Tobruk

What is Tobruk known for?


fighting

;The Rats of Tobruk") pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima (Ar Rajma) and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting (Siege of Tobruk) against German forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies

sides were busily regrouping and General Claude Auchinleck, the Commander in Chief of British Middle East Command, had been advised to fight a major battle in May to forestall Axis plans of attack. However, 8th Army was not ready to make an offensive and so Lieutenant-General Neil Ritchie, the army commander, anticipated fighting a battle on his prepared position, meeting an Axis attack and destroying his enemy's armoured forces in the process. ref name "Playfair, p. 216"

on from Tobruk, Libya. North Africa and Syria Having returned to Egypt, part of the Division (the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade) was hurried across to Syria and was heavily involved in the advance on Damascus (Syria-Lebanon campaign) (June 1941). From 14 to 17 June 1941 the 4th Armoured Brigade (4th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)) was attached to the division. The rest of the Division was heavily involved in the fighting which ebbed


defensive

; Playfair, p. 216. Ritchie's defences in the northern half of the front comprised well dug in mutually supporting Brigade Group positions protected with wire and minefields. To the south of this, in order to extend the front and force any potential enemy flanking force to travel a long distance and also hamper its resupply, the defences consisted of two Brigade group defensive "boxes" linked by thickly sown minefields and wire. The first box, held by British 150th

in British ranks was horrendous as attempts to shore up the position failed time and again. After the Battle of Gazala Rommel not only drove the British out of Libya, and somewhat into Egypt, but he pushed deep into the protectorate. Tobruk fell quickly, and there was no repeat of the epic siege that Rommel's last advance had produced. A prepared defensive line at Mersa Matruh was out flanked, and disaster beckoned. Ritchie was dismissed as Eight Army commander and Claude

Auchinleck , the Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command, came forward to take command of it himself. After Matruh there was only one more defensive position before Cairo itself; El Alamein. In early January 1941, the Western Desert Force was redesignated XIII Corps (XIII Corps (United Kingdom)). On 9 January, the offensive resumed. By 12 January the strategic fortress port of Tobruk was surrounded. On 22 January it fell and another 27,000 Italian POWs were taken along


resistance military

much of the small Italian expeditionary corps. thumb left Italian troops firing on the Turks in Tripoli (1911) (File:Italoturca1.jpg) Successively Italian troops landed at Tobruk after a brief bombardment on December 4, 1911, occupied the seashore and marched towards the hinterlands facing weak resistance (Resistance (military)). "1911–1912 Turco-Italian War and Captain Mustafa Kemal". Ministry of Culture of Turkey, edited


defensive role

. where they later played a successful defensive role in the Siege of Tobruk, from May to August 1941. Wilmot 1993, pp. 88, 150–151 and 280. In the actions around Tobruk, the division suffered 135 killed, 507 wounded and 29 captured. Johnston 2005, p. 250. - WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk


military resistance

much of the small Italian expeditionary corps. thumb left Italian troops firing on the Turks in Tripoli (1911) (File:Italoturca1.jpg) Successively Italian troops landed at Tobruk after a brief bombardment on December 4, 1911, occupied the seashore and marched towards the hinterlands facing weak resistance (Resistance (military)). "1911–1912 Turco-Italian War and Captain Mustafa Kemal". Ministry of Culture of Turkey, edited


campaign+focus

through the North African Campaign to the First Battle of El Alamein. The Western Allied campaign begins at the Second Battle of El Alamein, and includes Operation Torch, the Battle for Tobruk, and the Battle of the Kasserine Pass, then finishes with the Allied invasion of Italy, including Anzio (Operation Shingle) and the Battle of Monte Cassino. The Yugoslav partisan campaign focus on combat in the Balkans with Russian assistance. * Tripoli, Libya


successful defensive

. where they later played a successful defensive role in the Siege of Tobruk, from May to August 1941. Wilmot 1993, pp. 88, 150–151 and 280. In the actions around Tobruk, the division suffered 135 killed, 507 wounded and 29 captured. Johnston 2005, p. 250. - WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk


successful modern

first offensive failed disastrously as German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel blunted the thrust. for successful modern desert warfare. British Admiral Andrew Cunningham (Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope) was relieved of command and Major General Neil Ritchie was put in his place.


campaign

The Hotel Tobruk was built in 1937. World War II At the beginning of World War II, Libya was an Italian colony (Italian Libya) and Tobruk became the site of important battles between the Allies (Allies of World War II) and Axis powers (Axis powers of World War II). Tobruk was strategically important to the conquest of Eastern Libya, then the province of Cyrenaica, for several reasons. File:Map of siege of Tobruk 1942.jpg

thumb 300px The Battle of Gazala in May 1942, which was fought in the vicinity of Tobruk Tobruk had a deep, natural, and protected harbour, which meant that even if the port were bombed, ships would still be able to anchor there and be safe from squalls, so the port could never be rendered wholly useless regardless of military bombardment. This was of critical importance, as it made Tobruk an excellent place to supply a desert warfare campaign. It was also heavily fortified

was launched. Other forces continued pushing east, reaching Bardia and securing the whole of Libya by 15 April. On 13 September 1940, Mussolini's highway (Via Balbia) was used for the invasion of Egypt by Italian forces stationed in Libya. Counterattacks of British Allied forces from Egypt, commanded by Wavell and their successful two-month campaign in (Tobruk, Benghazi, El Agheila), and the counteroffensives under Rommel (Erwin Rommel) in 1940-43, all took place during


radio commentary

World War II. In November 1942, the Allied forces retook Cyrenaica; by February 1943, the last German and Italian soldiers were driven from Libya. *1927 – Teddy Wakelam gives the first live radio commentary of a football (association football) match anywhere in the world, between Arsenal F.C. and Sheffield United (Sheffield United F.C.) at Highbury (Arsenal Stadium). *1941 – World War II: British (British Empire) and Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations) troops capture Tobruk from Italian forces (Regio Esercito) during Operation Compass (Operation_Compass#Tobruk). *1944 – World War II: The Allies (Allies of World War II) commence Operation Shingle, an assault on Anzio, Italy. WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk

Tobruk

thumb 300px Port of Tobruk (File:Tobruk port 23.jpg) '''Tobruk''' or '''Tubruq''' ''Ţubruq''; also transliterated (Transliteration) as ''Tóbruch'', ''Tobruch'', ''Ţubruq'', ''Tobruck'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District (formerly Tobruk District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.). "Tobruk" (history), ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2006, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, ''Concise.Britannica.com'' BC-Tobruk.

As of September 2014 the "internationally recognised government" (Council of Deputies) http: www.bbc.co.uk news world-africa-30681904 of Libya met and lived on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk harbour. http: www.theguardian.com world 2014 sep 09 libyan-parliament-refuge-greek-car-ferry In October 2014 they re-located to the 1970's Hotel Dar al Salam http: uk.reuters.com article 2014 10 02 uk-libya-security-insight-idUKKCN0HR1GD20141002 http: www.bbc.co.uk news magazine-29603393 AKA the Al Masira Hotel http: www.tripadvisor.co.uk Hotel_Review-g1641758-d3171777-Reviews-Al_Masira_Hotel-Tobruk_Al_Butnan_District.html#photos in Tobruk. In November 2014 that government was declared illegal by Libya's highest court. http: www.aljazeera.com news middleeast 2014 11 libyan-court-suspends-un-backed-parliament-201411691057750925.html

Tobruk was the site of an ancient Greek (Ancient Greece) colony and, later, of a Roman (Ancient Rome) fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica. Over the centuries, Tobruk also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan (Caravan (travellers)) route. By 1911, Tobruk had become an Italian (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941. The Australian 9th Division ("The Rats of Tobruk") pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima (Ar Rajma) and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting (Siege of Tobruk) against German forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies. Rebuilt after World War II, Tobruk was later expanded during the 1960s to include a port terminal (Port of Tobruk) linked by an oil pipeline to the Sarir oil field.

King Idris of Libya had his palace at Bab Zaytun. Tobruk was traditionally a stronghold of the Senussi royal dynasty and one of the first to rebel against Colonel Gaddafi in the Arab Spring.

At the outset of the Libyan Civil War (2011 Libyan Civil War), the city quickly came under the control of the NTC (National Transitional Council).

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