are still not considered satisfactory. Major investments in renovation of the city's monuments, building new hotels (including high-standard ones), improvement in promotion, as well as launching new cultural and scientific events and facilities, give very good prospects for Toruń's tourism. left thumb 235px Example of Toruń's typical renovated Old Town streets - Małe Garbary Street - with one of the buildings now serves as a hotel (File:Małe Garbary Street in Toruń.jpg) In recent years Toruń has
, although another two wars – the Hunger War of 1414 and the Gollub War of 1422 – would be waged before the Treaty of Melno permanently resolved the territorial disputes. The Poles and Lithuanians were unable to translate the military victory into territorial or diplomatic gains. However, the Peace of Thorn imposed a heavy financial burden on the Knights from which they never recovered. They had to pay
a comprehensive heliocentric (heliocentrism) cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Almost 70 years after Copernicus' death and building on his theories, mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler from Stuttgart would be a key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion (Kepler's laws of planetary motion), codified by later astronomers, based on his
, not reconstructions. Major renovation projects have been undertaken in recent years to improve the condition and external presentation of the Old Town. Besides the renovation of various buildings, projects such as the reconstruction of the pavement of the streets and squares (reversing them to their historical appearance), and the introduction of new plants, trees and objects of 'small architecture', are underway. Numerous buildings and other constructions, including the city walls along
its medieval spatial layout and many Gothic buildings, all built from brick, including monumental churches, the Town Hall and many burgher houses. The most interesting monuments are: left thumb 250px City walls and the Leaning Tower of Toruń Leaning Tower (File:Toruń, Krzywa Wieża (OLA Z.).JPG) *Gothic churches: **The Cathedral of SS. John the Evangelist and John the Baptist (Cathedral Basilica of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, Toruń), an aisled hall church built in the 14th century and extended in the 15th century; outstanding Gothic sculptures and paintings inside (Moses, St. Mary Magdalene, gravestone of Johann von Soest), Renaissance and Baroque epitaphs and altars (among them the epitaph of Copernicus from 1580) thumb 220px Saint Catherine of Alexandria church in Toruń - a perfect example of Toruń's Gothic Revival (File:Kościół Św. Katarzyny w Toruniu.jpg) architecture **St. Mary's church, a formerly Franciscan aisled hall built in the 14th century **St. James's church (often mistakenly called St Jacob's), a basilica from the 14th century, with monumental wall paintings and Gothic stalls *The Old Town Hall (Old Town Hall in Toruń), begun in 1274, extended and rebuilt between 1391 and 1399, and extended at the end of the 16th century; one of the most monumental town halls in Central Europe *City fortifications, begun in the 13th century, extended between the 14th and 15th centuries, mostly demolished in the 19th century, but partially preserved with a few city gates and watchtowers (among them the so-called Leaning Tower (Leaning Tower of Toruń)) from the Vistula side. See also: Toruń Fortress *A 15th-century Gothic house (now a museum) where Copernicus was reputedly born *Ruins of 13th-century Teutonic Knights' castle (Toruń Castle) *House at the sign of the Star ( WikiPedia:Toruń Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Kuyavia and Pomerania Torun Commons:Toruń
. Patriot launchers. It was first deployed in Morąg in 24 May 2010 but has since been moved to Toruń and Ustka. The Republic of Korea also purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany after North Korea test-launched ballistic missiles to the Sea of Japan Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea
"Leba" which was kept in the archives of Thorn. History The area was inhabited by Baltic people at least since the 9th century and possibly earlier. At the dawn of the 13th century the population is estimated at around 16,000–20,000. The clan, together with neighbours Pogesanians, made frequent raids into Masovian lands. In 1225 Duke Konrad I of Masovia asked the Teutonic Knights to protect his territory from such raids. In 1230 the Knights settled in the Chełmno Land and began the Prussian Crusade. In 1231 they crossed Vistula and built Thorn (Toruń) (Toruń). Pomesanian leader Pepin unsuccessfully besieged the city, but soon he was captured and tortured to death. In 1233 the work began in Marienwerder (Kwidzyn) (Marienwerder), and during the winter the Prussians gathered a large army for a major battle on the Sirgune River, where they suffered a great defeat. During the next three years all of Pomesania was conquered and made part of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. The city of Elbing (Elbląg) (Elbląg) was founded in 1237 by the Order near the ancient Prussian trading town of Truso. As the war started, the number of non-Germans in the city increased as slave workers were brought in. The first transports came in 1939 from Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Łódż (Łódź). They were mainly used in a synthetic silk factory near Szczecin. The next wave of slave workers was brought in 1940, in addition to PoWs who were used for work in the agricultural industry. According to German police reports from 1940, 15,000 Polish slave workers lived within the city. WikiPedia:Toruń Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Kuyavia and Pomerania Torun Commons:Toruń
;Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (in German) Scientific Promotion, Poland (in German) , Poland. By 1708 he studied theology in Halle (Halle, Saxony-Anhalt) and since March 1710 in Jena in Germany. He moved to Stroppen in Silesia to become a preacher, but was refused based on doubts about his orthodoxy. In 1717 he became a professor at the gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) of Toruń. He was expelled from this city after a heterodox sermon had resulted in much disorder. He moved to Wengrow, then a centre for Reformation (Protestant Reformation) movements in Poland, where he combined the offices of physician and pastor. By 1729 he, somehow, was in Constantinople where he established a printing shop and undertook to translate the Bible into Turkish (Turkish language). This led to much consternation and he was once more compelled to flee a city. Hugh James Rose Bachstrom, John Frederic in ''A New General Biographical Dictionary'', London, 1857. Born in Thorn (Toruń) (Toruń) in Prussia (now in Poland), she was the eldest of three children. She spent parts of her life in Berlin (1925-1935), New York City (1935-1955), and New Hampshire (1955-1990). She photographed such people as Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, Robert Frost, Marc Chagall, Eleanor Roosevelt, Alfred Stieglitz, J.D. Salinger, Paul Robeson, May Sarton, Pauline Koner, Berenice Abbott and Edward Steichen. * Other sites to be opened in 2011 15 are Gdańsk, Toruń, Kielce, Łódź, Lublin. After the war he remained in the army and graduated from an artillery NCO school in 1921. The following year his military grade was revised to Second Lieutenant and in 1924 he graduated from Toruń military academy, receiving the grade of First Lieutenant. Simultaneously, between 1921 and 1930 he served at various posts in 3rd and 16th Field Artillery Regiments. Between 1924 and 1926 he also served in the Artillery Bureau of the French Military Mission to Poland. In 1930 he was promoted to Captain (Captain (land and air)) and after two years he was attached to the headquarters of the Polish 13th Infantry Division as the deputy commander of artillery. In 1936 he was promoted to Major and before the outbreak of World War II he was assigned to the Toruń Army Inspectorate. Napoleonic Wars From 1806 to 1811, Langeron participated in the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 and served in the Army of Moldavia against the Ottomans. He fought at Giurgiu, Silistra, Frasin, Derekoy, and Ruse (Rousse), for which he was promoted to General of Infantry. In 1812, Langeron was given command of a corps in the Army of the Danube with which he fought at Brest-Litovsk (Brest, Belarus) and on the Berezina (Berezina River). In 1813, Langeron was put in charge of the blockade of Thorn (Toruń), and later that year he commanded a corps at Koenigswarte, Bautzen (Battle of Bautzen), Siebeneichen, Lowenberg, Katzbach (Battle of Katzbach), and Leipzig (Battle of Leipzig). The next year he participated in the French campaign, during which he fought at the battles of Soissons, Craonne (Battle of Craonne), Laon (Battle of Laon), Rheims (Battle of Reims (1814)), La Fère-Champenoise (Battle of La Fère-Champenoise), and Paris (Battle of Paris (1814)). In late 1814, Langeron was given command of the 4th and 6th Corps in Volhynia. During the Hundred Days, he and his troops were marching to France, but they had only reached middle Germany by the time Napoléon (Napoléon I of France) was defeated at Waterloo (Battle of Waterloo). - The International Film Festival of the Art of Cinematography CAMERIMAGE (Camerimage) 1993 Toruń, since 2000 Łódź International http: www.pluscamerimage.pl - In 1392 Duke Władysław Opolski (Władysław Opolczyk) offered Konrad a partition of Poland with the Holy Roman Empire, the Teutonic Knights, Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary), and the Silesian dukes all taking part of it, but the grand master rejected it. The same year he started another military action against Lithuania with guest crusaders, including Henry of Derby, the future King Henry IV of England. Dutch (Low Countries) and French (France) knights under Konrad's command attacked Gardinas (Hrodno), leading Vytautas to call a peace conference in Thorn (Toruń) (Toruń). Ten days into the conference, however, Konrad died on 23 July 1393, probably of apoplexy. Land Coastal Command The Land Coastal Command (''Lądowa Obrona Wybrzeża'', LOW), subordinate to the Toruń-based military area command led by Gen. Władysław Bortnowski, was led by Col. Józef Sass-Hoszowski and, since July 23, by Col. Stanisław Dąbek. It was to organize the defence of the Polish seashore, the borders with Nazi Germany and Free City of Danzig, as well as to prepare the defence of the Polish naval bases and the Westerplatte outpost in Danzig. Tümmler was born in Toruń (Thorn) in German Nazi occupied Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany). He entered the 1968 Olympics as the reigning European Champion. The 1500 m final was run at a fast pace and at the start of the last lap the eventual Olympic Champion Kipchoge Keino had already established a substantial lead. Tümmler and his countryman Harald Norpoth were in second and third place but were outsprinted by the world-record holder Jim Ryun on the last lap. Life and career Tadeusz Rydzyk spent his childhood in Olkusz. He studied at the Higher Spiritual Seminary of Redemptorists in Tuchów, and later at the Catholic Theology Academy in Warsaw. He was ordained a priest (presbyterate) in 1971 and taught religion in Toruń, Szczecinek and Kraków. In 1986 Rydzyk left for West Germany where he was involved with a radio station ''Radio Maria International in Balderschwang'' (later closed by the Catholic Church authorities). His tenure in West Germany was opposed by the Church hierarchy, but he remained there for 5 years. In February 2011, Rydzyk was fined 3500 zlotys after the local district court in Toruń found that he broke the law by using Radio Maryja to call for donations to TV Trwam, the University of Social and Media Culture and the geothermal drilling conducted by the Lux Veritatis Foundation. WikiPedia:Toruń Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Kuyavia and Pomerania Torun Commons:Toruń
owned land. DATE OF BIRTH August 7, 1887 PLACE OF BIRTH Thorn (Toruń), Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, now Toruń, Poland DATE OF DEATH February 8, 1982 A significant form of popular art in Europe http: www.enotes.com food-encyclopedia gingerbread , major centers of gingerbread mold carvings included Lyon, Nürnberg, Pest (Pest (city)), Prague, Pardubice, Pulsnitz, Ulm, and Toruń. Gingerbread molds often
displayed the "news", showing carved portraits of new kings, emperors, and queens, for example. Substantial mold collections are held at the Ethnographic Museum in Toruń, Poland and the Bread Museum in Ulm, Germany. A significant form of popular art in Europe http: www.enotes.com food-encyclopedia gingerbread , major centers of gingerbread mold carvings included Lyon, Nürnberg, Pest (city) Pest
'''Toruń''' (known also by several alternative names (Toruń#Etymology)) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River. Its population was 205,934 as of June 2009. Toruń is one of the oldest cities in Poland. The medieval old town of Toruń is the birthplace of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
In 1997 the medieval part of the city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site (World Heritage Sites of Poland). In 2007 the Old Town in Toruń was added to the list of Seven Wonders of Poland. National Geographic Polska (National Geographic Channel) rated the old town market and the Gothic town hall as one of the "30 Most Beautiful Places in the World." In 2010 ''Forbes'' magazine ranked Toruń as number one of the "Polish Cities Attractive for Business".
Previously it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–98) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship (1921–45). Since 1999, Toruń has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and, as such, is one of its two capitals (together with Bydgoszcz). The cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz-Toruń twin city metropolitan area. In September 2004, Bydgoszcz Medical School joined Toruń's Nicolaus Copernicus University (Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń) as its ''Collegium Medicum''. The current Mayor of Toruń is Mr. Michał Zaleski.