constantly changed hands between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Turks until 1176, when the Great Sultan Kılıçarslan (Kilij Arslan II) defeated Manuel Commenos (Manuel I Comnenus) in the Myriokephalon (Battle of Myriocephalon) (thousand heads), which ended Roman rule and cemented Turkish rule of the area. Service history For the first 2 years of her long service, ''Goff'' operated along the Atlantic coast, conducting battle practice and exercises in the yearly Caribbean fleet maneuvers as well as off the East Coast. In September 1922, the destroyer was detached from this duty and assigned to the Atlantic Fleet (U.S. Atlantic Fleet), European Waters. Departing Norfolk, Virginia on 14 October 1922, she cruised primarily in the eastern Mediterranean, putting in at ports in Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Greece, and Romania. It was a period of great unrest in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean: Greece and Turkey were at war, various powers were scrambling to consolidate after World War I and gain control over the now-defunct Ottoman empire, and Russia, although still wracked by the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917) and its aftermath, was seeking further territory and an outlet to the Mediterranean. The presence of American men-of-war amidst this tension assisted various relief agencies working to mitigate the damage from past and present wars as well as protect American lives, interests, and property. Refugees from the Greek and Turkish conflict were frequently evacuated and cared for by the American fleet, and ''Goff'' participated in this humanitarian service, particularly at Marsina, where from 18 to 20 July 1923 she supervised evacuation of hundreds of Turkish refugees. Background Sierra Casady was born in Iowa, and Bianca was born in Hawaii. When Sierra was about 5 years old and Bianca 3, their parents separated. Laura Sylvester, "An interview with CoCoRosie", ''Junkmedia'', August 29, 2005. Accessed November 15, 2009. The girls lived with their mother, Christina Chalmers, an artist and singer of American Indian (Native Americans in the United States) and Syrian ancestry who grew up in Iowa. Fernanda Eberstadt, "Twisted Sisters". ''The New York Times Magazine'', July 6, 2008. Accessed November 14, 2009. They moved to new towns almost every year, living in Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Arizona. Because their mother believed that the girls would learn more doing art in the "real world" than in school, neither sister finished high school. Chalmers nicknamed her daughters "Rosie" (Sierra) and "Coco" (Bianca), from which the musical act takes its name. Laura Cassidy. "Ark Angels: Reunited sisters CocoRosie open up their sound on their second album". ''Seattle Weekly'', September 14, 2005. Accessed on November 15, 2009. thumb ''Ecce Homo'', Martin Schongauer (File:SchongauerEcceHomo.jpg), 15th century engraving The first depictions of the ''ecce homo'' scene in the arts appear in the 9th and 10th centuries in Syrian-Byzantine culture. Western (Western Christianity) depictions in the Middle Ages that often seem to depict the ''ecce homo'' scene, (and are usually interpreted as such) more often than not only show the crowning of thorns and the mocking of Christ, (cf. the ''Egbert Codex'' and the ''Codex Aureus Epternacensis'') which precede the actual ''ecce homo'' scene in the Bible. The independent image only developed around 1400, probably in Burgundy, but then rapidly became extremely popular, especially in Northern Europe. G Schiller, ''Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II'',1972 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, pp.74-75, figs 236, 240, 256-273, ISBN 853313245 Jafna bin Amr Jafna bin Amr and his family, headed for Syria where he settled and initiated the kingdom of the Ghassanids who was so named after a spring of water where they stopped on their way to Syria. This branch will produce: thumb Excavated mosaic pavement (Image:Santa Reparata mosaique 1.JPG) The most significant find is the great mosaic which paved all of the basilica, it was found in the left nave, in most of the middle nave and also in the right nave. There are different designs next to each other, among which, next to the usual four leafed rosette (Rosette (design))s and nods in circles or octagons (accompanied by Christian symbols like a Latin cross and a goblet), the especially intricate coats of arms with lozenges inscribed between them that take up most space in the middle nave; in it, an epigraph with the names of 14 sponsors is inscribed. The image of a peacock is of remarkable quality between the emblem in the center of the adjacent panel with the name of the sponsor Obsequentius. Stylistically, the North-African influence that were found can be explained by the fact that this culture existed, apart from Sicily, also in most of the oriental Mediterranean and in particular in Syria: from Syria the echoes of this North-African culture easily reached Florence, thanks to the Syrian merchants who also operated in Florence and who constituted the most ancient core of the Christian population in Florence. These merchants had to keep up relationships with their country of origin. In any case the motifs of the pavement belong to the usual repertoire of the era of the Roman Empire (Solomon's nods appear in Florence in the mosaics of the building underneath the baptistery) and the juxtaposition of different panels is found in many other examples in the Adriatic area. The privilege was invoked against a case where Maher Arar, a wrongfully-accused and tortured victim, sought to sue Attorney General (United States Attorney General) John Ashcroft for his role in deporting Arar to Syria to face torture and extract false confessions. It was formally invoked by Deputy Attorney General (United States Deputy Attorney General) James B. Comey in legal papers filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The invocation read, "Litigating the plaintiff's complaint would necessitate disclosure of classified information", which it later stated included disclosure of the basis for detaining him in the first place, the basis for refusing to deport him to Canada as he had requested, and the basis for sending him to Syria. From 1977 to 1979, David Welch served in the Office of the Under Secretary for Security Assistance, Science and Technology. He was appointed political officer at the U.S. embassy in Islamabad (1979–81) and returned to the State Department where he was desk officer for Syria (1981) and Lebanon (1982-3). 14th-17th Century There were two major historical movements of the Khalwati order. The first one started in the late fourteenth century and ended in the seventeenth century. The first historical movement marks its origins and spread in vast area, now being part of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. The second movement began in the late fifteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century mostly focused in Egypt, considered the reform period of the Khalwati order. The order lost popularity in 1865, but many of its leaders branched off to form different orders to expand Islam throughout Africa. The order resided mostly in large urban areas. Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (Ahmad al-Alawi) (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) '''Ali Bey al-Abbasi (علي باي العباسي)''', was the false name pseudonym that '''Domingo Badía y Leblich''' (Barcelona 1766 – Syria 1818), a Spanish explorer and spy in the early 19th century, used for several years in his travels to North Africa and the Middle East. Notably, he witnessed the Saudi (House of Saud) conquest of Mecca in 1807. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
-williamsburg-could-dodgers-follow-brewing-returns-brooklyn.html newspaper The New York Times date June 2, 1996 accessdate 2010-04-24 The pair hired graphic designer Milton Glaser, best known as the creator of the logo for the ''I Love New York'' campaign, to create the company logo and identity.
withdrawal from Lebanon, Jumblatt was particularly prominent in the opposition. However, he was opposed to the demand that Hezbollah be disarmed, and insisted on maintaining relations with the Shia Islamist party. Later, he has drifted into sharp opposition towards the group, and has decided to support their disarmament, claiming that Syria and Iran are trying to take over Lebanon through Hezbollah. In North Africa and the Near East From Tangier, Barth made his way overland throughout the length of North Africa. He also traveled through Egypt, ascending the Nile to Wadi Halfa and crossing the desert to Berenice (Berenice (port)). While in Egypt he was attacked and wounded by robbers. Crossing the Sinai peninsula, he traversed Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Turkey and Greece, everywhere examining the remains of antiquity; and returned to Berlin in 1847. For a time he was engaged there as ''Privatdozent,'' and in preparing for publication the narrative of his ''Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer des Mittelmeeres'', which appeared in 1849. The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and ''sunnah'' as the "sole reference point for ... ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community ... and state". Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
of Syria became tributary to the Egyptian Pharaohs, although domination by the sovereign was not so strong as to prevent frequent local rebellions and inter-city struggles. Under Thutmose III (1479–1426 BC) and Amenhotep II (1427–1400 BC), the regular presence of the strong hand of the Egyptian ruler and his armies kept the Amorites and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. Nevertheless, Thutmose III reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru or (in Egyptian) 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries (mercenary), brigands (brigandage) or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad-luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element of the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor, king or princeling prepared to undertake their support. Although Habiru Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
. ) is a small mountain village in western Syria close to the Mediterranean Sea, and near the city of Latakia. The town is notable as the birthplace of the Syrian poet, Ali Ahmed Said, also known as Adonis (Adonis (poet)). Ancient knowledge and finds The exploitation of bituminous rocks and natural seep deposits dates back to paleolithic times. The earliest known use of bitumen
the Euphrates valley from Anah to the Persian Gulf. Returning home, Acting Lt Colonel Chesney (as he then was) busied himself to get support for the latter project, to which the East India Company (British East India Company)’s board was favourable; and in 1835 he was sent out in command of a small expedition, on which he took a number of soldiers from 7th Company RA and for which Parliament (British Parliament) voted £20,000, in order to test the navigability of the Euphrates.
to the east on clear days. Canoeing, cycling, rafting, climbing, swimming, sailing and caving are among the other common leisure sports in Lebanon. Adventure and extreme sports are also possible throughout the country. The Beirut Marathon is held every fall, drawing top runners from Lebanon and abroad. Race day is promoted as a fun, family event, and it has become a tradition for many to participate in costumes or outlandish clothing. According to the agreements reached
authority of the United States' to communicate with a foreign government to influence that government’s behavior on any disputes with the United States." In an article he wrote
Mediterranean and Middle East year 1998 publisher Routledge location London isbn 9780415196550 pages 159–174 chapter Conjuring Mesopotamia: imaginative geography a world past It has been argued that these later euphemisms are Eurocentric (Eurocentrism) terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th century Western encroachments. Scheffler, Thomas; 2003. “ 'Fertile crescent', 'Orient', 'Middle East': the changing mental maps of Southeast
: www.rsf.org article.php3?id_article 19603 List of the 13 Internet enemies RSF, 2006 November A widely publicised example is the '''Great Firewall of China''' (in reference both to its role as a network firewall (firewall (networking)) and to the ancient Great Wall of China). The system blocks content by preventing IP addresses from being routed through and consists of standard firewall and proxy servers at the Internet gateway (gateway (telecommunications))s. The system also selectively engages in DNS poisoning when particular sites are requested. The government does not appear to be systematically examining Internet content, as this appears to be technically impractical. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League