to Hungary, and Hans Ludin (Hanns Ludin) to Slovakia. Bloch 1992, p. 330. The major qualifications of all these men, none of whom had previously held a diplomatic position before, were that they were close friends of Luther, and as a way of splitting the SS (Schutzstaffel) (the traditional rivalry between the SS and SA was still running strong). A short time later, the World Jewish Congress alleged
concentration camp (Nazi concentration camp). The resources of big business and the state were thrown behind the Nazis' campaign the achieve saturation coverage all over Germany. Brownshirts and SS patrolled and marched menacingly through the streets of cities and towns. A "combination of terror, repression and propaganda was mobilized in every... community, large and small, across the land." Evans, ''ibid.'', p. 339. To further ensure the outcome
for good behaviour after having spent a few months in Sachsenburg (Sachsenburg (concentration camp)), and later Buchenwald concentration camp, after the former was shut down. He had to put in writing that he would no longer take up any political activities. Early life Frenzel was born in Zehdenick, Templin district on 20 August 1911. His father had worked for the railroad and was a local official of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Karl completed primary school from 1918
wrote to Ludwig Bieberbach a short note supporting his anti-semitic views and stating: "May God grant German science a unitary, powerful and continued political position." Sanford L. Segal, Mathematicians under the Nazis, Princeton University Press, 2003, page 276 Support of Nazism Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before Hitler came to power. ref name abcarticledirectory
Soviet territories under civil administration in return for Rosenberg's support for the SS in its power struggles. The new twosome achieved nothing other than to exasperate each other beyond endurance. Berger soon withdrew all cooperation. Koch and Lohse thereafter gradually reduced communication with Rosenberg, liaising with Hitler through Bormann and the party chancellery. Both also made a point of establishing strong SA (Sturmabteilung) organisations in their jurisdiction
, and was steadily growing. Eventually SNU organised a militant ''kamporganisation'' (struggle organisation, modelled after the German SA (Sturmabteilung)) which were supposed to combat political enemies in the streets. The ''kamporganisation'' had grey shirts, blue ties and blue armbands. The League supported the German (Germany) Nazis after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. '''Wilhelm Schepmann''' (17 June 1894 - 26 July 1970) was an SA (Sturmabteilung) general (''Obergruppenführer'') in Nazi Germany and the last ''Stabschef'' (Chief of Staff) of the Nazi Stormtroopers. Life and work Born in Berlin, von Soden studied under Benno Landsberger at Leipzig and received his doctorate in 1931, at age 23, with his thesis ''Der hymnisch-epische Dialekt des Akkadischen'' (''The Hymnic-Epic Dialect of Akkadian''). In 1936, he was appointed a professor of Assyriology and Arabic studies, a new position, at the University of Göttingen (Georg-August University of Göttingen). While his mentor, Landsberger, was obliged to leave Germany due to National-Socialist racial policy, von Soden joined the Sturmabteilung (the SA, the so-called brownshirts) in 1934. Although he did not immediately join the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party), in 1944 membership was automatically conferred upon him, along with all other members of the SA who were not already affiliated with the Party at that time. thumb right Philip of Hesse, second from right in the first row, in Kassel (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R26074, Reichstreffen des Reichsbundes Volkstum und Heimat.jpg), 1933 While in Italy, Philipp became impressed by Fascism. On his return to Germany in October 1930, he joined the National Socialist German Workers' Party. In 1932, he joined the Stormtroopers (Sturmabteilung) (SA, commonly referred to as the Brown Shirts), and, the following year, his younger brother Christoph joined the Schutzstaffel (SS). Later, his two other brothers also joined the SA. Through his party membership, Philipp became a particularly close friend of Hermann Göring, the future head of the German air force (Luftwaffe). There were up to 5,000 inmates at a time in the camp, composed of various nationalities, including European Jews (about 80% of all inmates Yisrael Gutman, Michael Berenbaum, ''Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp, Part 805'', citing Franciszek Piper ), Poles, Germans and others, including Soviet prisoners of war. There were 14 reported successful escapes, among them several Soviet POWs, (who then joined the local Polish communist partisans). The camp's survival rate was low because of its lethal conditions, including starvation, disease, hard labor and wanton brutality. In effect, about 2,000 people lost their lives in the Jaworzno camp; some of them were murdered by German civilian employees of the coal mine (mostly members of the SA (Sturmabteilung)), who had been tasked with overseeing the prisoners at work. In addition, every month about 200 inmates who were unable to work anymore (Muselmann) were taken by truck from Jaworzno to the gas chambers at Auschwitz II Birkenau (Auschwitz-Birkenau), resulting in several thousand more deaths. The 1933 seizure of power by the Nazi Party further accelerated the formation of a concrete Sino-German policy. Before the Nazi rise to power, German policy in China had been contradictory, as the Foreign Ministry under the Weimar Government urged for a policy of neutrality in East Asia and discouraged the Reichswehr-industrial complex from involving directly with the Chinese government. The same feeling was shared by the German import-export houses, for fear that direct government ties would exclude them from profiting as the middleman. On the other hand, the new Nazi government's policy of ''Wehrwirtschaft'' (war economy) called for the complete mobilization of society and stockpiling of raw materials, particularly militarily important materials such as tungsten and antimony, which China could supply in bulk. Thus, from this period on, the main driving force behind Germany's China policy became that of raw materials. Kirby 1984, p. 106. thumb Sturmabteilung (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-040975, Osterfahrt der SA und HJ Shanghai nach Wusih.jpg) and Hitlerjugend in China, invited by the Kuomintang government. thumb left Hitlerjugend (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-049297, HJ in China, Lager Ostern.jpg) in China, invited by the Kuomintang government. thumb left Karl von Holz (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 119-1516-01, Karl von Holz.jpg) '''Karl Holz''' (27 December 1895 in Nuremberg – 20 April 1945 in Nuremberg) was the NSDAP Gauleiter of Gau Franconia and an SA (Sturmabteilung) Gruppenführer. All race car drivers were required to become members of the NSKK, which Himmler had moved into the SS following the curtailing of the SA (Sturmabteilung). Hühnlein often presented the trophies at German Grand Prix races and made certain Nazi flags and bunting covered the victory tribunes. The most famous race car driver that had to answer to Hühnlein was Bernd Rosemeyer, who drove the Auto Union Silver Arrow (Auto Union racing car). He was considered the best race car driver in the world in 1936. Although a member of the NSKK, Rosemeyer, like many drivers, did not respect Hühnlein or the NSKK (National Socialist Motor Corps), an organization the drivers were forced to join. Concentration camp Fuhlsbüttel On March 4, 1933 parts of the prison Fühlsbüttel, originally built as a regular prison in 1879, were converted to a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp Official German list 1930 Reichswehr 1918 battles World War I World War II In May 1925, Rediess joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and in December 1925 was approved for membership in the Nazi Party. He led a Düsseldorf SA company in 1927 and was transferred to the SS (Schutzstaffel) with his unit in 1930. Promotion swiftly followed for Rediess, achieving the rank of Lieutenant General (''SS-Obergruppenführer'') in 1935. *This is for us a ground for satisfaction, since we desire that the fight in the religious camps should come to an end. We are happy that in Rome yesterday we succeeded in signing a Concordat (w:Concordat of 1933) on the basis of which all political action in the parties will be forbidden to priests for all time, happy because we know what is wanted by millions who long to see in the priest only the comforter of their souls and not the representative of their political convictions. Thus the political fight for power is finished. ** Speech to the Sturmabteilung (w:Sturmabteilung) (SA) at Dortmund (w:Dortmund), 9 July 1933; from
prominent conservative anti-Nazis (such as former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and Gustav Ritter von Kahr, who had suppressed Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch in 1923). Many of those killed were members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary brownshirts. To a lesser extent, the (SA), a Nazi paramilitary organisation, remained somewhat autonomous within the party itself. The SA evolved out of the remnants of the Freikorps movement
positions in other factories in Berlin, Bremen and Cologne he became unemployed. Throughout the period 1926-1929, Aumeier moved from one job to another, and was in and out of employment, taking part-time work and summer jobs in order to survive. He was an early member of the Nazi Party, joining in December 1929, and in 1931 he joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and was soon employed as a driver at the SA headquarters in Berlin. Later in December 1931 he was transferred
, it is the night that Hitler orders to assassinate the upper echelon of the Sturmabteilung corps (Night of the long knives), to consolidate his power. The Sturmabteilung man is discovered and killed by SS (Schutzstaffel) men in Max and Rudy's apartment, and the two have to flee Berlin. Beginning career in the Nazi Party Greiser was an early member of the Nazi party (Party number 166,635). After many years with the nationalist Deutschsoziale Partei of von Kunze and membership
– 6 February 1972, Munich) was an early member of the Nazi Party and one of the founders of the SS . A watchmaker by trade, Maurice was a close associate of Adolf Hitler with a personal friendship
and aquatint by Otto Dix, 1924 According to ''Vanguard of Nazism'' by Robert G. L. Waite, some of the psychological and social aspects of the Stormtrooper experience found their way into the Weimar republic paramilitary groups (Weimar paramilitary groups) such as the Freikorps, which were largely made up of WWI veterans. For example, the formal barrier between officer and staff was largely broken down and replaced by a fierce loyalty. There was also a 'brutalization' process owing
. Hitler wanted to seize a critical moment for successful popular agitation and support. He decided to take matters into his own hands. Hitler, along with a large detachment of SA (Sturmabteilung), marched on the Bürgerbräukeller, a Munich beer hall where von Kahr was making a speech in front of 3,000 people. Piers Brendon, ''The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s'', p 36 ISBN 0-375-40881-9 ref>
The '''''Sturmabteilung''''' ('''SA''') ( ; Storm Detachment or Assault Division, or Brownshirts) functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their main assignments were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of the opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties (especially the ''Rotfrontkämpferbund'') and intimidating Slavic and Romani citizens, unionists and Jews (e.g. the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses).
The SA was the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks (Ranks and insignia of the Sturmabteilung) were adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the Schutzstaffel (SS), itself originally a branch of the SA. SA men were often called "'''brownshirts'''" for the colour of their uniforms (similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts). Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops (Schutztruppe) posted to Germany's former African colonies (German colonial empire). ''Toland'' p. 220
The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The SA was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved and banned until after the Third Reich's final capitulation to the Allied powers (Allies of World War II) in 1945.