, commentary on Exodus (Book of Exodus) 35:1 - 38:20. February 25, 1995. Accessed 12 February 2006. Velvel Pasternak, Music and Art, part of "12 Paths" on Judaism.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. It should be noted however, that despite fears by early religious communities of art being used for idolatrous purposes, Jewish ''sacred'' art is recorded in the Tanakh and extends throughout Jewish Antiquity (ancient history) and the Middle Ages. The Tabernacle and the two Temples in Jerusalem (Temple in Jerusalem) form the first known examples of "Jewish art". During the first centuries of the Common Era, Jewish religious art also was created in regions surrounding the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) such as Syria and Greece, including frescoes on the walls of synagogues, of which the Dura Europas Synagogue is the only survivor Jessica Spitalnic Brockman, A Brief History of Jewish Art on MyJewishLearning.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. as well as the Jewish catacombs (Catacombs of Rome) in Rome. Michael Schirber, Did Christians copy Jewish catacombs?, MSNBC, July 20, 2005. Accessed 12 February 2006. Jona Lendering, The Jewish diaspora: Rome. Livius.org. Accessed 12 February 2006. A Jewish tradition of illuminated manuscripts in at least Late Antiquity has left no survivors, but can be deduced from borrowings in Early Medieval Christian art. Middle Age (Jews in the Middle Ages) Rabbinical (Rabbinical literature) and Kabbalistic (Kabbalah) literature also contain textual and graphic art, most famously illuminated haggadahs such as the Sarajevo Haggadah, and other manuscripts like the Nuremberg Mahzor. Some of these were illustrated by Jewish artists and some by Christians; equally some Jewish artists and craftsmen in various media worked on Christian commissions. Roza Bieliauskiene and Felix Tarm, Brief History of Jewish Art, Jewish Art Network. Accessed January 14, 2010. Johnson again summarizes this sudden change from a limited participation by Jews in visual art (as in many other arts) to a large movement by them into this branch of European cultural life: Again, the arrival of the Jewish artist was a strange phenomenon. It is true that, over the centuries, there had been many animals (though few humans) in Jewish art: lions on Torah curtains, owls on Judaic coins, animals on the Capernaum capitals, birds on the rim of the fountain-basis in the 5th century Naro synagogue in Tunis; there were carved animals, too, on timber synagogues in eastern Europe - indeed the Jewish wood-carver (woodcarving) was the prototype of the modern Jewish plastic artist (Plastic arts). A book of Yiddish folk-ornament (Ornament (architecture)), printed at Vitebsk in 1920, was similar to Chagall's own bestiary. But the resistance of pious Jews to portraying the living image was still strong at the beginning of the twentieth century. Johnson, ''op.cit.'', p. 411. - Shem Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. In the Bible, Shem is Noah's eldest son, the ancestor of the Hebrews, Arabs and Assyrians; hence, the modern "Semite" and Semitic languages (via Greek ''Sem''), used properly to designate the family of languages spoken by these peoples. - Background Muhammad Ali of Egypt, ostensibly only a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, was seeking to increase his personal power and gain control over Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. In late 1831, he took his newly-reformed army into Syria, resulting in the Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833) against the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II. Ali easily defeated Ottoman forces and threatened Constantinople itself. While Britain (Kingdom of Great Britain) and France were sympathetic to Muhammad Ali, Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) sent a Russian army to the assistance of the Ottoman Empire. This intervention led to the Convention of Kutahya in May 1833, which left Muhammad Ali in control of Syria and Arabia. Sponsor countries and organizations The LNM-JF received financial aid and arms from many countries such as Syria, Libya, Iraq and Southern Yemen, in addition to Palestinian support; besides lending their political backing and contributing with their organizational skills, experienced Palestinian cadres from RF and PLO groups provided weapons, equipment, and in many cases, military leadership to the Lebanese leftist militias. In addition, they also provided training, which was conducted at the refugee camps in the major cities or at PLO bases in southern Lebanon, mainly in the Beqaa Valley (aka “Fatahland”). Geographic distribution The Persian (Persian language) word for Jalebi is "zoolbia." In Egypt, Lebanon and Syria it is known as "zalabia" (sometimes spelt as "zalabiya"). Recipe for Zalabiya In the Maldives it is known by the name "zilēbi." After graduation, Shaykh Faraz traveled with his family to Damascus, Syria, to formally seek Islamic knowledge. In Damascus, he studied Arabic (Arabic language), Aqidah (Islamic creed), Mantiq (Islamic Logic (Logic in Islamic philosophy)), Hanafi Fiqh (Hanafi), Shafi'I Fiqh (Shafi`i), Usul al-fiqh, and Hadith with a number of scholars including Shaykh Haytham Idilbi, Shaykh Abd al-Rahman Kharsa, Shaykh Abd al-Haleem Abu Sha`r, Shaykh Umar al-Sabbagh, Shaykh Jihad Brown, Shaykh Mu'min al-Annan, Shaykh Hassan al-Hindi, Sayyidi Shaykh Adib Kallas, Shaykh Muhammad Jumuah, Sh. Abd al-Razzaq al-Halabi (Abdul Razzaq al-Halabi), Shaykh Haytham, Shaykh Abd al-Haleem Abu Sha`r, and Ustadh Mahmud al-Bayruti. Biography He studied art first at the Städel Institute (Städel) in his native town, and then at Stuttgart and Munich. He painted many of his favourite subjects in his travels in the East. He first accompanied Prince Thurn and Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, Russia and Turkey; then, in 1854, he followed the Austrian army across the Wallachian frontier. In 1856 he went to Egypt and Syria, and in 1861 to Algiers. In 1862 he settled in Paris, but returned to Germany in 1870; and settled at Cronberg near Frankfurt, where he died. *'''Mrs. Pollifax Unveiled''' (2000) Mrs. Pollifax teams up with freelance CIA agent John Farrell on an investigation into the disappearance of Amanda Pym in Syria. Ms. Pym was a fifteen-minute media superstar when she allegedly stopped an airplane hijacking from succeeding. Witnesses last saw Amanda enter a vehicle that waited for her at the Damascus Airport. Farrell and Mrs. Pollifax land in Syria where the government places a tail on the duo. However, they quickly elude their shadow in order to obtain information that provides them with the first clue in their hunt. They soon enter the Syrian Desert where they meet American archeologist Joe Fleming. Joining the two operatives on their quest, Joe and the two spies seek an elusive individual who seems to be undergoing a rigorous training for a mission that has world implications. The Byzantines regrouped and pushed back in 622 under Heraclius. Khosrau was defeated at the Battle of Nineveh (Battle of Nineveh (627)) in 627, and the Byzantines recaptured all of Syria and penetrated far into the Persian provinces of Mesopotamia. In 629, Khosrau's general Shahrbaraz agreed to peace, and the border between the two empires was once again the same as it was in 602. Language During the Rashidun Caliphate, the official language of Persia remained Persian (Old Persian), just as the official languages of Syria and Egypt remained Greek (Greek language) and Coptic (Coptic language). However, during the Ummayad Caliphate, the Ummayads imposed Arabic as the primary language of their subjected people throughout their empire, displacing their indigenous languages. Although an area from Iraq to Morocco speaks Arabic to this day, Middle Persian proved to be much more enduring. Most of its structure and vocabulary survived, evolving into the modern Persian language. However, Persian did incorporate a certain amount of Arabic vocabulary, especially words pertaining to religion, and it switched from the Pahlavi (Pahlavi scripts) Aramaic alphabet to a modified version of the Arabic alphabet. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
caption Bowring appears in this painting of the 1840 Anti-Slavery Convention.role art&wPage 1&rNo 13 Anti-Slavery Society Convention 1840, National Portrait Gallery, London Move your cursor to identify him on the second row to the right or click the icon to enlarge File:Passer hispaniolensis-2.jpg thumb A male and a female
of the western Georgian state of Colchis (locally known as Egrisi), and seems to have secured recognition of the newly founded state by the Seleucids of Syria. Then Pharnavaz focused on social projects, including the citadel of the capitol, the Armaztsikhe, and the idol of the god Armazi. He also reformed the Georgian written language (Georgian alphabet), and created a new system of administration, subdividing the country into several counties called ''saeristavo (Eristavi)s''. His successors managed to gain control over the mountainous passes of the Caucasus (Caucasus Mountains) with the Daryal (also known as the Iberian Gates) being the most important of them. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
: www.rsf.org article.php3?id_article 19603 List of the 13 Internet enemies RSF, 2006 November A widely publicised example is the '''Great Firewall of China''' (in reference both to its role as a network firewall (firewall (networking)) and to the ancient Great Wall of China). The system blocks content by preventing IP addresses from being routed through and consists of standard firewall and proxy servers at the Internet gateway (gateway (telecommunications))s. The system also selectively engages in DNS poisoning when particular sites are requested. The government does not appear to be systematically examining Internet content, as this appears to be technically impractical. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
Christians hold that Daniel predicted the empires of Babylonia and Persia to be succeeded
that serves Iraq and Russia. Individual dioceses exist in the eastern United States (including Chicago), the western United States, California, Canada, Syria, Iran and Europe. Several congregations (Wiktionary:congregation) exist in Georgia (Georgia (country)), India, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, and Syria. A single parish exists in Moscow. Video showing service at the Moscow church in 2008 The present Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, has his headquarters (along with four other houses of worship) in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Patriarch is head of the church, and under him there are four archdioceses in the Assyrian Church: one for Australia and New Zealand, one for Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, another for India, and one that serves Iraq and Russia. Individual dioceses exist in the eastern United States (including Chicago), the western United States, California, Canada, Syria, Iran and Europe. Several congregations (Wiktionary:congregation) exist in Georgia (Georgia (country)), India, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, and Syria. A single parish exists in Moscow. Video showing service at the Moscow church in 2008 The present Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, has his headquarters (along with four other houses of worship) in Chicago, Illinois, United States. thumb right 210px Minaret of the Mansouri Great Mosque (File:TripoliLebGreatMosqueMinaret.jpg) During the Mamluk period, Tripoli became a central city and provincial capital of the Mamlakah or kingdom (one of six in Mamluk Syria). Tripoli ranked third after Aleppo and Damascus. The kingdom was subdivided into six willayahs or provinces and extended from Jubayl and Aqra mountains south, to Latakia and al Alawiyyin mountains north. It also included al-Hermel, the plain of Akkar, and Hosn al-Akrad (Krak des Chevaliers). Tadmouri, O. AS., Tarih Tarablus AlSiyasi WalHadari Aabr AlOusour: Aasr AlMamalik, Tripoli, 1981. Arabic. Myth In the myth of Osiris and Isis, Osiris was killed by Set (Set_(god)) by being tricked into a coffin made to fit Osiris exactly. Set then had the coffin with the now deceased Osiris flung into the Nile. The coffin was carried by the Nile to the ocean and on to the city of Byblos in Syria. It ran aground and a sacred tree took root and rapidly grew around the coffin, enclosing the coffin within its trunk. The king of the land, intrigued by the tree's quick growth, ordered the tree cut down and installed as a pillar in his palace, unaware that the tree contained Osiris's body. Meanwhile, Isis searched for Osiris aided by Anubis, and came to know of Osiris's location in Byblos. Isis maneuvered herself into the favor of the king and queen and was granted a boon. She asked for the pillar in the palace hall, and upon being granted it, extracted the coffin from the pillar. She then consecrated the pillar, anointing it with myrrh and wrapping it in linen. This pillar came to be known as the pillar of djed. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
was returning to the country after living in Argentina. To establish his cover, Cohen moved to Argentina in 1961.
0CCoQ6AEwAA Image:Northern Elephant Seal, San Simeon2.jpg thumb right 250px Overhunting pushed the northern elephant seal to the brink of extinction by the late 19th century. Though they have made a comeback, the genetic
relief shows the king on his chariot shooting arrows against his fleeing enemies, who are being taken prisoner. Other scenes show Egyptian victories in Libya and Nubia. Pharnavaz I and his descendants Pharnavaz, victorious in a power struggle, became the first king of Iberia (List of Kings of Iberia) (ca. 302-ca. 237 BC). Driving back an invasion, he subjugated the neighboring areas, including a significant part
, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) '''Ali Bey al-Abbasi (علي باي العباسي)''', was the false name pseudonym that '''Domingo Badía y Leblich''' (Barcelona 1766 – Syria 1818), a Spanish explorer and spy in the early 19th century, used for several years in his travels to North Africa and the Middle East. Notably, he witnessed the Saudi (House of Saud) conquest of Mecca in 1807. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
by Col. Adib Shishakli, all within the same year. Shishakli eventually abolished multipartyism altogether, but was himself overthrown in a 1954 coup (1954 Syrian coup d'état) and the parliamentary system was restored. However, by this time, power was increasingly concentrated in the military and security establishment. The weakness of Parliamentary institutions and the mismanagement
'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League