Syria

What is Syria known for?


publications analysis

government during the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s. During that period, he is alleged to have met Osama Bin Laden and been given $6 million to establish a more Islamic group with the M.N.L.F. in the southern Philippines, made up of members of the extant M.N.L.F.

Bureau of Asian Research accessdate September 20, 2006 format PDF archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20060927184541 http: www.nbr.org publications analysis pdf vol14no5.pdf archivedate September 27, 2006 deadurl no *1149 – Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum. *1271 – In Syria, sultan Baybars conquers the Krak of Chevaliers. *1730 – Shearith Israel


beautiful works

entered the Carthusian monastic order. The mosaics found in Santa Maria Maggiore are not just incredibly beautiful works of Late Antique art; they are also one of the oldest representations of the Virgin Mary in Christian Late Antiquity. As one scholar puts it, “This is well demonstrated by the decoration of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome,... where the iconographic depiction of the Virgin Mary was chosen at least in part to celebrate the affirmation of Mary as Theotokos (bearer


community advocating

until 1971, when the green stars were replaced by the Hawk of Qureish (Coat of arms of Syria). Recent work At various Iraq reconstruction conferences, the Baghdad Museum Project gave presentations to the reconstruction community advocating preservation of Iraq's cultural heritage in rebuilding projects. On August 27, 2006, Iraq's museum director Dr. Donny George Youkhanna fled the country to Syria, claiming "pressure to follow a radical Islamic agenda in the preservation of Iraqi antiquities made his position impossible.". Leading Iraq archaeologist flees, BBC News, August 26, 2006 Donny George held the position of visiting professor in the anthropology department of the Stony Brook State University of New York until his death in March 2011. Renowned Iraqi Scholar, Dr. Donny George Youkhanna, Appointed to Faculty at Stony Brook, The Graduate Review Zaidan joined the radical, pro-Syrian Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) under Ahmed Jibril in 1968. In 1977, major disagreements arose between the P.F.L.P.-G.C., the P.L.O., and other Palestinian factions based in Lebanon. Zaidan, who opposed Syrian involvement in the Lebanese war, left the P.F.L.P. and created the P.L.F. with Talaat Yaacoub, which eventually split into three separate factions (and then later re-merged). Zaydan's faction of the P.L.F., which was the largest of the three, moved its headquarters to Tunisia. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria


leading social

generated title -- birth_date 650 birth_place Syria, Rashidun Caliphate dead dead death_date . He received his elementary and intermediate school


scenes developing

google first Mark last Jenkins A member of a conservative family living under an autocratic (autocracy) father when the family moved to Berlin, she ran away from home and started squatting in the city. Elias started participating in the Berlin punk (punk ideology) and goth (Goth subculture) scenes, developing a musical career and ended up helping to found Atari Teenage Riot. This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th


colourful history

, which considerably hindered the plans and propositions he wanted to advocate to employ nuclear science to public benefit. '''Herodian''' or '''Herodianus''' of Syria (ca. 170–240) was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled ''History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus'' in eight books covering the years 180 to 238. His work is not entirely reliable although his relatively unbiased account of Elagabalus is more useful than that of Cassius


diverse including

Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria


important opening

supremacy in Aegean was that the Ottoman forces did not receive the reinforcements projected in the war plans, consisting of a further corps to be transferred by sea from Syria and Palestine. Erickson (2003), p. 333 Thus the Greek Navy played a crucial albeit indirect role in the Thracian campaign, by neutralizing three corps, a significant portion of the Ottoman Army, in the all-important opening round of the war. Another, more direct role, was the emergency transportation of the Bulgarian 7th Rila Division from the Macedonian to the Thracian front after the termination of the operations there. Seton-Watson (1917), p. 202 Origins The fruit was known to the Akkadians, who called it ''supurgillu''; Arabic سفرجل ''safarjal'' "quinces" (collective plural). Olivier Lauffenburger, 2006. The Hittite Grammar Homepage, Akkadian dictionary, entry for supurgillu The modern name originated in the 14th century as a plural of ''quoyn'', via Old French ''cooin'' from Latin ''cotoneum malum'' ''cydonium malum'', ultimately from Greek (Classical Greek language) κυδώνιον μῆλον, ''kydonion melon'' "Kydonian apple". The quince tree is native to Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Pakistan, Afghanistan and was introduced to Syria, Croatia, Bosnia, Turkey, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Romania, Hungary, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria


style early

on the structure. thumb Arch of Constantine (File:Arco di Costantino (Roma) - tondo lato settentrionale destro.jpg), Rome, completed 315: The lower long relief, with squat figures of size varying with status, is of that date, while the roundels are taken from a monument of nearly 200 years earlier, which maintains a classical style. Early Christian art, more generally described as Late Antique art (Late Antiquity), covers the period from about 200 (before which


religious population

interference. Religious population statistics ''Note: stateless (Stateless person) Palestinian (Palestinian people)s and Syrians are not included in the statistics below since they do not hold Lebanese citizenship (Lebanese nationality law). The numbers only include the present

accounting for almost 31% of the population (Christianity accounts for 25% of South Korea's population, 50% of its religious population). There are small Christian communities in Lebanon, Syria and Egypt. More than 24 million Christians live in India, concentrated especially in the North-Eastern and Southern parts of the country. http: www.thehindubusinessline.com 2004 11 16 stories 2004111600080700.htm There are also many Christians in China and Israel. '''Assyrian Chaldean Syriac Canadians''' are Canadians of Assyrian (Assyrian people) descent. The community has a history in Canada dating back to 1902, with most arriving due ethnic and religious conflicts, leaving Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. Identity There is often a misconception regarding the term Syrian and Assyrian (Assyrian people). While Syrian traditionally refers to people from Syria regardless of whether Arab or another ethnicity such as Assyrian (Assyrian people), Kurdish (Kurdish people), Armenian (Armenians) or Circassian (Adyghe people), it has erroneously come to mean Syrian Arab by the government. In the U.S.A., this is more common with this conflict of terms. While Assyrians Syriacs sometimes refer to themselves as Syrian or Syriac, there is however a section for them in the census (Census Canada and U.S. Census). http: factfinder.census.gov servlet DTTable?_bm y&-state dt&-context dt&-ds_name DEC_2000_SF3_U&-mt_name DEC_2000_SF3_U_PCT016&-tree_id 403&-redoLog true&-all_geo_types N&-_caller geoselect&-geo_id 16000US1235000&-geo_id 86000US32216&-search_results 01000US&-format &-_lang en On returning to the US, Wadsworth was nearly immediately assigned to be the first Ambassador to Syria and Lebanon, a political move that strengthened those countries against claims by Vichy France. After the war, he was made the first Ambassador to Iraq (History of Iraq#The Iraqi Monarchy), previously served only by a lower-ranking Minister Plenipotentiary. He was subsequently in his career made ambassador to Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Czechoslovakia, and Yemen. Arbil Province (1928–1963) The majority of the Targawar and Margawar Nochiya Assyrians headed for Habbanya and others to Baghdad and Kirkuk, some other tribal members fled to Syria, where they established the village of Tell Faitha. The Matran family however, along with their tribal members settled in twelve villages in the Arbil province, those villages being Harir, Batas, Qalatdeh, Hinareh, Darbandokeh, Almandana, Qoba, Alaneh, Sarishmeh, Hawdiyan, Diyana and Bidyal. Graipan and Hazarjut were two villages in the Dohuk Governorate that were also partly inhabited by Nochiyaye. Location It is bounded by NJ 19 on the west, the Clifton, New Jersey, border to the south, the Passaic River to the east and I-80 (Interstate 80) to the north. The Arab community has existed since the late 19th century when many Lebanese (Lebanon) and Syrian immigrants moved in. Since then, immigrants from Lebanon and Syria have slowed down, although many second, third, and fourth-generation residents remain. Recently, Palestinian (Palestinian people) immigrants have settled in the neighborhood, adding to the mix of Arabs. In addition to the Arab community, a Turkish community (Turkish-American) has existed in the neighborhood since the 1950s made up primarily of Turks (Turkish people) and Karachay Turk (Karachays) immigrants. King Long currently offers 5 series of products, which are subdivided into 50-plus categories, covering various buses and coaches (6-13m), and winning popularity among tourism, passenger transport and city bus market. Additionally, King Long products are sold to overseas markets including India, Bulgaria, Singapore, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Malta, United States, Argentina, Barbados, Hong Kong, Hungary and Macau. King Long product also became the designated coach that served such significant national international conferences and events as the National People's Congress, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Universiade, APEC, World Association of Chinese Entrepreneurs, CIFIT, etc. The Company passed ISO 9001-2000 quality certification in 2002, and "CCC Certification" in February 2003, making itself one of the first CCC-certified Chinese coach enterprises. The Company also passed VCA certification, winning the passport to European market. BAAB evaluated the Company as the "Bus Builder of the Year" in 2003, and the tourism coach series as the "Tourism Coach of the Year" in 2004. Driven by the tenet of "making world-class coach in China", King Long not only leads the efforts of the whole Chinese coach industry in upgrading technology of domestic brands, but brings the enjoyment of high-grade coaches more affordable to ordinary Chinese people as well. Therefore, Economic Daily published an article entitled "National Coach Made by King Long" in the front page, proclaiming King Long coach as the "national coach". When Elagabalus became emperor in 218 the temple was expanded and rededicated to the god El-Gabal, the patron deity of his homeplace Emesa in Syria. Herodian, ''Roman History'' V.5 Elagabalus renamed the god ''Deus Sol Invictus (Elagabalus Sol Invictus)'' and personally led a cult that worshipped this deity. Deus Sol Invictus was personified by a conical black stone (baetylus), which has been suggested to have been a piece of meteorite rock. Herodian, ''Roman History'' V.3.5 Ottoman-Safavid intrusions Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Bayezid II was still engaged in Europe when there suddenly in 1501 appeared a new ground of hostility with Egypt. It arose out of the relations of the two kingdoms with the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Shah Ismail I of Persia was a Shia Muslim who had embarked on a war with the Sunni Ottoman Sultanate over the Caucasus and religious differences. Many Sufi sects had been arrested or exiled by Sultan Bayezid II as dangerous to his rule; and Shah Ismail I's request, that instead they should be allowed free transit into Europe across the Bosporus, was rejected. Upon this, Shah Ismail I sent an Embassy to the Venetians (Republic of Venice) via Syria inviting them to join his arms and recover the territory taken from them by the Porte (Ottoman Porte). Sultan Bayezid II, angry with the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri, complained bitterly that this Embassy had been suffered to pass through Syria. To appease him, Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian (Venice) merchants then in Syria and Egypt. And although, fearing reprisals from Venice, he after a year released them, yet the relations between Egypt and the Porte remained peaceful for a time. Ottoman-Safavid intrusions Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Bayezid II was still engaged in Europe when there suddenly in 1501 appeared a new ground of hostility with Egypt. It arose out of the relations of the two kingdoms with the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Shah Ismail I of Persia was a Shia Muslim who had embarked on a war with the Sunni Ottoman Sultanate over the Caucasus and religious differences. Many Sufi sects had been arrested or exiled by Sultan Bayezid II as dangerous to his rule; and Shah Ismail I's request, that instead they should be allowed free transit into Europe across the Bosporus, was rejected. Upon this, Shah Ismail I sent an Embassy to the Venetians (Republic of Venice) via Syria inviting them to join his arms and recover the territory taken from them by the Porte (Ottoman Porte). Sultan Bayezid II, angry with the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri, complained bitterly that this Embassy had been suffered to pass through Syria. To appease him, Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian (Venice) merchants then in Syria and Egypt. And although, fearing reprisals from Venice, he after a year released them, yet the relations between Egypt and the Porte remained peaceful for a time. Ottoman-Safavid intrusions Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Bayezid II was still engaged in Europe when there suddenly in 1501 appeared a new ground of hostility with Egypt. It arose out of the relations of the two kingdoms with the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Shah Ismail I of Persia was a Shia Muslim who had embarked on a war with the Sunni Ottoman Sultanate over the Caucasus and religious differences. Many Sufi sects had been arrested or exiled by Sultan Bayezid II as dangerous to his rule; and Shah Ismail I's request, that instead they should be allowed free transit into Europe across the Bosporus, was rejected. Upon this, Shah Ismail I sent an Embassy to the Venetians (Republic of Venice) via Syria inviting them to join his arms and recover the territory taken from them by the Porte (Ottoman Porte). Sultan Bayezid II, angry with the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri, complained bitterly that this Embassy had been suffered to pass through Syria. To appease him, Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian (Venice) merchants then in Syria and Egypt. And although, fearing reprisals from Venice, he after a year released them, yet the relations between Egypt and the Porte remained peaceful for a time. On the succession, however, of Selim I to the throne of Ottoman Sultanate, things took a very different turn. Not only had the attitude of Shah Ismail I become more threatening, but Sultan Selim I himself was more of the warrior than his Father.Selim I set out against him, and the Battle of Chaldiran was fought near Tabriz on August 23, 1514. The fanaticism of the Sufis, which led even to their women joining in the combat, failed against the cavalry and artillery of the Turks, and Ismail after a disastrous defeat fled and escaped. Selim I, his provisions failing, returned westward and spent the winter at Amasia. In the spring taking the field again, he attacked the bey of Dulkadirids who as Egypt's vassal had stood aloof, and sent his head with tidings of the victory to Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri. Selim I later overran Diyarbakır and Iraq, taking Roha, Nisibin, Mosul and other cities. Secure now against Shah Ismail I, a larger project dawned upon Selim I; it was the conquest of Egypt, and the fact that the invasion must be made from Syria. With no anxieties toward the North, he could now safely make the advance, and so in the spring of 1516 CE he drew together for this end a great and well-appointed army; and with the view of deceiving Egypt, represented his object to be the further pursuit of Shah Ismail I. poptime est. 200,000-300,000 Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria

Syria

'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.

In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.

The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.

Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League

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