: weekly.ahram.org.eg 2003 665 bo3.htm "Vegetal and mineral memory" , November 2003. Considers, among other things, encyclopedias Eco's interest in East West dialogue to facilitate international communication and understanding also correlates with his related interest in the international auxiliary language Esperanto. Mali (West Africa) * The Festival in the Desert takes place every year at Essakane, near Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africa and has achieved international status in spite of the difficulties of reaching its location. Festival in the Desert - Artist Detail Information ; BBC Four, "Festival in the Desert 2004", 5 November 2004. The Arabized Berber (Berber people) tribes controlled key oasis settlements of the Sahara and played an important role in the trans-Saharan slave trade (Arab slave trade). They already used to impose heavy taxation on any traffic through their lands, while also furnishing protection, supplies, and camels. When trans-Saharan trade intensified, they developed departure and arrival centers with slave depots and intermediary secure caravan stops. In these centers, they oversaw the traffic from sub-Saharan regions to Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Timbuktu (Mali) was a central crossroad to all four routes. Ouadane, Idjil (near Atar (Atar, Mauritania)), Azougui, Araouane, Taoudenni and later Tindouf were important stopping-places. Map on http: les.traitesnegrieres.free.fr At the same time the number of slaves kept in Western Sahara itself increased drastically. *The horse and slave trade between the western Sahara and Senegambia, Webb, J.L.A., Journal of African history, 1993, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 221-246, ISSN 0021-8537 *The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade by Elizabeth Savage (ed.), 1992 * 1456: The Siege of Belgrade (Siege of Belgrade (1456)) halts the Ottoman's advance into Europe. * 1462: Sonni Ali Ber (Sonni Ali), the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire (Songhai Empire), along the Niger River, conquers Mali (Mali Empire) in the central Sudan by defeating the Tuareg (Tuareg people) contingent at Tombouctou (Timbuktu) (or Timbuktu) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu and Djenné, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. * 1462: Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. * 1456: The Siege of Belgrade (Siege of Belgrade (1456)) halts the Ottoman's advance into Europe. * 1462: Sonni Ali Ber (Sonni Ali), the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire (Songhai Empire), along the Niger River, conquers Mali (Mali Empire) in the central Sudan by defeating the Tuareg (Tuareg people) contingent at Tombouctou (Timbuktu) (or Timbuktu) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu and Djenné, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. * 1462: Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. * June 7 – France: Day of the Tiles, which some consider the beginning of the French Revolution. * June 9 – The African Association, an exploration group dedicated to plotting the Niger River and finding Timbuktu, is founded in England. * June 17 – English (English people) captains Thomas Gilbert (Thomas Gilbert (sea captain)) and John Marshall (John Marshall (British captain)), returning from Botany Bay, become the first Europeans to encounter the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
Movie Database . Retrieved 24 October 2009 Timbuktu has provided the main setting for at least one movie: the 1959 film ''Timbuktu (Timbuktu (1959 film))'' was set in the city in 1940, although it was filmed in Kanab, Utah. Ali Farka Touré inverted the stereotype: "For some people, when you say 'Timbuktu' it is like the end of the world, but that is not true. I am from Timbuktu, and I can tell you that we are right at the heart of the world." Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
as the most inaccessible of cities, but at the time Leo visited, it was the center of a busy trade carried on by traders in African products, gold, printed cottons and slaves (slavery), and in Islamic books. Nothing is known of Leo's later life. Igloolik is also the home-base of the only Inuit circus, Artcirq. This collective is active in video-making, music production and live circus show performances. Early in 2008, when temperatures in Igloolik were at
by the revenue from the CFA 5000 tourist tax, by the sale of handicrafts and by the employment for the guides. Attacks Starting in 2008 the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb began kidnapping groups of tourists in the Sahel region.
height, the English edition of his book includes the description: According to Leo Africanus, there were abundant supplies of locally produced corn, cattle, milk and butter, though there were neither gardens nor orchards surrounding the city.
at festive occasions. Another important traditional influence is the lute known as the teherdent, which is played by the griots of the Gao and Timbuktu regions. In the late 1970s, when the founding members of Tinariwen started playing acoustic guitars, they played a traditional repertoire adapted to the western guitar. *Tongchuan (Tongchuan, Shaanxi) (China) — Licantén (Chile) *Suva (Fiji) — Timbuktu (Mali) *Jaisalmer (India)— Easter Island Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
Haven author1 Morse, Jedidiah authorlink1 Jedidiah Morse author2 Richard C. Morse title A New Universal Gazetteer publication-date 1823 edition 4th chapterurl http: www.archive.org stream newuniversalgaze00morsrich#page 764 mode 2up chapter Tombuctou ref none *
champagne de research à Tombouctou préhistorique place Field Report to the Direction Nationale du Patrimoine Culturel, Bamako language French url http: yale.academia.edu DouglasPark Papers 1553213 _2_--_LA_CAMPAGNE_DE_FOUILLE_ARCHEOLOGIQUE_A_TOMBOUCTOU_RAPPORT_SUR_LA_DEUXIEME_CAMPAGNE_DE_RECHERCHE_A_TOMBOUCTOU ref none . *
they had been grown for centuries. Also, two periods of most frequent typhoon strikes in Guangdong coincide with two of the coldest and driest periods in northern and central China (AD 1660-1680, 1850–1880).
. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "
to Eccentric & Discredited Diseases'' was for thirty years disseminated to doctors around the world in the form of loose-leaf carbon copies and photocopies. In 1945, London's Chatto & Windus published the first formal edition of the ''Guide''. Twenty editions later, the Guide was discontinued, but continued to be updated by Dr. Lambshead and his colleagues and privately printed by friends. From Freetown to Istanbul, Timbuktu to Ulan Bator, it has proven its worth under less
'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.
Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.
The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.
In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.
On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.
On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.
On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.