Timbuktu

What is Timbuktu known for?


musical based

media people Ali Farka Touré with Ry Cooder title Talking Timbuktu medium CD (insert) publisher World Circuit year 1994 ''Timbuktu!'' was a 1978 Broadway musical based on the 1953 ''Kismet'', which re-imagined the original, transposing it from an "Arabian Nights" setting to eleventh-century Mali. Arts and culture Cultural events The most well-known cultural event is the Festival au Désert. When the Tuareg rebellion ended in 1996 under the Konaré administration, 3,000 weapons were burned in a ceremony dubbed the Flame of Peace on 29 March 2007 – to commemorate the ceremony, a monument was built. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


eccentric+amp

to Eccentric & Discredited Diseases'' was for thirty years disseminated to doctors around the world in the form of loose-leaf carbon copies and photocopies. In 1945, London's Chatto & Windus published the first formal edition of the ''Guide''. Twenty editions later, the Guide was discontinued, but continued to be updated by Dr. Lambshead and his colleagues and privately printed by friends. From Freetown to Istanbul, Timbuktu to Ulan Bator, it has proven its worth under less


Taghaza

a relatively autonomous position. Merchants from Ghadames, Awjilah (Awjilah, Libya), and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to buy gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza (History of salt#The socio-political history of salt) and for North African cloth and horses.

on the verge of economic depletion and bankruptcy, as they needed to pay for the defenses used to hold off the siege) under the eunuch Judar Pasha. Judar Pasha was a Spaniard by birth, but had been captured as an infant and educated at the Saadi court. After a march across the Sahara desert, Judar's forces captured, plundered, and razed the salt mines at Taghaza and moved on to Gao. When Emperor Askia Ishaq II (r. 1588-1591) met Judar at the 1591 Battle of Tondibi, Songhai forces

with the Tuareg (Taureg people) whom Ali expelled to gain control of the town. '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located


book series

of the World (book series) State of the World : Our Urban Future''. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


quot setting

The BCEAO Tower is the Malian headquarters of the Central Bank of West African States, which provides development banking and government financial and currency services in several Francophone West African nations. Classified as Neo-Sudanic architecture, it is modeled on the Sudano-Sahelian architecture of the famous mosques of Djenne and Timbuktu. The building is located in the busy Commune III (Commune III (Bamako)) neighbourhood, where "Avenue Moussa Tavele" meets the waterside boulevard between the two main Bamako bridges : King Fahd Bridge (King Fahd Bridge (Bamako)) a block west and Martyrs Bridge (Martyrs Bridge (Bamako)) three blocks east. Just to the east of the BCEAO complex, a park and formal garden marks where the diagonally running "Boulevard du Peuple" reaches the river. By contrast, small market gardens and launching points or river canoes lie along the river front. With the Hotel de l'Amitié (Hotel de l'Amitié (Bamako)) and the Bamako Grand Mosque, the BCEAO Tower is one of three landmarks visible across most of the city. Also of note is the Bamako Cathedral. The Bamako-Sénou International Airport is located 15 km from the city and opened to passengers in 1974. Passenger traffic steadily increased in the early 2000s. Government figures revealed 403,380 passengers in 1999, 423,506 in 2003, 486,526 in 2004, and 516,000 in 2005. and is predicted to reach over 900,000 by 2015 under a low (4%) yearly growth rate scenario.


Taghaza

a relatively autonomous position. Merchants from Ghadames, Awjilah (Awjilah, Libya), and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to buy gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza (History of salt#The socio-political history of salt) and for North African cloth and horses.

on the verge of economic depletion and bankruptcy, as they needed to pay for the defenses used to hold off the siege) under the eunuch Judar Pasha. Judar Pasha was a Spaniard by birth, but had been captured as an infant and educated at the Saadi court. After a march across the Sahara desert, Judar's forces captured, plundered, and razed the salt mines at Taghaza and moved on to Gao. When Emperor Askia Ishaq II (r. 1588-1591) met Judar at the 1591 Battle of Tondibi, Songhai forces

with the Tuareg (Taureg people) whom Ali expelled to gain control of the town. '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located


Niani

), "''geugeu''" (Gao) and "''mayna''" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani (Niani, Mali Empire)?) are denoted along the same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the towns of Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east of that, probably Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and much further southeast, probably Kano. The inscription above Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca

or University of Sankore was constructed during his reign. In Niani, he built the Hall of Audience, a building communicated by an interior door to the royal palace. It was "an admirable Monument" surmounted by a dome, adorned with arabesques of striking colours. The windows of an upper floor were plated with wood and framed in silver foil, those of a lower floor were plated with wood, framed in gold. Like the Great Mosque, a contemporaneous and grandiose structure in Timbuktu, the Hall


scientific scholarship

of Mali was the center of Islamic, legal, and scientific scholarship. The oldest formal universities in West Africa - Sankore (Sankore Madrasah), Jingaray Ber, and Sidi Yahya - were founded there. Within a few generations, Mali itself was eclipsed by the Songhai empire of Askia Muhammad (Askia the Great) '''Koyra Chiini''' ( , literally "town language"), or '''Western Songhay''', is a variety of Songhai (Songhai languages) in Mali, spoken by about


significant+books

that Djenné itself might originally come from the Berber Ghinawen (blacks). Askia encouraged learning and literacy, ensuring that Mali's universities produced the most distinguished scholars, many of whom published significant books. To secure the legitimacy of his usurpation of the Sonni dynasty, Askia Muhammad allied himself with the scholars of Timbuktu, ushering in a golden age in the city for Muslim scholarship. Vogel, Joseph O., ''Encyclopedia of Precolonial


historical study

Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu

Timbuktu

website

'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.

The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.

On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.

On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.

On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.

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