Timbuktu

What is Timbuktu known for?


Teghaza

with the Tuareg (Taureg people) whom Ali expelled to gain control of the town. '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located


stories high

, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sahelian architecture (Sudano-Sahelian) initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque

centered on Friday prayer. Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sudano

. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri (Abu Abdullah al-Bakri)), one centered on Friday prayer.thumb 400px right Timbuktu (Image:TIMBUKTU-EINZUG.jpg) Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high


showing images

for endangered cultural heritage sites'' * Presentation showing images of Timbuktu * (Category:Timbuktu) Category:Ancient cities


multiple quot

and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Muhammad Ture (Askia Muhammad) (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. ref name "multiple">

of the modern era. It seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 '''Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré''', or '''Sankore Masjid''' is one of three ancient centers of learning located


important book

is impoverished and suffers from desertification. In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from


knowledge news

Natural Reserves – Threats to the Site (1992) url http: whc.unesco.org en list 573 threats publisher UNESCO accessdate 10 September 2011 oil and gas projects and mining, declines


running quot

in the busy Commune III (Commune III (Bamako)) neighbourhood, where "Avenue Moussa Tavele" meets the waterside boulevard between the two main Bamako bridges : King Fahd Bridge (King Fahd Bridge (Bamako)) a block west and Martyrs Bridge (Martyrs Bridge (Bamako)) three blocks east. Just to the east of the BCEAO complex, a park and formal garden marks where the diagonally running "Boulevard du Peuple" reaches the river. By contrast, small market gardens and launching


site cultural

contribution-url http: whc.unesco.org archive repcom88.htm#119 title Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage series year 1988 place Brasilia publisher UNESCO url http: whc.unesco.org archive repcom88.htm The selection was based on three criteria (World Heritage Site#Cultural criteria): * Criterion II: Timbuktu's holy places were vital to early Islamization in Africa. * Criterion IV


causing major

'' are the basis for several industries, such as sawmilling, pulp, charcoal and others. Several species have become invasive (invasive species) and are causing major problems for local ecosystems, mainly due to the absence of wildlife corridors and rotations management. Eucalypts have many uses which have made them economically (Economics) important trees, and have become a cash crop in poor areas such as Timbuktu, Africa WorldWatch Institute. (2007) ''State of the World (State of the World (book series)): Our Urban Future''. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


fort+worth,+tx

height, the English edition of his book includes the description: According to Leo Africanus, there were abundant supplies of locally produced corn, cattle, milk and butter, though there were neither gardens nor orchards surrounding the city.

Timbuktu

website

'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.

The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.

On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.

On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.

On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.

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