of Greifswald Greifswald , culminating in a doctoral degree (PhD). Then, he decided to study medicine. As a medical student, he began to question religion and in 1846 became an atheist, joining the Free Congregations and supporting free love. Despite completing the course, he did not graduate because he refused to swear the graduation oath, which contained the phrase "so help me God and his sacred Gospel". Image:loccum kloster winter20042005.jpg left thumb Loccum
-French, or Alsatian, sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist, studied at the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School, the predecessor of the Bauhaus * Otto Dix (1891–1969), German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war, born in Untermhaus (today Gera) * Uziel Gal (1923–2002), Israeli gun designer, best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun, born in Weimar * Jorge
is the model for the fictional town of Grantville in Eric Flint's best selling hit ''1632 series'' of alternate history novels: ''1632 (1632 (novel))'', ''1633 (1633 (novel))'', ''Ring of Fire (Ring of Fire (anthology))'', ''The Grantville Gazette'', and other book-length and shorter works. The ''1632 series'' has evolved into a large scale experiment in collaborative fiction and has attracted considerable interest from other best selling writers, including David Weber
established these cities as centers of new settlement areas. Most of the new German towns were planned and built in a grid-like pattern with a rectangular market square in the center. The cities were surrounded by large, regular villages, whose construction varied depending on the nature of their creation. Newly created settlements in land clearing areas in the southern and or forested parts of Silesia were built as ''Waldhufen villages'', in other regions either as ''Zeilen villages'', villages arranged
was turned down due to opposition of the states and concerns of the government. Article 18 of the constitution enabled a new delimitation of the German territory but set high hurdles: ''Three fifth of the votes handed in, and at least the majority of the population are necessary to decide on the alteration of territory''. In fact, until 1933 there were only four changes of the German map: The 7 Thuringian states united in 1920, whereby Coburg (Saxe-Coburg) opted for Bavaria, Pyrmont
). Originally the western part of the Landgraviate (Landgrave) of Thuringia, in the mid 13th century it was inherited by the younger son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and became a distinct political entity. From the late 16th century it was generally divided into several branches, the most important of which were those of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). In the early 19th century the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was elevated
the USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany); less than two years later, he became a member of the Thuringian parliament (Landtag) for the first time, where he stayed until 1933. Brill was born in the small town of Gräfenroda, Thuringia on February 9, 1895 as the son of a tailor; after finishing school, he attended the ''Herzog-Ernst-Seminar'' in Gotha (Gotha (town)) to become a teacher. His political career began in 1918, when he entered the Independent Social Democratic
of Erfurt. Early years Willi Münzenberg was born 14 August 1889 in Erfurt, Thuringia the son of a tavern keeper, Münzenberg grew up in poverty. As a young man, he became involved with trade unions and in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Following the SPD split in 1914 between the moderate majority (known as the Majority SPD, MSPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany)) and the radical minority (known as the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany Independent
: www.zeitgeschichte-online.de portals _rainbow documents pdf russerinn mittig.pdf Marmor der Reichskanzlei ''. In: Dieter Bingen Hans-Martin Hinz (Hrsg.): ''Die Schleifung Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten in Deutschland und Polen.'' Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-447-05096-9. In more recent times, petrographic (petrography) research confirmed this origin of the material. Life Almost nothing about his life
himself to politically neutral names for his asteroids, such as topics related to Thuringia or famous scientists and composers. Examples include 2424 Tautenburg, 3181 Ahnert, 3245 Jensch, or 3941 Haydn. After the German reunification, he chose systematically historical, cultural, scientific and geographical namings, and at times honoured amateur astronomers. Other names include references to resistance fighters against the Nazi (Nazism) suppression, or document
(''Beutel''). A variety of ''Blutwurst'', the ''Rotwurst'' from Thuringia (''Thüringer Rotwurst'') has geographical indication protection under EU law, with '''PGI (Protected geographical indications in the European Union)''' status. ''Kartoffelwurst'' (potato sausage) is a post-World War II variety popular in the Palatinate (Palatinate (region)), a fat-reduced version of ''Blutwurst'' using potato cubes instead of bacon. Castles in Thuringia between Gotha and Erfurt The first
The '''Free State of Thuringia''' ( ) is a federal state (States of Germany) of Germany, located in the central part of the country. It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area !-- area: 408 bremen, 892 berlin, 2569 saarland 15763 schleswig-holstein, 16171 thüringeen, 18416 sachsen 19847 rheinland-pfalz, 20445 sachsen-anhalt, 21100 hessen, 24174 mecklenburg-vorpommern, 29479 brandenburg, 34084 nordrhein-westphalen, 35752 baden-wurttemberg, 47624 niedersachsen, 70549 bayern, 755264 hamburg. -- and the fifth smallest by population !-- pop: 665000 bremen, 1045555 saarland, 1697800 mecklenburg-vorpommern, 1750194 hamburg, 2319000 thüringen, 2451000 saxony-anhalt, 2551000 brandenburg, 2832912 schleswig-holstein, 3402312 berlin 4054081 rheinland-pfalz, 4261896 sachsen, 6078000 hessen, 7996942 lower saxony, 10736000 baden-wurttemberg 12482000 bayern, 18039847 nordrhein-westphalen. -- of Germany's sixteen states . Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe (Elbe River). Its capital is Erfurt .
Thuringia has been known by the nickname of "the green heart of Germany" (''das grüne Herz Deutschlands'') from the late 19th century, due to the dense forest covering the land.
Thuringia is known in Germany for nature and winter sports. It is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most famous hiking trail (hiking), and the winter resort of Oberhof (Oberhof, Germany). Germany has won more Winter Olympics gold medals than any other country in the last 20 years, and half of Germany's all-time total of 136 Winter Olympic gold medals (through the Sochi games in 2014) have been won by Thuringian athletes.
Johann Sebastian Bach spent the first part of his life (1685–1717) and important further stages of his career in Thuringia. In the classical period, Goethe and Schiller lived at Weimar. Both worked also in the famous University of Jena nearby, which now hosts the most important centre of science in Thuringia. Other Universities of this federal state (States of Germany) are the Ilmenau University of Technology (Technische Universität Ilmenau), the University of Erfurt, and the Bauhaus University of Weimar (Bauhaus-Universität Weimar).