Timbuktu

What is Timbuktu known for?


quot nearby

complex of homes in coursed mud, with hipped roofs of shingles (Roof shingle) or palm leaves. The Palace had a sequence of ceremonial rooms, and was decorated with brass plaques (Benin Bronzes). Sjúbídú Skagaströnd was mentioned in the song Sjúbídú, the Iceladic entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1996. According to the lyrics, the word ''shoobe-doo'' can be understood "from Skagaströnd to Timbuktu". Nearby Kálfhamarsvík is considered one of the most beautiful tourist destinations in Iceland. Languages spoken in the city include Moroccan Arabic, Tachelhit and Tamazight. A well known sign at the town border states "Tombouctou (Timbuktu) 52 days", the supposed time it takes to get to Timbuktu, Mali on foot or camel. Languages spoken in the city include Moroccan Arabic, Tachelhit and Tamazight. A well known sign at the town border states "Tombouctou (Timbuktu) 52 days", the supposed time it takes to get to Timbuktu, Mali on foot or camel. * Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


guitar style

as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains to Marrakech. The road from Marrakech to Essaouira is a straight line, explaining the King's choice of this port among the many that the Moroccan coast offers. The Tinariwen sound is primarily guitar-driven in the style known as ''assouf'' among the Tuareg people. The Tinariwen guitar

style has its roots in West African music, specifically that from the "great bend" region along the Niger River, between Timbuktu and Gao. The core elements of Tinariwen's music are traditional Tuareg melodies and rhythms including those played on the shepherd's flute, which is primarily a man's instrument; and those played on a one-string fiddle known as an imzad which is played by women. The primary percussion instrument is the tindé drum which is played by women


album cover

of the same name published by Cheeky Press. The film is directed by its creator, Craig Clark, an art rock, darkwave musician (Chorus of Souls on Fluxus Records), animator (''Forrest Gump'' and ''The Simpsons''), comic book artist (''Nemesister'' and ''Timbuktu'') and album cover artist (The Nymphs). Clark produced the film little by little over a period of four years, from 1999-2004. Operations Amiot 122 was first used as a long-distance sports plane. From September 13, 1927 the prototype carried out a 10,800 km tour around the Mediterranean Sea, from Paris, through Vienna, Beirut, Cairo, Benghazi, Tunis, Casablanca to Paris. From April 3 to 5, 1928, lieutenant Girardot flew it across the Sahara, on the Paris-Timbuktu-Dakar-Paris 10,100 km route. Ghana At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri (Abu Abdullah al-Bakri)), one centered on Friday prayer.thumb 400px right Timbuktu (Image:TIMBUKTU-EINZUG.jpg) Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sahelian architecture (Sudano-Sahelian) initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. Ghana At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri (Abu Abdullah al-Bakri)), one centered on Friday prayer.thumb 400px right Timbuktu (Image:TIMBUKTU-EINZUG.jpg) Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sahelian architecture (Sudano-Sahelian) initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. A Qadiriyyah Sufi imam by training, Seku Amadu preached for years against what he saw as the corruption of the Islamic elites governing Timbuktu and Djenné. Inspired by the recent uprising of Usman dan Fodio in neighboring Hausaland (Hausa people), Seku Amadu led his followers in a jihad (Amadu's Jihad) against the then-dominant Bambara Empire in 1818. By 1819, he had decisively defeated the Bambara in battle, seizing Djenné and much of Inner Niger Delta region. He founded a capital for his new Massina Empire at Hamdullahi, northeast of Djenné, just south of the present day city of Mopti. In 1845, Seku Amadu conquered Timbuktu. However, he died within the year, leaving control of the Massina Empire to his son, Amadu Seku. Seku Amadu's Empire outlived him by only seventeen years, falling to Toucouleur conqueror El Hajj Umar Tall in 1862. Cole was murdered by Tuareg (Taureg people) bandits near Timbuktu, Mali, in late October 2000. Under Sundiata's successors, most notably his son Wali Keita (r. c. 1255–1270) and his grand-nephew Kankou Musa I (Mansa Musa) (r. c. 1312–1337), the Mali Empire continued to expand, eventually creating a centralized state including most of West Africa. Trade flourished, while Kankou Musa I founded a university at Timbuktu and instituted a program of free health care and education for Malian citizens with the help of doctors and scholars brought back from his legendary hajj. At the same time, the Europeans started to travel into the interior of Africa to trade and explore. Mungo Park (Mungo Park (explorer)) (1771–1806) made the first serious expedition into the region's interior, tracing the Niger (Niger River) as far as Timbuktu. French armies followed not long after. In the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s the Europeans started to colonize the inland of West Africa, they had previously mostly controlled trading ports along the coasts and rivers. Samory Ture (Samory)'s newly-founded Wassoulou Empire was the last to fall, and with his capture in 1898, military resistance to French colonial rule effectively ended. thumb West Africa after the Moroccan invasion. (File:WestAfrica1625.png) The Songhai Empire, was a western African (West Africa) state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, it was one of the largest (List of largest empires) African empires in history. On October 16, 1590, Ahmad took advantage of recent civil strife in the empire and dispatched an army of 4,000 men across the Sahara desert under the command of converted Spaniard (Spain) Judar Pasha. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


quot extreme

administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census. "I just can't wait to see their faces when we fly in and start playing football with them. I don't think they will be able to believe somebody in a flying car has just visited them," 'extreme golfer' Mr Laughton said before the departure. Timbuktu (w:Timbuktu) (Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is an isolated city in Tombouctou Region (w:Tombouctou Region), in the w:West Africa West


musical based

media people Ali Farka Touré with Ry Cooder title Talking Timbuktu medium CD (insert) publisher World Circuit year 1994 ''Timbuktu!'' was a 1978 Broadway musical based on the 1953 ''Kismet'', which re-imagined the original, transposing it from an "Arabian Nights" setting to eleventh-century Mali. Arts and culture Cultural events The most well-known cultural event is the Festival au Désert. When the Tuareg rebellion ended in 1996 under the Konaré administration, 3,000 weapons were burned in a ceremony dubbed the Flame of Peace on 29 March 2007 – to commemorate the ceremony, a monument was built. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


making music

). Important cities located in the Sahara include Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania; Tamanrasset, Ouargla, Bechar, Hassi Messaoud, Ghardaia, and El Oued in Algeria; Timbuktu in Mali; Agadez in Niger; Ghat (Ghat, Libya) in Libya; and Faya-Largeau in Chad. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktu, present-day Mali, which comprised three schools: the Mosque of Djinguereber, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, and the Mosque of Sankore. During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25,000 students within a city of around 100,000 people. From the time of its rebuilding by Muhammad III until the end of the nineteenth century, Essaouira served as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains to Marrakech. The road from Marrakech to Essaouira is a straight line, explaining the King's choice of this port among the many that the Moroccan coast offers. The Tinariwen sound is primarily guitar-driven in the style known as ''assouf'' among the Tuareg people. The Tinariwen guitar style has its roots in West African music, specifically that from the "great bend" region along the Niger River, between Timbuktu and Gao. The core elements of Tinariwen's music are traditional Tuareg melodies and rhythms including those played on the shepherd's flute, which is primarily a man's instrument; and those played on a one-string fiddle known as an imzad which is played by women. The primary percussion instrument is the tindé drum which is played by women at festive occasions. Another important traditional influence is the lute known as the teherdent, which is played


important traditional

at festive occasions. Another important traditional influence is the lute known as the teherdent, which is played by the griots of the Gao and Timbuktu regions. In the late 1970s, when the founding members of Tinariwen started playing acoustic guitars, they played a traditional repertoire adapted to the western guitar. *Tongchuan (Tongchuan, Shaanxi) (China) — Licantén (Chile) *Suva (Fiji) — Timbuktu (Mali) *Jaisalmer (India)— Easter Island Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


quot extensive

coast of Africa and to some extent into the interior (see Swahili people). Timbuktu was a trading outpost that linked West Africa with Berber (Berber people), Arab, and Jewish traders throughout the Arab World. As a result of these interactions, some female-mediated gene flow into the Middle East from Sub-Saharan Africa can be observed in certain populations. "Extensive Female-Mediated Gene


original local

. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "


quot setting

The BCEAO Tower is the Malian headquarters of the Central Bank of West African States, which provides development banking and government financial and currency services in several Francophone West African nations. Classified as Neo-Sudanic architecture, it is modeled on the Sudano-Sahelian architecture of the famous mosques of Djenne and Timbuktu. The building is located in the busy Commune III (Commune III (Bamako)) neighbourhood, where "Avenue Moussa Tavele" meets the waterside boulevard between the two main Bamako bridges : King Fahd Bridge (King Fahd Bridge (Bamako)) a block west and Martyrs Bridge (Martyrs Bridge (Bamako)) three blocks east. Just to the east of the BCEAO complex, a park and formal garden marks where the diagonally running "Boulevard du Peuple" reaches the river. By contrast, small market gardens and launching points or river canoes lie along the river front. With the Hotel de l'Amitié (Hotel de l'Amitié (Bamako)) and the Bamako Grand Mosque, the BCEAO Tower is one of three landmarks visible across most of the city. Also of note is the Bamako Cathedral. The Bamako-Sénou International Airport is located 15 km from the city and opened to passengers in 1974. Passenger traffic steadily increased in the early 2000s. Government figures revealed 403,380 passengers in 1999, 423,506 in 2003, 486,526 in 2004, and 516,000 in 2005. and is predicted to reach over 900,000 by 2015 under a low (4%) yearly growth rate scenario.

Timbuktu

website

'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.

The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.

On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.

On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.

On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.

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