Toledo, Spain

What is Toledo, Spain known for?


medical works

of Provence. This encouragement naturally led to the study of the works of Maimonides—particularly of the "Moreh Nebukim (Guide for the Perplexed)"—the favorite writer of Hillel of Verona (1220–1295). This last-named litterateur and philosopher practised medicine at Rome and in other Italian cities, and translated into Hebrew several medical works. The liberal spirit of the writings of Maimonides had other votaries in Italy; e.g., Shabbethai ben Solomon of Rome


career early

and the Duke was admonished by the Regency and forced to pay a fee to the town. The town received the title of "Most Loyal City" (Tenth Siege of Gibraltar).The Duke died in 1507. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatrava, and became a member of the king's council while young. In 1338 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alfonso XI


battle important

of Christian bishops, rapidly becoming the only effective institution of power that was more than local in extent, which strongly opposed the Arianism of the Visigothic aristocrats. Soon enough, the Franks on their march south came into contact with the northern borders of the Visigothic kingdom. War ensued, and eventually the Visigothic king Alaric II was defeated by the Frankish king Clovis (Clovis I) at the Battle of Vouillé in 507, a battle important in the psyche of modern-day France (etymologically ''land of the Franks''), where Franks are perceived as "French" and Visigoths have become "foreigners". Following their victory, the Franks moved south, conquered Aquitania, and captured Toulouse in 508. The Visigoths withdrew to their Hispanic dominions, where they later resettled their capital in Toledo (Toledo, Spain). Toulouse became part of Aquitaine— cut from Narbonne and the Mediterranean region where Visigothic rule remained—a diminished capital city within the scarcely integrated Frankish kingdom. * Judah Abravanel was a receiver of customs (Customs (tax)) at Seville, Spain, in 1310. He rendered substantial service to the grandees of Castile. The ''infante'' Don Pedro, in his will, dated from Seville, May 9, 1317, ordered that Judah be paid: (1) 15,000 ''maravedis'' for clothes delivered; (2) 30,000 ''maravedis'' as part of a personal debt, at the same time requesting Judah to release him from paying the rest. Judah had been in great favor with King Alfonso the Wise, with whom he once had a conversation regarding Judaism. ** Samuel Abravanel was the son of Judah Abravanel of Seville. He settled in Castile and became a patron of learning. He supported the scholar Menahem ben Zerah and had him elected rabbi of Toledo (Toledo, Spain). As a mark of his gratitude, Menahem dedicated to Abravanel his work ''Ẓedah la-Derek'' (''Provision for the Journey''). During the persecution of 1361 he submitted to Christian and was baptized (baptism), according to Zacuto, Juan of Seville. He soon, however, returned to Judaism. * Don Isaac Abravanel, also Isaac ben Judah Abravanel or Abarbanel (1437–1508) was born in Lisbon, Portugal. He was a Jewish statesman, philosopher (philosophy), Bible commentator (Meforshim), and financier. Charges and Titles Beside an immense number of decorations, in Spain he was: '''?th Marqués de Alcúdia''' with the previous title of '''?th Vizconde de Alto Castillo''' (titles dated 1722) (Royal Cedule of June 10, 1792), '''1st Duque de Alcúdia Grandee of Spain First Class''' with a Coat of Arms of de Godoy (Letter of July 4, 1792), '''1st Principe de la Paz''' (Letter of September 27, 1795), '''1st Duque de Sueca Grandee of Spain First Class''' (Letter of March 7, 1804), '''1st Barón de Mascalbó''', in Catalonia, with a Coat of Arms of de Godoy (Letter of June 23, 1806) for being the Perpetual Decane ''Regedor'' (Rector) of Reus, and had the treatment of Most Serene Highness (1807). Beside that he was also the Lord of numerous Lordships, ''Alcalderías'' and honourable charges: Señor de los Estados de la Campana de Albalat y la Serena, de Lago de Albufera (Valencia), and of the Villages of Huetor de Santillan y Veas, Señor de los Sotos de Roma y Aldovea, Perpetual ''Regedor'' (Rector) of the Villages of Madrid, Nava del Rey and Reus, and the Cities of Burgos, Segovia, Valencia (Valencia, Spain), Murcia, Ronda, Manresa, Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Spain), Gerona (Girona), Barcelona, Peñíscola, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Lérida, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Toro (Toro, Spain), Zamora (Zamora, Spain), Asunción de Paraguay (Asunción), Buenos Aires and México (México City); preeminent ''Veinte y Quatro'' (Twenty-Four) of Jerez de la Frontera, Sevilla and Jerez de los Caballeros; ''Almerante-Mayor'' (Admiral-Major) of Spain and the Indies (Spanish West Indies); Captain-General of the Royal Armies, Captain (Captain (land)) of the Body Guards, ''Hermano Mayor'' (Greater Brother) and Perpetual ''Alcalde'' of the Holy and Royal Old Brotherhood of Toledo, with voice, vote and Presidency; President of the Royal Colegial Body of the ''Hidalgos'' of the Nobility of Madrid (1804), Gentleman of the Chamber of His Catholic Majesty, with exercise, Counsilor of State, Prime-Minister of King Don Carlos IV (Carlos IV of Spain), Commander (Commander#Military and chivalric orders) of Valencia del Ventoso, Rivera (Rivera, Spain) and Acheucal in the Order of Santiago, Knight of the Order of Santiago (1790), Knight of the Renowned Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, Bailiff of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (Knights Hospitaller), etc. Biography Van Impe credits the start of his career to Spaniard (Spain) Federico Bahamontes, a climber nicknamed ''the eagle of Toledo (Toledo, Spain)'' and a former Tour de France winner. In 1968 van Impe was King of the Mountains in the Tour de l'Avenir. Bahamontes used his influence to get van Impe a contract as a professional. In 1969, Van Impe started his professional career with a 12th place in the 1969 Tour de France. In 1971, Van Impe won his first Mountains classification in the Tour de France. He would repeat that five more times, ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


speed running

Shelomo al-Harizi'', , ''Yahya bin Sulaiman bin Sha'ul abu Zakaria al-Harizi al-Yahudi min ahl Tulaitila'') was a rabbi, translator, poet and traveller active in Spain in the Middle Ages (in Toledo (Toledo, Spain)? - 1165, in Aleppo - 1225). He was supported by wealthy patrons, to whom he wrote poems and dedicated compositions. High speed running tests were undertaken with 67002 starting


game based

. * ''Date Unknown'' Meat and Fish There are many local meat dishes, which consist primarily of sheep, goat, and, to a lesser degree, beef. The most important dishes are ''carcamusas'' (typical of Toledo (Toledo, Spain)), ''chanfarina'', roast lamb, ''cuchifrito'', ''migas'', ''gallina en pepitoria'' (chicken a la pepitoria), ''salpicón'', ''paturrillo'', and ''zarajos''. In areas where there is a lot of hunting, a number of game based dishes are also popular, such as ''conejo al ajillo'' (rabbit with garlic), ''liebre a la cazadora'' (hare hunter-style), and ''caldereta manchega''. Pennants of the Champions His ''Rayat al-mubarrizin waghayat al-mumayyizin'' (''Banners of the Champions'', also translated as ''Pennants of the Champions''), published in 1243, is his best known anthology of poetry. About the collection Ibn Said wrote that he wished to include only those few fragments "whose idea is more subtle than the West Wind, and whose language is more beautiful than a pretty face.": ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


violent opposition

. At the university the schools were divided between the partisans of the two professors; but Cano did not pursue his rival with relentless virulence, and took part in the condemnation for heresy of his brother-friar. The new society of the Jesuits, also met with his violent opposition; and he was not grateful to them when, after attending the Council of Trent in 1545, he was sent, by their influence, in 1552, as bishop of the far-off see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Islas Canarias Canary


big book

" thumb A shield ''chequy gules and argent'' (File:Chequy demo.svg) When divided by palewise and fesswise lines into a chequered pattern (Check (pattern)), the field is ''chequy''. Croatia is widely known by its chequy coat-of-arms (Coat of arms of Croatia). Carter, David E.; Stephens, Suzanna M. W. ''The Big Book of Logos 5'', Collins Design, 2008, ISBN 0-06-125574-2 Stephenson, Keith; Hampshire, Mark. ''Squares, Checks, and Grids


victory+location

control of the key cities of Seville, Granada, and Cordova (Córdoba, Spain). Thanks mostly to the Army of Africa's advances, almost all of western Spain was in Francoist ''Nacionales'' hands by the end of September 1936. By early 1937 the Army of Africa's strength had been increased to 60,000 men. The Legion and Regulares spearheaded the ''Nacionales'''s operations for the remainder of the war and played a central role in the ''Nacional'' victory. location Leiden Once


white field

of Gibraltar coat of arms : "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. left thumb The Coat of arms of Gibraltar arms (Image:Original coat of arms of Gibraltar.jpg) granted to the city of Gibraltar by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile *1502 10 July - By a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) by Isabella I of Castile, Gibraltar was granted its coat of arms (Coat of arms of Gibraltar): "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. *1506 - Alleging a false donation by the king Philip I of Castile, the Duke of Medina Sidonia attempted to recover Gibraltar by besieging the town. The siege was unsuccessful and the Duke was admonished by the Regency and forced to pay a fee to the town. The town received the title of "Most Loyal City" (Tenth Siege of Gibraltar).The Duke died in 1507. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatrava, and became a member of the king's council while young. In 1338 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alfonso XI of Castile. At the battle of Rio Salado he successfully fought against a Marinid invasion from Morocco in 1340, and at the taking of Algeciras in 1344 he led the armed levy of his archbishopric. In the Iberian peninsula, as elsewhere, the Empire fell not with a bang but with a whimper. Rather than there being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization" of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'' (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1965) p. 20. At the same time, there was a process of "Romanization" of the Germanic and Hunnic tribes settled on both sides of the ''limes'' (the fortified frontier of the Empire along the Rhine and Danube rivers). The Visigoths, for example, were converted to Arian Christianity (Arianism) around 360, even before they were pushed into imperial territory by the expansion of the Huns. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 25. In the winter of 406, taking advantage of the frozen Rhine, the (Germanic (Germanic tribes)) Vandals and Sueves, and the (Sarmatian) Alans invaded the empire in force. Three years later they crossed the Pyrenees into Iberia (Iberian Peninsula) and divided the Western parts, roughly corresponding to modern Portugal and western Spain as far as Madrid, between them. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 14. The Visigoths meanwhile, having sacked Rome two years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (in the south of modern France) and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian peninsula at the expense of the Vandals and Alans, who moved on into North Africa without leaving much permanent mark on Hispanic culture. The Visigothic Kingdom (Visigoths#Visigothic kingdom in Hispania) shifted its capital to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild. thumb left Battle of Tours (File:Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png). This battle is often considered of macro-importance in European and Islamic history. In 486, Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks, defeated Syagrius at Soissons (Battle of Soissons (486)) and subsequently united most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. Clovis then recorded a succession of victories against other Germanic tribes such as the Alamanni at Tolbiac (Battle of Tolbiac). In 496, pagan Clovis adopted Catholicism. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and granted him clerical support against the Arian Visigoths. He defeated Alaric II at Vouillé (Battle of Vouillé) in 507 and annexed Aquitaine, and thus Toulouse, into his Frankish kingdom. The Goths retired to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in what would become Spain. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian Dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death. Under Frankish inheritance traditions, all sons would inherit part of the land, so four kingdoms emerged: centered on Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. Over time, the borders and numbers of Frankish kingdoms were fluid and changed frequently. Also during this time, the Mayors of the Palace (Mayor of the Palace), originally the chief advisor to the kings, would become the real power in the Frankish lands; the Merovingian kings themselves would be reduced to little more than figureheads. Edward James, ''The Franks'' (1991) * The Arba'ah Turim (The Tur, The Four Columns) by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (1270–1343, Toledo, Spain). This work traces the Halakha from the Torah text and the Talmud through the Rishonim, with the ''Hilchot'' of Alfasi as its starting point. Ben Asher followed Maimonides's precedent in arranging his work in a topical order, however, the Tur covers only those areas of Jewish religious law that were in force in the author's time. The code is divided into four main sections; almost all codes since this time have followed the Tur's arrangement of material. ** Orach Chayim: "The Way of Life" worship and ritual observance in the home and synagogue, through the course of the day, the weekly sabbath (Shabbat) and the festival cycle. thumb right The game of astronomical tables, from ''Libro de los juegos'' (File:Alfonso LJ 97V.jpg) The '''''Libro de los Juegos''''', ("Book of games"), or '''''Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas''''', ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile (Kingdom of Castile), Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia) and León (Kingdom of León) and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in 1283, Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the ''Libro de Juegos'', the ''a quo'' information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the ''Libro de Juegos''. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", ''Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte'' 53:3, 1990. pp. 277-308. is an exemplary piece of Alfonso’s medieval literary legacy. *240 BC – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. *1085 – Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. *1420 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ (Order of Christ (Portugal)). Later life In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish (Moorish architecture) castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met ''Jetta Umiker'', whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini (Benito Mussolini) became unbearable. Their son, ''Giorgio Arnaldo Escher'', named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years. Spain Improvised incendiary devices were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, Thomas, Hugh (Hugh Thomas) (1994). ''The Spanish Civil War''. Simon & Schuster, p. 468. ISBN 0671758764 before they became known as "Molotov cocktails". In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalists to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans (Second Spanish Republic) in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo (Toledo, Spain), 40 km south of Madrid. History of the Molotov cocktail After that, both sides used simple petrol bombs or petrol-soaked blankets with some success. Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades, later publicised his recommended method of using them: Most of North Island corresponds to central and southern Spain, from Valladolid (opposite the southern point of South Island, Cape Palliser), through Madrid and Toledo (Toledo, Spain) to Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (directly antipodal to Hamilton (Hamilton, New Zealand)), Lorca (opposite East Cape), Málaga (Cape Colville), and Gibraltar. Parts of the Northland Peninsula oppose Morocco, with Whangarei nearly coincident with Tangiers. In 1507 he was appointed tutor to Emperor Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor)'s (1493–1519) seven year old grandson, Charles, who was later to become Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) (1519 – 56). In 1515 Adrian was sent to Spain on a diplomatic errand, and after his arrival at the Imperial Court in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Charles V secured his succession to the See (Episcopal see) of Tortosa, and on 14 November 1516 commissioned him Inquisitor General of Aragon. The following year, Pope Leo X (1513–21) made Adrian a cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism)), naming him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of Saints John and Paul. ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


great works

; ref The edition was one of the great works of philology of the Renaissance, comprising critical editions of all of the books of the Bible in their original Hebrew (Hebrew language), Greek (Greek language) and Aramaic (Aramaic language), as well

Toledo, Spain

'''Toledo''' ( ) is a municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. It is the capital (capital city) of the province (province (Spain)) of Toledo (Province of Toledo) and the autonomous community (autonomous communities of Spain) of Castile–La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian, Muslim and Jewish (Judaism) cultures.

Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles I (Charles I of Spain), and as the "City of the Three Cultures", having been influenced by a historical co-existence of Christians, Muslims and Jews. In 1085, the city fell to Alfonso VI of Castile as the first major city in the Christian Reconquista. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now popular souvenirs of the city.

People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Al-Zarqali (Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī), Garcilaso de la Vega (Garcilaso de la Vega (poet)), Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X and El Greco. It was also the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic (Visigoths) Councils of Toledo. .

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017