. The Italian flag was taken down and in the absence of an Australian flag, a signaler from the 2 4th Battalion (2 4th Battalion (Australia)) tied his slouch hat to the flag staff and hauled it up to the top. WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk
Rommel to withdraw to strong defensive positions he had prepared at El Agheila. However, their 500+ mile advance had over-stretched their lines of supply and in January 1942 they had thinned out their front line troops to work on building lines of communications and supply dumps to enable a further thrust west to be made against Tripolitania. Meanwhile, Rommel had received reinforcements in men and tanks, and on 21 January sent out three strong armoured columns to make a tactical
on them from Benghazi to the north, the demoralised, exhausted Italians unconditionally capitulated. Keegan (2005), p196 O'Connor and Eric Dorman-Smith cabled back to Wavell, "Fox killed in the open..." Barnett (1999), p.58 '''Sidi Barrani''' ( east of the border with Libya, and around
;The Rats of Tobruk") pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima (Ar Rajma) and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting (Siege of Tobruk) against German forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies
sides were busily regrouping and General Claude Auchinleck, the Commander in Chief of British Middle East Command, had been advised to fight a major battle in May to forestall Axis plans of attack. However, 8th Army was not ready to make an offensive and so Lieutenant-General Neil Ritchie, the army commander, anticipated fighting a battle on his prepared position, meeting an Axis attack and destroying his enemy's armoured forces in the process. ref name "Playfair, p. 216"
on from Tobruk, Libya. North Africa and Syria Having returned to Egypt, part of the Division (the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade) was hurried across to Syria and was heavily involved in the advance on Damascus (Syria-Lebanon campaign) (June 1941). From 14 to 17 June 1941 the 4th Armoured Brigade (4th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)) was attached to the division. The rest of the Division was heavily involved in the fighting which ebbed
with the Transvaal Horse Artillery Regiment (Transvaal Horse Artillery), took part in the fighting at Sidi Rezegh (1st Infantry Division (South Africa)) culminating on 23 November 1941 with the German armour overwhelming the Allied forces, destroying 5 Brigade, and breaking through to the Eighth Army's rear areas on the Libyan border with Egypt. The casualties of the South African Irish were extremely heavy (only 140 men of all ranks survived), including its commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbs
thumb 300px The Battle of Gazala in May 1942, which was fought in the vicinity of Tobruk Tobruk had a deep, natural, and protected harbour, which meant that even if the port were bombed, ships would still be able to anchor there and be safe from squalls, so the port could never be rendered wholly useless regardless of military bombardment. This was of critical importance, as it made Tobruk an excellent place to supply a desert warfare campaign. It was also heavily fortified
much of the small Italian expeditionary corps. thumb left Italian troops firing on the Turks in Tripoli (1911) (File:Italoturca1.jpg) Successively Italian troops landed at Tobruk after a brief bombardment on December 4, 1911, occupied the seashore and marched towards the hinterlands facing weak resistance (Resistance (military)). "1911–1912 Turco-Italian War and Captain Mustafa Kemal". Ministry of Culture of Turkey, edited
by the newly formed British X Corps. The Germans quickly broke through, surrounded X Corps (which fortunately for the British, managed to break out) and pushed XXX Corps back to El Alamein. The ship escorted the LSI(L) (Landing Ship, Infantry) WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk
in Tobruk, Libya, when he was informed that he had won the Archibald Prize in 1942. More than 500 of his paintings, drawings and sketches are in the collection of the Australian War Memorial, Canberra. William Dargie at the Australian War Memorial * HMS ''Orpheus'' (HMS Orpheus (1916)) was an M class destroyer (Admiralty M class destroyer) launched
; Playfair, p. 216. Ritchie's defences in the northern half of the front comprised well dug in mutually supporting Brigade Group positions protected with wire and minefields. To the south of this, in order to extend the front and force any potential enemy flanking force to travel a long distance and also hamper its resupply, the defences consisted of two Brigade group defensive "boxes" linked by thickly sown minefields and wire. The first box, held by British 150th
in British ranks was horrendous as attempts to shore up the position failed time and again. After the Battle of Gazala Rommel not only drove the British out of Libya, and somewhat into Egypt, but he pushed deep into the protectorate. Tobruk fell quickly, and there was no repeat of the epic siege that Rommel's last advance had produced. A prepared defensive line at Mersa Matruh was out flanked, and disaster beckoned. Ritchie was dismissed as Eight Army commander and Claude
Auchinleck , the Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command, came forward to take command of it himself. After Matruh there was only one more defensive position before Cairo itself; El Alamein. In early January 1941, the Western Desert Force was redesignated XIII Corps (XIII Corps (United Kingdom)). On 9 January, the offensive resumed. By 12 January the strategic fortress port of Tobruk was surrounded. On 22 January it fell and another 27,000 Italian POWs were taken along
thumb 300px Port of Tobruk (File:Tobruk port 23.jpg) '''Tobruk''' or '''Tubruq''' ''Ţubruq''; also transliterated (Transliteration) as ''Tóbruch'', ''Tobruch'', ''Ţubruq'', ''Tobruck'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District (formerly Tobruk District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.). "Tobruk" (history), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2006, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, ''Concise.Britannica.com'' BC-Tobruk.
As of September 2014 the "internationally recognised government" (Council of Deputies) http: www.bbc.co.uk news world-africa-30681904 of Libya met and lived on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk harbour. http: www.theguardian.com world 2014 sep 09 libyan-parliament-refuge-greek-car-ferry In October 2014 they re-located to the 1970's Hotel Dar al Salam http: uk.reuters.com article 2014 10 02 uk-libya-security-insight-idUKKCN0HR1GD20141002 http: www.bbc.co.uk news magazine-29603393 AKA the Al Masira Hotel http: www.tripadvisor.co.uk Hotel_Review-g1641758-d3171777-Reviews-Al_Masira_Hotel-Tobruk_Al_Butnan_District.html#photos in Tobruk. In November 2014 that government was declared illegal by Libya's highest court. http: www.aljazeera.com news middleeast 2014 11 libyan-court-suspends-un-backed-parliament-201411691057750925.html
Tobruk was the site of an ancient Greek (Ancient Greece) colony and, later, of a Roman (Ancient Rome) fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica. Over the centuries, Tobruk also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan (Caravan (travellers)) route. By 1911, Tobruk had become an Italian (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941. The Australian 9th Division ("The Rats of Tobruk") pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima (Ar Rajma) and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting (Siege of Tobruk) against German forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies. Rebuilt after World War II, Tobruk was later expanded during the 1960s to include a port terminal (Port of Tobruk) linked by an oil pipeline to the Sarir oil field.
King Idris of Libya had his palace at Bab Zaytun. Tobruk was traditionally a stronghold of the Senussi royal dynasty and one of the first to rebel against Colonel Gaddafi in the Arab Spring.
At the outset of the Libyan Civil War (2011 Libyan Civil War), the city quickly came under the control of the NTC (National Transitional Council).