the Colombo-Badulla main line which runs hugging the steep mountains of the Sri Lankan highlands. The railways connect the main cities of Kandy, Galle, Matara (Matara, Sri Lanka), Anuradhapura, Gampaha, Negombo, Kurunegala, Avissawella, Kalutara, Polonnaruwa, Batticaloa, Trincomalee, Badulla, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Matale, Vavuniya, Puttalam and Chilaw with the Capital Colombo. The lines to Jaffna, Kankesanturai and Mannar (Mannar, Sri Lanka) have been destroyed by the LTTE. There were also narrow gauge (narrow gauge railways) lines from Nanu Oya to Nuwara Eliya, Avissawella to Yatiyantota and Avissawella to Ratnapura and Opanayaka, which were dismantled due to financial losses from their operation. thumb 300px Container handling at the Port of Colombo (File:ColomboHarbour-SriLanka02.jpg) Sri Lanka has deep-water ports (List of deep water ports), at Colombo (Port of Colombo), Hambantota (Port of Hambantota), Galle, and Trincomalee. Of these, Colombo handles the highest volume of cargo, followed by Galle. There is a harbour at Kankesanturai, north of Jaffna, navigable by ships of relatively shallow draught. Its major operating areas were around Norway, the Mediterranean (against the Axis supply routes to North Africa), and in the Far East. Royal Navy submarines operating out of Trincomalee and Australia were a constant threat to Japanese shipping passing through the Malacca Straits. Wikipedia:Trincomalee Commons:Category:Trincomalee

traditional history

Heralded as "Dakshina Kailasam" "Then Kailasam" (Kailash of the South) because it lies on exactly the same longitude as the Tibetan mountain Mount Kailash (the primary abode of Shiva), Trincomalee's traditional history and legends were compiled into the Sanskrit treatises ''Dakshina Kailasa Puranam — Sthala Puranam of Koneswaram'', written in 1380 by Jeyaveera Cinkaiariyan, and the ''Dakshina Kailasa Manmiam'' — three chapters of the '' Skanda

Prakasakayo location Sri Lanka volume 1 issue pages 262 oclc 12552979 url doi quote Trincomalee served a similar purpose to its west coast sister city, Mannar (Mannar, Sri Lanka). King Jeyaveera Cinkaiariyan had the traditional history of the Koneswaram temple compiled as a chronicle in verse, titled ''Dakshina Kailasa Puranam'', known today as the ''Sthala Puranam of Koneswaram Temple''. Building blocks from the city were used to expand the Kovil at Rameswaram (Ramanathaswamy Temple) under the patronage of king Gunaveera Cinkaiariyan. Gnanaprakasar,''A Critical History of Jaffna'', p.99-102 Kunarasa,''The Jaffna Dynasty'', p.67-68 At this time, Trincomalee was trading pearls, precious stones, vessels, elephants, muslins, baqam and cinnamon, and was passed by Chinese voyager Ma Huan by ship, eight days from the Nicobar islands, on his way to Tenavaram temple. J R Sinnatamby (1968). Ceylon in Ptolemy's geography Gerolamo Emilio Gerini. (1974). Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. (reprint). Ma Huan calls the headland hill as being ''Ying-ko tsui Shan'' or ''Ying-Ko Tswei Shan - a hawk-beak shaped hill on the east coast The Tamil country had established a strong alliance with Yemen and the Delhi Sultinate under Martanda Cinkaiariyan which attracted seafaring merchants from East Africa and the Middle East to its ports. Ci Patmanātan, S. Pathmanathan (1978). The Kingdom of Jaffna, Volume 1. pp. 237 An inlet of Trincomalee, Nicholson Cove became the site of a small Arab settlement by the 13th and 14th century. The Nicholson Cove Tombstone inscriptions at Trincomalee refer to the deceased as the daughter of the chief Badriddin Husain Bin Ali Al- Halabi, showing that her family hailed from Halab (Aleppo) in Syria. Asiff Hussein (2007). ''Sarandib: an ethnological study of the Muslims of Sri Lanka The Tamil Bell of New Zealand assigned to the Pandyan era belonged to sea traders that likely originated from Trincomalee. The city even attracted Arunagirinathar in 1468, who traversed the Pada Yatra pilgrimage route from Nallur Kandaswamy temple to Katirkamam while stopping to pay homage to Koneswaram's Murukan shrine. Wikipedia:Trincomalee Commons:Category:Trincomalee

classical period

, a rocky promontory cape overlooking Trincomalee, a classical period harbour port town. The primary deity is the Hindu god Lord Shiva in the form ''Konesar''. There has been a kovil at this site since the 3rd century, possessing a hoary history with various dates of establishment and development attributed at different points before the classical era. At its zenith, the original Konesar temple was the main shrine of the ''Trincomalee Koneswaram Temple Compounds'', one of three ancient

'' of Lord Shiva (called Tondeswaram), built at coastal points around the circumference of the island in the classical period. Tenavaram temple owned the entire property and land of the town and the surrounding villages, ownership of which was affirmed through several royal grants in the early medieval period. Its keepers lived along streets of its ancient agraharam within the complex. Due to patronage by various royal dynasties and pilgrims across Asia, it became

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