with the Transvaal Horse Artillery Regiment (Transvaal Horse Artillery), took part in the fighting at Sidi Rezegh (1st Infantry Division (South Africa)) culminating on 23 November 1941 with the German armour overwhelming the Allied forces, destroying 5 Brigade, and breaking through to the Eighth Army's rear areas on the Libyan border with Egypt. The casualties of the South African Irish were extremely heavy (only 140 men of all ranks survived), including its commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbs
. From the early 1930s, the British War Office began research on a replacement for the Service Dress (Service Dress (British Army)) that had been a combined field and dress uniform since the early 1900s. Initially conducted on a small scale over several years, some of the ideas tested included deerstalker hats and safari jackets. After extensive field trials of other uniforms, WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk
339 first-class wickets (First-class cricket). After losing perhaps his best years to World War II, during which he fought at Tobruk, he resumed his career for Lancashire in 1946 and became a mainstay of the team, recording 1,000 runs in a season eleven times. He toured Australia
the tank crews. Ironically, he was killed next day. DATE OF DEATH 26 November 1941 PLACE OF DEATH El Duda, Tobruk, Libya On 5 May 1940, Spencer 1999, p. 27. after a period of intense training, the battalion embarked on the ''Mauritania'' which carried them to the United Kingdom where the battalion formed part of an Australian contingent that were to help defend against a possible invasion following the Fall of France. Spencer
style "background:#e3d9ff;" 1941-11-25 25 November 1941* Tobruk, Libya - - style "background:#e3d9ff;" align "center" 1941* Second World War Royal Northumberland Fusiliers Tobruk, Libya - He was educated at Norwich School (Norwich School (educational institution)) and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he got a First in Politics, Philosophy
first offensive failed disastrously as German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel blunted the thrust. for successful modern desert warfare. British Admiral Andrew Cunningham (Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope) was relieved of command and Major General Neil Ritchie was put in his place.
. The unit was commanded by Rauff who was empowered to carry out "executive measures on the civilian population", the Nazi euphemism for mass murder and enslavement. - 1 May 1954 - On 25 February 1941 she landed a Royal Marines unit during Operation Abstention
, the 2nd Battalion took part in fighting against the Italians in Egypt before the following year when it saw tough fighting in Libya, then controlled by Italy. Engagements that the regiment took part in were many, and it fought valiantly against tough opposition. In May, the regiment saw action at the Battle of Halfaya Pass, which saw British and Commonwealth forces experiencing tough fighting against Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps. In June, the battalion was involved
Rommel to withdraw to strong defensive positions he had prepared at El Agheila. However, their 500+ mile advance had over-stretched their lines of supply and in January 1942 they had thinned out their front line troops to work on building lines of communications and supply dumps to enable a further thrust west to be made against Tripolitania. Meanwhile, Rommel had received reinforcements in men and tanks, and on 21 January sent out three strong armoured columns to make a tactical
; Playfair, p. 216. Ritchie's defences in the northern half of the front comprised well dug in mutually supporting Brigade Group positions protected with wire and minefields. To the south of this, in order to extend the front and force any potential enemy flanking force to travel a long distance and also hamper its resupply, the defences consisted of two Brigade group defensive "boxes" linked by thickly sown minefields and wire. The first box, held by British 150th
thumb 300px Port of Tobruk (File:Tobruk port 23.jpg) '''Tobruk''' or '''Tubruq''' ''Ţubruq''; also transliterated (Transliteration) as ''Tóbruch'', ''Tobruch'', ''Ţubruq'', ''Tobruck'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District (formerly Tobruk District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.). "Tobruk" (history), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2006, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, ''Concise.Britannica.com'' BC-Tobruk.
As of September 2014 the "internationally recognised government" (Council of Deputies) http: www.bbc.co.uk news world-africa-30681904 of Libya met and lived on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk harbour. http: www.theguardian.com world 2014 sep 09 libyan-parliament-refuge-greek-car-ferry In October 2014 they re-located to the 1970's Hotel Dar al Salam http: uk.reuters.com article 2014 10 02 uk-libya-security-insight-idUKKCN0HR1GD20141002 http: www.bbc.co.uk news magazine-29603393 AKA the Al Masira Hotel http: www.tripadvisor.co.uk Hotel_Review-g1641758-d3171777-Reviews-Al_Masira_Hotel-Tobruk_Al_Butnan_District.html#photos in Tobruk. In November 2014 that government was declared illegal by Libya's highest court. http: www.aljazeera.com news middleeast 2014 11 libyan-court-suspends-un-backed-parliament-201411691057750925.html
Tobruk was the site of an ancient Greek (Ancient Greece) colony and, later, of a Roman (Ancient Rome) fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica. Over the centuries, Tobruk also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan (Caravan (travellers)) route. By 1911, Tobruk had become an Italian (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941. The Australian 9th Division ("The Rats of Tobruk") pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima (Ar Rajma) and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting (Siege of Tobruk) against German forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies. Rebuilt after World War II, Tobruk was later expanded during the 1960s to include a port terminal (Port of Tobruk) linked by an oil pipeline to the Sarir oil field.
King Idris of Libya had his palace at Bab Zaytun. Tobruk was traditionally a stronghold of the Senussi royal dynasty and one of the first to rebel against Colonel Gaddafi in the Arab Spring.
At the outset of the Libyan Civil War (2011 Libyan Civil War), the city quickly came under the control of the NTC (National Transitional Council).