constantly changed hands between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Turks until 1176, when the Great Sultan Kılıçarslan (Kilij Arslan II) defeated Manuel Commenos (Manuel I Comnenus) in the Myriokephalon (Battle of Myriocephalon) (thousand heads), which ended Roman rule and cemented Turkish rule of the area. Service history For the first 2 years of her long service, ''Goff'' operated along the Atlantic coast, conducting battle practice and exercises in the yearly Caribbean fleet maneuvers as well as off the East Coast. In September 1922, the destroyer was detached from this duty and assigned to the Atlantic Fleet (U.S. Atlantic Fleet), European Waters. Departing Norfolk, Virginia on 14 October 1922, she cruised primarily in the eastern Mediterranean, putting in at ports in Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Greece, and Romania. It was a period of great unrest in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean: Greece and Turkey were at war, various powers were scrambling to consolidate after World War I and gain control over the now-defunct Ottoman empire, and Russia, although still wracked by the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917) and its aftermath, was seeking further territory and an outlet to the Mediterranean. The presence of American men-of-war amidst this tension assisted various relief agencies working to mitigate the damage from past and present wars as well as protect American lives, interests, and property. Refugees from the Greek and Turkish conflict were frequently evacuated and cared for by the American fleet, and ''Goff'' participated in this humanitarian service, particularly at Marsina, where from 18 to 20 July 1923 she supervised evacuation of hundreds of Turkish refugees. Background Sierra Casady was born in Iowa, and Bianca was born in Hawaii. When Sierra was about 5 years old and Bianca 3, their parents separated. Laura Sylvester, "An interview with CoCoRosie", ''Junkmedia'', August 29, 2005. Accessed November 15, 2009. The girls lived with their mother, Christina Chalmers, an artist and singer of American Indian (Native Americans in the United States) and Syrian ancestry who grew up in Iowa. Fernanda Eberstadt, "Twisted Sisters". ''The New York Times Magazine'', July 6, 2008. Accessed November 14, 2009. They moved to new towns almost every year, living in Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Arizona. Because their mother believed that the girls would learn more doing art in the "real world" than in school, neither sister finished high school. Chalmers nicknamed her daughters "Rosie" (Sierra) and "Coco" (Bianca), from which the musical act takes its name. Laura Cassidy. "Ark Angels: Reunited sisters CocoRosie open up their sound on their second album". ''Seattle Weekly'', September 14, 2005. Accessed on November 15, 2009. thumb ''Ecce Homo'', Martin Schongauer (File:SchongauerEcceHomo.jpg), 15th century engraving The first depictions of the ''ecce homo'' scene in the arts appear in the 9th and 10th centuries in Syrian-Byzantine culture. Western (Western Christianity) depictions in the Middle Ages that often seem to depict the ''ecce homo'' scene, (and are usually interpreted as such) more often than not only show the crowning of thorns and the mocking of Christ, (cf. the ''Egbert Codex'' and the ''Codex Aureus Epternacensis'') which precede the actual ''ecce homo'' scene in the Bible. The independent image only developed around 1400, probably in Burgundy, but then rapidly became extremely popular, especially in Northern Europe. G Schiller, ''Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II'',1972 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, pp.74-75, figs 236, 240, 256-273, ISBN 853313245 Jafna bin Amr Jafna bin Amr and his family, headed for Syria where he settled and initiated the kingdom of the Ghassanids who was so named after a spring of water where they stopped on their way to Syria. This branch will produce: thumb Excavated mosaic pavement (Image:Santa Reparata mosaique 1.JPG) The most significant find is the great mosaic which paved all of the basilica, it was found in the left nave, in most of the middle nave and also in the right nave. There are different designs next to each other, among which, next to the usual four leafed rosette (Rosette (design))s and nods in circles or octagons (accompanied by Christian symbols like a Latin cross and a goblet), the especially intricate coats of arms with lozenges inscribed between them that take up most space in the middle nave; in it, an epigraph with the names of 14 sponsors is inscribed. The image of a peacock is of remarkable quality between the emblem in the center of the adjacent panel with the name of the sponsor Obsequentius. Stylistically, the North-African influence that were found can be explained by the fact that this culture existed, apart from Sicily, also in most of the oriental Mediterranean and in particular in Syria: from Syria the echoes of this North-African culture easily reached Florence, thanks to the Syrian merchants who also operated in Florence and who constituted the most ancient core of the Christian population in Florence. These merchants had to keep up relationships with their country of origin. In any case the motifs of the pavement belong to the usual repertoire of the era of the Roman Empire (Solomon's nods appear in Florence in the mosaics of the building underneath the baptistery) and the juxtaposition of different panels is found in many other examples in the Adriatic area. The privilege was invoked against a case where Maher Arar, a wrongfully-accused and tortured victim, sought to sue Attorney General (United States Attorney General) John Ashcroft for his role in deporting Arar to Syria to face torture and extract false confessions. It was formally invoked by Deputy Attorney General (United States Deputy Attorney General) James B. Comey in legal papers filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The invocation read, "Litigating the plaintiff's complaint would necessitate disclosure of classified information", which it later stated included disclosure of the basis for detaining him in the first place, the basis for refusing to deport him to Canada as he had requested, and the basis for sending him to Syria. From 1977 to 1979, David Welch served in the Office of the Under Secretary for Security Assistance, Science and Technology. He was appointed political officer at the U.S. embassy in Islamabad (1979–81) and returned to the State Department where he was desk officer for Syria (1981) and Lebanon (1982-3). 14th-17th Century There were two major historical movements of the Khalwati order. The first one started in the late fourteenth century and ended in the seventeenth century. The first historical movement marks its origins and spread in vast area, now being part of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. The second movement began in the late fifteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century mostly focused in Egypt, considered the reform period of the Khalwati order. The order lost popularity in 1865, but many of its leaders branched off to form different orders to expand Islam throughout Africa. The order resided mostly in large urban areas. Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (Ahmad al-Alawi) (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) '''Ali Bey al-Abbasi (علي باي العباسي)''', was the false name pseudonym that '''Domingo Badía y Leblich''' (Barcelona 1766 – Syria 1818), a Spanish explorer and spy in the early 19th century, used for several years in his travels to North Africa and the Middle East. Notably, he witnessed the Saudi (House of Saud) conquest of Mecca in 1807. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
settled in Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain) he was honored a monthly salary of 200 Gold Dinars, he soon became even more celebrated as the court's aficionado of food, fashion, singing and music. He introduced standards of excellence in all these fields as well as setting new norms for elegant and noble manners. Ziryab became such a prominent cultural figure, and was given a huge salary from Abd al Rahman II. He was an intimate companion of the prince and established a school of music that trained singers and musicians which influenced musical performance for at least two generations after him. History Construction of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline began in 1947 and was mainly managed by the American company Bechtel. Originally the Tapline was intended to terminate in Haifa which was then in the British Mandate of Palestine, but due to the establishment of the state of Israel, an alternative route through Syria (via the Golan Heights) and Lebanon was selected with an export terminal in Sidon. Oil transport through the pipeline started in 1950. In 1985, taking advantage of his journey in France, and under the pressure of the Syrian regime, his former allies of the progressive socialist Party and the group Amal (Amal Movement) turned against him, as he was as opposed to Syrian dominion over Lebanon as he was to Israel. A global experience He toured the Middle East and North Africa, visiting Israel, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Morocco, Kuwait, Tunisia, Algiers, Mauritania, Jordan, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon and in Syria where he was greeted by relatives of his paternal grandfather in the city of Aleppo. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
by Old Dutch (Netherlands) masters. He laid down for himself the aim of creating a Russian National Gallery (disambiguation). In his collection Tretyakov included the most valuable and remarkable products, first of all the contemporaries, from 1870 - mainly members of the society of circulating art exhibitions (''Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnyh hudozhestvennyh vystavok'' or Peredvizhniki, Передвижники in Russian). He bought paintings at exhibitions and directly from artists' studios, sometimes he bought the whole series: in 1874 he acquired V.V. Vereschagin's "Turkestan series" (13 pictures, 133 figures and 81 studies), in 1880 - his "Indian series" (78 studies). In his collection there were over 80 studies by Alexander Ivanov (Alexander Ivanov (painter)). In 1885 Tretyakov bought 102 studies by V.D. Polenov painted by the artist during journeys across Turkey, Egypt, Syria and Palestine. He got also acquired Vasnetsov’s collection of the sketches made during work above lists in the Kiev St. Volodymyr's Cathedral. Tretyakov had the fullest collection of such artists as: V.G. Perov, I.N. Kramskoi, Ilya Repin, Vasily Surikov, I.I. Levitan, and Valentin Serov. Aspiring to show the beginnings and development of the domestic school of art , Tretyakov began to acquire pictures by masters of the XVIII - first half XIX centuries and landmarks of Old Russian painting. He also conceived the creation of a "Russian pantheon (pantheon (gods))" - a portrait gallery of famous Russians. He commissioned especially for it portraits of figures of domestic culture from leading masters of this genre - N.N. Ge (Nikolai Ge), Kramskoi, N.V. Nevrev, Perov, Repin. Hitler (Adolf Hitler) would soon have cause to regret his decision regarding the fate of Carpatho-Ukraine. In six months, during his 1939 invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)), the common Hungarian-Polish border would become of major importance when Admiral Horthy's government, on the ground of long-time friendship between Poles and Hungarians, declined, as a matter of Hungarian honor, Józef Kasparek, "Poland's 1938 Covert Operations in Ruthenia", p. 370. Hitler's request to transit German forces across Carpathian Rus into southeastern Poland to speed Poland's conquest. This in turn allowed the Polish government and tens of thousands of Polish military personnel to escape into neighboring Hungary and Romania, and from there to France and French-mandated Syria to carry on operations as the third-strongest Allied belligerent after Britain (UK) and France. Also, for a time Polish (Poland) and British (U.K.) intelligence (military intelligence) agents and couriers, including the notable Krystyna Skarbek, used Hungary's Carpathorus (Carpatho-Ukraine) as a route across the Carpathian Mountains to and from Poland. Józef Kasparek, "Poland's 1938 Covert Operations in Ruthenia," pp. 371–73;Józef Kasparek, ''Przepust karpacki'' (The Carpathian Bridge); and Edmund Charaszkiewicz, ''"Referat o działaniach dywersyjnych na Rusi Karpackiej"'' ("Report on Covert Operations in Carpathian Rus"). In 1952, Moawad was briefly arrested and detained in Aley for participating in the national uprising that forced the resignation of President Bechara El Khoury, Lebanon's first post-independence leader. He also fell out with Khoury's successor, Camille Chamoun, when the latter hinted at a possible constitutional (Constitution of Lebanon) change to extend his six-year term which was due to expire in 1958. He went into exile in Latakia, Syria. It was during his exile that he won his first election to the National Assembly. Rene travelled to Egypt and met president Nasser, and proposed to him the idea of revoking the Lebanese citizenship of Dr Charles Malik. The oldest documentary evidence for circumcision comes from ancient Egypt. Tomb artwork from the Sixth Dynasty (2345–2181 BCE) shows men with circumcised penises, and one relief from this period shows the rite being performed on a standing adult male. The Egyptian hieroglyph for "penis" depicts either a circumcised or an erect organ. The examination of Egyptian mummies has found some with foreskins and others who were circumcised. Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic peoples. The book of Genesis records circumcision as God's covenant command to Abraham. It was to be performed by the male child's eighth day after birth. Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BCE, lists the Colchians (Colchis), Ethiopians, Phoenicians, and Syrians as a circumcising cultures. In the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great, however, Greek dislike of circumcision (they regarded a man as truly "naked" only if his prepuce was retracted) led to a decline in its incidence among many peoples that had previously practiced it. The writer of the 1 Maccabees wrote that under the Seleucids, many Jewish men attempted to hide or reverse their circumcision so they could exercise in Greek gymnasia (Gymnasium (ancient Greece)), where nudity was the norm. First Maccabees also relates that the Seleucids forbade the practice of brit milah (Jewish circumcision), and punished those who performed it – as well as the infants who underwent it – with death. Lebanese food, music and customs overlap greatly with those of Egypt, Greece, Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, and Turkey, since, like them, Lebanon was an Ottoman province for 402 years. Dress was historically Ottoman, but remains only as part of the folk culture. Today, almost all Lebanese wear Western clothing. Lebanese cuisine is similar to those of many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, such as Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece and Cyprus. * In the summer, skilifts can be used to access some of Lebanon's best hiking trails, with panoramic views stretching as far as Cyprus to the west and Syria to the east on clear days. Canoeing, cycling, rafting, climbing, swimming (swimming (sport)), sailing and spelunking are among the other common leisure sports in Lebanon. Adventure and extreme sports are also possible throughout the country. Largely residential, Windsor Terrace is home to mainly Irish (Irish-American), German-American, Polish-American and Italian-American families, many having settled in its brick rowhouses and small woodframe homes when the neighborhood was first developed at the turn of the Twentieth Century. Over time, Windsor Terrace has become increasingly diverse, including Greek (Greeks) and Hispanic people, in addition to a small minority of Syrians, Maronite Lebanese (Lebanese people) and Jewish-Americans. More recently, an influx of Park Slope and Manhattan refugees as a result of "gentrification" has pushed house prices well above average. The neighborhood public schools, P.S. 154 and P.S. 130, are well regarded. Hemphill, Clara ''New York City’s Best Public Elementary Schools: A Parent’s Guide, Third Edition'', Teacher’s College Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0807746134 They are some of the primary attractions of the neighborhood for both the traditional Windsor Terrace community and the Park Slope spillover. Both schools feature a number of special enrichment programs for students, such as chess and journalism. Both schools received "A" grades in the 2010-11 New York City Department of Education Progress Reports. NYC Department of Education 2010-2011 Progress Report for P.S. 154, Retrieved 2011-9-30 NYC Department of Education 2010-2011 Progress Report for P.S. 130, Retrieved 2011-9-30 combatant1 Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
on the structure. thumb Arch of Constantine (File:Arco di Costantino (Roma) - tondo lato settentrionale destro.jpg), Rome, completed 315: The lower long relief, with squat figures of size varying with status, is of that date, while the roundels are taken from a monument of nearly 200 years earlier, which maintains a classical style. Early Christian art, more generally described as Late Antique art (Late Antiquity), covers the period from about 200 (before which
;) is the name of a town and district in northwestern Iraq's Ninawa Governorate near the Syrian border. Its population at the time of the 2006 census was 39,875. world-gazetteer.com: ''Iraq: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population'' The region is home to the native Shabak people
. Writings Wurmser has been credited as being one of the main authors of the 1996 report ''A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm'', a paper prepared for incoming Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu. This advocated pre-emptive strikes against Iran and Syria, the removal of Saddam Hussein from Iraq and the abandonment of traditional "land for peace" negotiations with Palestinians. Daily Telegraph
of independent privately owned churches and some 15 synagogues. The freedom of religion is well observed by the state law as well as the historical long record of tolerance since the Ummayde caliph days. Christmas and Easter days are official holidays for both the Catholic or Orthodox calendar. * '''Sri Lanka''' - Lakshman Kadirgamar (1994-2001) * '''Syria''' - Farouk al-Sharaa (1984-2006) * '''Taiwan (Republic of China)''' - '''Tartus''' ( ALA-LC
. Hutton. L.L. Fermor was elected the first president of the Institute. The same year he also founded the Indian Science News Association at Calcutta. Its main objective was to disseminate science amongst the public.The Association started publishing its journal called Science and Culture. On receiving, a copy of the first issue of the Journal, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was impressed and he wrote: "The appearance of Science and Culture is to be warmly welcomed not only by those, who
. The infusion, called mate (Mate (beverage)) in Spanish-speaking countries or ''chimarrão'' in south Brazil, is prepared by steeping dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant in hot water, rather than in boiling water. Drinking mate with friends from a shared hollow gourd (calabash) (also called a ''guampa'' or ''mate'' in Spanish, or ''cabaça'' or ''cuia'' in Portuguese, or ''zucca'' in Italian) with a metal straw (a ''bombilla'' in Spanish, ''bomba'' in Portuguese) is a common social practice in Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages; the beverage is also very popular in Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru and Chile, eastern Bolivia and other states of Brazil, and has been cultivated in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
, 24 March 2003. Since the war he has signed the 'Unite Against Terror' declaration, arguing that "the ''pseudo-left'' reveals its shameless hypocrisy and its wholesale abandonment of humanitarian values" by supporting resistance and insurgent groups in Iraq that resort to indiscriminate terrorism, killing innocent civilians. In 2002 he reiterated his support for Iraqis bidding to overthrow Saddam, noting that "Saddam's repression is, if anything, getting worse
, commentary on Exodus (Book of Exodus) 35:1 - 38:20. February 25, 1995. Accessed 12 February 2006. Velvel Pasternak, Music and Art, part of "12 Paths" on Judaism.com. Accessed 12 February 2006. It should be noted however, that despite fears by early religious communities of art being used for idolatrous purposes, Jewish ''sacred'' art is recorded in the Tanakh and extends throughout Jewish
'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League