As Taiwan is majority Han Chinese, traditional Chinese festivals are celebrated in Taiwan. Among the most notable are: *'''Chinese New Year''' (春節). This is the most important festival for the Taiwanese and many shops and restaurants close on the first three days so it is not an ideal time to visit. However, the days leading up to the festival as well as the fourth to fifteenth days are ideal for soaking up the atmosphere and listening to Chinese New Year songs. *'''Tomb Sweeping Day''' (Ching Ming Festival, 清明節). This is when many Taiwanese would pay respects at their ancestors' graves. *'''Dragon Boat Festival''' (端午節). This festival honors Qu Yuan, a patriotic official from the state of Chu during the Warring States period of Chinese history who committed suicide by jumping into a river when Chu was conquered by Qin. To prevent the fishes from eating his body, villagers threw rice dumplings into the river to feed the fishes and rowed dragon boats with drums being beaten on them to scare away the fishes. Since then, dragon boat racing has been carried out on this day and rice dumplings are also eaten. *'''Hungry Ghost Festival''' (Ghost Month, 中元節). This festival runs throughout the seventh month of the Chinese calendar. It is believed that the gates of hell open during this period and hungry ghosts are allowed to roam freely into our world. In order to appease the ghosts and prevent misfortune, many Taiwanese will offer food and burn joss paper for them. In addition, traditional Chinese performances such as Chinese opera and puppet shows are held to appease these wandering spirits. *'''Mid-Autumn Festival''' (Moon Festival, 中秋節). Legend has it that on this day, a woman known as Chang E swallowed some divine pills to prevent her power hungry husband from becoming immortal. Afraid of being killed by her husband, she fled to the moon and it is believed that the moon shines brightest on this day. This is when many lanterns will be put up for decoration in various parks
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very prominent. This would give them a geographical and economic strategic advantage, and it would make Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand the front-line defensive states. The loss of regions traditionally within the vital regional trading area of countries like Japan would encourage the front-line countries to compromise politically with communism. Second presidency In late-April 1975, President Thiệu fled to Taiwan and handed over power to Vice President Trần Văn Hương on April 21. Hương prepared for peace talks with North Vietnam but, when his overtures were rejected, he resigned. Willbanks, pgs. 264-70 As the main attack on Saigon developed on 27 April 1975, in a joint sitting of the bicameral National Assembly, the presidency was unanimously handed over to Minh, who was sworn in the following day. The French government thought that Minh could broker a cease-fire and had advocated his ascension to power. There was also an assumption that, as Minh had a reputation for indecision, the various groups thought that they could manipulate him for their own ends relatively easily. It was widely assumed that Minh, Dougan and Fulghum, pp. 154-55 who had long-standing contacts with the communists, would be able to establish a cease-fire and re-open negotiations. Isaacs, pp. 439, 432–33 Dougan and Fulghum, pgs. 102-3 Willbanks, pgs. 273-74 This expectation was totally unrealistic, as the North Vietnamese were in an overwhelmingly dominant position on the battlefield and final victory was within reach, so they saw no need for power-sharing, regardless of any political changes in Saigon. Dougan and Fulghum, pp. 142-43 Countries where a dot "." is used to mark the radix point include: : Australia, Botswana, British West Indies, Brunei, Canada (English-speaking), Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Hong Kong, India, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Israel, Japan, Kenya, Korea (both North (North Korea) and South (South Korea)), Lebanon, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, People's Republic of China, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Switzerland (only when the amount is in Swiss francs
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'''Taiwan''' ( as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu (Matsu Islands), and other minor islands (List of islands of the Republic of China). Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China (China) to the west, Japan to the east and northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taipei is the seat of the central government. New Taipei (New Taipei City), encompassing the metropolitan area surrounding Taipei proper, is the most populous city (List of cities in Taiwan).
The island of Taiwan (formerly known as "''Formosa''") was mainly inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines until the Dutch (Dutch Formosa) and Spanish settlement (Spanish Formosa) during the Age of Discovery in the 17th century, when Han Chinese began immigrating to the island. In 1662, the pro-Ming (Southern Ming Dynasty) loyalist Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the first Han Chinese polity on the island, the Kingdom of Tungning. The Qing Dynasty of China later defeated the kingdom and annexed Taiwan. By the time Taiwan was ceded to Japan (Empire of Japan) in 1895, the majority of Taiwan's inhabitants were Han Chinese either by ancestry or by assimilation (Cultural assimilation). The Republic of China (Republic of China (1912–49)) (ROC) was established in China in 1912. After Japan's surrender in 1945, the ROC assumed its control of Taiwan. Following the Chinese civil war, the Communist Party of China took full control of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The ROC relocated its government to Taiwan, and its jurisdiction became limited to Taiwan and its surrounding islands (Free area of the Republic of China). In 1971, the PRC assumed China's seat at the United Nations (China and the United Nations), which the ROC originally occupied. International recognition (Diplomatic recognition) of the ROC has gradually eroded as most countries switched recognition to the PRC. and the Holy See currently maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC. It has unofficial ties with most other states via its representative offices (Taipei Representative Office).
Constitutionally, there is dispute over whether the government claims sovereignty over all of "China," in a definition that includes mainland China and Outer Mongolia, http: www.judicial.gov.tw constitutionalcourt p03_01_printpage.asp?expno 328 but the ROC has not made retaking mainland China a political goal since 1992. Cross-Strait relations as well as issues of national identity (Taiwanese identity#Relationship between Taiwanese Identity and Chinese Identity) within the country are important factors in Taiwanese politics and a cause of social and political division among political parties and their respective supporters.
During the latter half of the 20th century, Taiwan experienced rapid economic growth (Taiwan Miracle) and industrialization and is now an advanced industrial economy (Developed country). In the 1980s and early 1990s, Taiwan evolved into a multi-party democracy (List of political parties in the Republic of China) with universal suffrage. Taiwan is one of the Four Asian Tigers and a member of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). The 19th-largest economy (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) in the world, CIA World Factbook- GDP (PPP)