State Political Directorate

What is State Political Directorate known for?


quot acting

.


independent+intelligence

up a fake anti-Bolshevik underground organization, "Monarchist Union of Central Russia". The main success of this operation was luring Boris Savinkov and Sidney Reilly into the Soviet Union, where they were arrested and executed. The Soviet defeat in the Polish-Bolshevik War was the main reason for the formation of a large independent intelligence department in Cheka structures. On December 20, 1920, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky created the Foreign Department (''Innostranny Otdel''—INO), made up of the Management office (INO chief and two deputies), chancellery, agents department, visas bureau and foreign sections. In 1922, after the creation of the State Political Directorate (GPU) and connecting it with People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) of the Russian SFSR, foreign intelligence was conducted by the GPU Foreign Department, and between December 1923 and July 1934 by the Foreign Department of Joint State Political Directorate (State Political Directorate) or OGPU. In July 1934, OGPU was reincorporated into NKVD of the Soviet Union, and renamed the Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB). Until October 9, 1936, INO was operated inside the GUGB organization as a one of its departments. Then, for conspiracy purposes, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Nikolai Yezhov, in his order #''00362'' had introduced a numeration of departments in the GUGB organization, hence Foreign Department or INO of the GUGB became GUGB's ''Department 7'', and later ''Department 5''. By 1941, foreign intelligence was given the highest status and from department it was enlarged to directorate. The name too was changed from INO (Innostranny Otdiel), to INU—''Inostrannoye Upravleniye'', Foreign Directorate. During the following years, Soviet security and intelligence organs went through frequent organizational changes. From February to July 1941, foreign intelligence was the responsibility of the recently created new administration the People's Commissariat of State Security (NKGB) and was working in its structure as a 1st Directorate and, after the July 1941 organizational changes, as a 1st Directorate of the People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). The Soviet defeat in the Polish-Bolshevik War was the main reason for the formation of a large independent intelligence department in Cheka structures. On December 20, 1920, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky created the Foreign Department (''Innostranny Otdel''—INO), made up of the Management office (INO chief and two deputies), chancellery, agents department, visas bureau and foreign sections. In 1922, after the creation of the State Political Directorate (GPU) and connecting it with People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) of the Russian SFSR, foreign intelligence was conducted by the GPU Foreign Department, and between December 1923 and July 1934 by the Foreign Department of Joint State Political Directorate (State Political Directorate) or OGPU. In July 1934, OGPU was reincorporated into NKVD of the Soviet Union, and renamed the Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB). Until October 9, 1936, INO was operated inside the GUGB organization as a one of its departments. Then, for conspiracy purposes, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Nikolai Yezhov, in his order #''00362'' had introduced a numeration of departments in the GUGB organization, hence Foreign Department or INO of the GUGB became GUGB's ''Department 7'', and later ''Department 5''. By 1941, foreign intelligence was given the highest status and from department it was enlarged to directorate. The name too was changed from INO (Innostranny Otdiel), to INU—''Inostrannoye Upravleniye'', Foreign Directorate. During the following years, Soviet security and intelligence organs went through frequent organizational changes. From February to July 1941, foreign intelligence was the responsibility of the recently created new administration the People's Commissariat of State Security (NKGB) and was working in its structure as a 1st Directorate and, after the July 1941 organizational changes, as a 1st Directorate of the People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). In 1924, the first OGPU (State Political Directorate) working commune in the Soviet Union was established here. In 1938, the town of Kaliningrad was founded in place of the Kalininsky settlement near an artillery plant, which had previously been evacuated from Leningrad (Saint Petersburg). In 1929 the church was closed by the Soviet government. But life in the Soviet Union turned out to be hard. The famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor) renewed interest in the idea of returning to Sweden – some villagers signed a list stating that they wanted to leave the country. This led to the arrest of 20 people by the secret police, the GPU (State Political Directorate). Five of them were sent to prison. Several villagers were killed in the Stalinist purge (Great Purge) of the following years. Origins of the MGB The MGB was just one of many incarnations of the Soviet State Security apparatus. Since the revolution, the Bolsheviks relied on a strong political police or security force to support and control their regime. During the Russian Civil War, the Checka were in power, relinquishing it to the less violent State Political Directorate (GPU) in 1922 after the fighting was over. The GPU was then renamed The People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) (NKVD) in 1934. From the mid-1930s and until the creation of the KGB, this “Organ of State Security” was re-organized and re-named multiple times depending on the needs and fears of the leadership. In 1941, the state-security function was separated from the NKVD and became the People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB), only to be reintegrated a few months later during the Nazi invasion (Operation Barbarossa) of the Soviet Union. In 1943, the NKGB was once again made into an independent organization in response to the Soviet occupation of parts of Eastern Europe. SMERSH, coming from the phrase “Death to Spies,” which was designed to be a counter-intelligence unit within the Red Army to ensure the loyalty of the army personnel. Following the end of the war, both the NKGB and the NKVD were converted to Ministries and redubbed the Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD) (MVD) and the Ministry for State Security (MGB). The MGB and MVD merged again in 1953, orchestrated by Lavrenty Beria, who was then arrested and executed. The KGB took on the mantle of the NKGB MGB and, in 1954, broke off from the reformed MVD. ; 1885, Pavlograd - March 22, 1925) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service, the ''INO'' of the GPU (State Political Directorate), from 1921 until May 1922, when he was sent to head the GPU in the South Caucasus region where had been involved in the suppression of the 1924 August Uprising in the Georgian SSR. He died in a plane crash near Tiflis (Tbilisi) in unclear circumstances. Mogilevsky was born to Jewish parents in Pavlograd. In 1903 he joined the RSDRP, and in 1904 Mogilevsky was arrested. In 1906 he left Russia for Switzerland where Mogilevsky met Vladimir Lenin who recommended him to be admitted into Bolshevik section of the party. At the outbreak of the World War I he returned to Russia and was a soldier on the front. Mogilevsky participated in the 1917 October Revolution. During the Russian Civil War he was appointed to various positions in the GPU (State Political Directorate). Since May 1922 Mogilevsky headed the Caucausian GPU and was responsible for intelligence in Iran and Turkey. He participated in stifling the August Uprising in Georgian SSR. Mogilevsky was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner in 1924 for his outstanding activities in the suppression of the uprising


field

' internationalism. Quite a few of these groups carry the label "Fourth Internationalist" either in their organisation's name, major political position documents, or both. Noel Field In 1992, records were found in Hungarian (Hungary) Interior Ministry archives in which self-confessed Soviet spy Noel Field named Alger Hiss as a fellow agent. An American citizen from a Quaker family who had grown up in Switzerland, Field attended Harvard and worked in the US Foreign Service from

1929 until 1936, when he left the State Department for a job at the League of Nations in Geneva, helping refugees from the Spanish Civil War. During World War II, Field, who never concealed he was a Communist, headed a Unitarian Services organization to aid displaced persons in Marseille, before fleeing to Geneva, where he collaborated with Allen Dulles of the OSS (who was based in Bern). In 1948, when the Hiss trials started, Field and his German wife were still living in Switzerland. By 1949

Field was broke, having been fired from the U.S.-based Unitarian Services Committee for his Communist associations. Wishing to avoid returning to the United States and possibly having to testify before Congress, Field traveled to in Prague, hoping to be hired as a lecturer at the Charles University (Charles University in Prague). Field lacked confidence he could stand up under testimony: "Alger defended himself . . . with great intelligence. He had been trained as a lawyer


large+independent

up a fake anti-Bolshevik underground organization, "Monarchist Union of Central Russia". The main success of this operation was luring Boris Savinkov and Sidney Reilly into the Soviet Union, where they were arrested and executed. The Soviet defeat in the Polish-Bolshevik War was the main reason for the formation of a large independent intelligence department in Cheka structures. On December 20, 1920, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky created the Foreign Department

administration the People's Commissariat of State Security (NKGB) and was working in its structure as a 1st Directorate and, after the July 1941 organizational changes, as a 1st Directorate of the People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). The Soviet defeat in the Polish-Bolshevik War was the main reason for the formation of a large independent intelligence department in Cheka structures. On December 20, 1920, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky created the Foreign Department


holding+gold

of terror exerted by the GPU (State Political Directorate) against recalcitrant peasants, anyone suspected of secretly holding gold or foreign currency, and those accused of economic crimes such as sabotage: '''Soviet Border Troops''', ( ) were the militarized (military) border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to ''Cheka'' State Political


intelligence

Council of the People's Commissars child1_agency child2_agency child3_agency child4_agency child5_agency keydocument1 website footnotes The '''State Political Directorate''' (also translated as the '''State Political Administration''') was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until

isbn 0393020304 The 'Foreign Department' of the GPU was headed by a former Bolshevik and party member, Mikhail Trilisser. Kindermann, Karl Gustav, ''In the toils of the O.G.P.U.,'' Translated by Gerald Griffin; Hurst & Blackett, 1933 Digitized Dec 5, 2007, p. 149. The Foreign Department was placed in charge of intelligence activities overseas, including espionage

?docid 367 History of the MVD of Russia: 1917-1931 * (Category:State Political Directorate) In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%,


special actions

manipulations to ''special actions'' involving various degree of violence". They were used both abroad and domestically. They included disinformation, propaganda, counterfeiting official documents, assassinations, and political repression, such as penetration of churches, and persecution of political dissidents. Trust operation In "Trust Operation" (1921–1926), the State Political Directorate (OGPU) set


main success

in 1937. Ivankovo Reservoir and Ivankovo hydroelectrical plant were also created as a part of the project. Many villages and the town Korcheva were submerged under water. Russia In the "Trust Operation" (1921–1926), the Soviet State Political Directorate (OGPU) set up a fake anti-Bolshevik underground organization, "Monarchist Union of Central Russia". The main success of this operation was luring Boris Savinkov and Sidney Reilly into the Soviet Union, where they were arrested and executed. Plot Tintin, a reporter for ''Le Petit Vingtième'', and his dog Snowy are sent on an assignment to the Soviet Union. Departing from Brussels, his train is blown up en route to Moscow by an agent of the Soviet secret police, the OGPU (State Political Directorate), who believes him to be a "dirty little bourgeois". Tintin is blamed for the bombing by the Berlin police but escapes to the border of the Soviet Union. Here he is brought before the local Commissar's office, where the same OGPU agent that tried to kill Tintin on the train secretly instructs the Commissar that they must make the reporter "disappear... accidentally". After escaping again, Tintin finds "how the Soviets fool the poor idiots who still believe in a Red Paradise", by burning bundles of straw and clanging metal in order to trick visiting English Marxists (Communist Party of Great Britain) into believing that Soviet factories are productive, when in fact they are not even operational. Hergé 1999 1930 (#Her30) . pp. 4–30. Additionally, it is doubtful that all of the writers involved in the project were unaware of the brutality or actual living conditions present in the camp. In fact, one of the contributors, Sergei Alymov, was a prisoner at the Belomor camp and was the editor for the camp newspaper ''Perekovka,'' ("Re-forging"). Similarly, Aleksandr Avdeenko's account of the trip to Belomor includes conversations between OGPU (State Political Directorate) chief Semyon Firin and Prince Mirsky (D.S. Mirsky) that reveal at least some of the writers were aware of the true nature of Belomor. While in Astrakhan, Rakovsky was employed by the Regional Planning Committee (Economy of the Soviet Union) (''Gubplan''). He was also active as a writer, starting work on a volume detailing the sources of Utopian socialism and the thought of Saint-Simon (Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon). Rakovsky, in Fagan, ''Opposition and Exile''; Tănase, "The Renegade Istrati" Rakovsky remained involved in Trotskyist politics, was contacted by Panait Istrati and the Greek (Greece) writer Nikos Kazantzakis, and corresponded with Trotsky (who had himself been exiled to Almaty). Most of his writings were confiscated by the State Political Directorate, but the letter on Soviet "bureaucratism" he addressed to Nikolai Valentinov survived, and became notorious as a critique of Stalinism (under the title ''"Professional Dangers" of Power''). Rakovsky, in Fagan, ''Opposition and Exile''; Tismăneanu, p.61-62 Mistrusting Stalin's new leftist policies, he foresaw the renewed moves against the Left Opposition (inaugurated by Trotsky's 1929 expulsion). In January 1930, restored in the party and appointed to the Nizhniy-Novgorod Planning Committee; in 1932 member of the Board of the People's Commissariat of the Light Industry, acting head of the People's Commissariat of State Farms. In January 1933, expelled, arrested and interrogated by the GPU (State Political Directorate); sentenced to 3 years exile; finally expelled in 1936 and arrested again on 20 December 1936; he refused to confess and on 13 July 1937 he was sentenced to death and shot. He was rehabilitated by the government of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1988. With the creation of the Soviet Union all the Cheka departments were consolidated into the State Political Directorate of NKVD that consisted of the respective republican ministries. The republican security services were finally integrated into the Ministry of Internal Affairs of USSR on July 10, 1934 through March 13, 1954. At first it was named as the Chief Directorate of the State Security for NKVD, but was later reorganised during World War II and the death of Stalin. The propaganda story The most popular account of the story is as follows: born to poor peasants in Gerasimovka (Gerasimovka, Sverdlovsk Oblast), a small village 350 kilometers north-east of Yekaterinburg (then known as Sverdlovsk), Morozov was a dedicated communist (communism) who led the Young Pioneers at his school, and a supporter of Stalin's collectivization of farms (Collectivisation in the USSR). In 1932, at the age of 13, Morozov reported his father to the political police (GPU (State Political Directorate)). Supposedly, Morozov's father, the Chairman of the Village Soviet, had been "''forging documents and selling them to the bandits and enemies of the Soviet State''" (as the sentence read). The elder Morozov, Trofim, was sentenced to ten years in a labour camp (Gulag), and later executed. However, Pavlik's family did not take kindly to his activities: on September 3 of that year, his uncle, grandfather, grandmother and a cousin murdered him, along with his younger brother. All of them except the uncle were rounded up by the GPU and convicted to "the highest measure of social defense" - execution by a firing squad. After the assumption of power by the Bolsheviks, Golitsyn remained in Russia, earning his living by repairing shoes and by maintaining public vegetable gardens. Although he was not occupied with political activity, during the period from 1920 to 1924 he was twice arrested by the organs TO VCHK-OGPU (State Political Directorate), on the suspicion of connection with counterrevolutionaries. After his third arrest (on 12 February 1925), on the decision of the OGPU board of 22 June 1925, he was executed on 2 July 1925, in Leningrad. '''Active Measures''' ( ; 1885, Pavlograd - March 22, 1925) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service, the ''INO'' of the GPU (State Political Directorate), from 1921 until May 1922, when he was sent to head the GPU in the South Caucasus region where had been involved in the suppression of the 1924 August Uprising in the Georgian SSR. He died in a plane crash near Tiflis (Tbilisi) in unclear circumstances. Mogilevsky was born to Jewish parents in Pavlograd. In 1903 he joined the RSDRP, and in 1904 Mogilevsky was arrested. In 1906 he left Russia for Switzerland where Mogilevsky met Vladimir Lenin who recommended him to be admitted into Bolshevik section of the party. At the outbreak of the World War I he returned to Russia and was a soldier on the front. Mogilevsky participated in the 1917 October Revolution. During the Russian Civil War he was appointed to various positions in the GPU (State Political Directorate). Since May 1922 Mogilevsky headed the Caucausian GPU and was responsible for intelligence in Iran and Turkey. He participated in stifling the August Uprising in Georgian SSR. Mogilevsky was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner in 1924 for his outstanding activities in the suppression of the uprising


industry+acting

expulsion). In January 1930, restored in the party and appointed to the Nizhniy-Novgorod Planning Committee; in 1932 member of the Board of the People's Commissariat of the Light Industry, acting head of the People's Commissariat of State Farms. In January 1933, expelled, arrested and interrogated by the GPU (State Political Directorate); sentenced to 3 years exile; finally expelled in 1936 and arrested again on 20 December 1936; he refused to confess and on 13 July 1937 he was sentenced to death and shot. He was rehabilitated by the government of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1988. With the creation of the Soviet Union all the Cheka departments were consolidated into the State Political Directorate of NKVD that consisted of the respective republican ministries. The republican security services were finally integrated into the Ministry of Internal Affairs of USSR on July 10, 1934 through March 13, 1954. At first it was named as the Chief Directorate of the State Security for NKVD, but was later reorganised during World War II and the death of Stalin. The propaganda story The most popular account of the story is as follows: born to poor peasants in Gerasimovka (Gerasimovka, Sverdlovsk Oblast), a small village 350 kilometers north-east of Yekaterinburg (then known as Sverdlovsk), Morozov was a dedicated communist (communism) who led the Young Pioneers at his school, and a supporter of Stalin's collectivization of farms (Collectivisation in the USSR). In 1932, at the age of 13, Morozov reported his father to the political police (GPU (State Political Directorate)). Supposedly, Morozov's father, the Chairman of the Village Soviet, had been "''forging documents and selling them to the bandits and enemies of the Soviet State''" (as the sentence read). The elder Morozov, Trofim, was sentenced to ten years in a labour camp (Gulag), and later executed. However, Pavlik's family did not take kindly to his activities: on September 3 of that year, his uncle, grandfather, grandmother and a cousin murdered him, along with his younger brother. All of them except the uncle were rounded up by the GPU and convicted to "the highest measure of social defense" - execution by a firing squad. After the assumption of power by the Bolsheviks, Golitsyn remained in Russia, earning his living by repairing shoes and by maintaining public vegetable gardens. Although he was not occupied with political activity, during the period from 1920 to 1924 he was twice arrested by the organs TO VCHK-OGPU (State Political Directorate), on the suspicion of connection with counterrevolutionaries. After his third arrest (on 12 February 1925), on the decision of the OGPU board of 22 June 1925, he was executed on 2 July 1925, in Leningrad. '''Active Measures''' ( ; 1885, Pavlograd - March 22, 1925) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service, the ''INO'' of the GPU (State Political Directorate), from 1921 until May 1922, when he was sent to head the GPU in the South Caucasus region where had been involved in the suppression of the 1924 August Uprising in the Georgian SSR. He died in a plane crash near Tiflis (Tbilisi) in unclear circumstances. Mogilevsky was born to Jewish parents in Pavlograd. In 1903 he joined the RSDRP, and in 1904 Mogilevsky was arrested. In 1906 he left Russia for Switzerland where Mogilevsky met Vladimir Lenin who recommended him to be admitted into Bolshevik section of the party. At the outbreak of the World War I he returned to Russia and was a soldier on the front. Mogilevsky participated in the 1917 October Revolution. During the Russian Civil War he was appointed to various positions in the GPU (State Political Directorate). Since May 1922 Mogilevsky headed the Caucausian GPU and was responsible for intelligence in Iran and Turkey. He participated in stifling the August Uprising in Georgian SSR. Mogilevsky was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner in 1924 for his outstanding activities in the suppression of the uprising


political position

' internationalism. Quite a few of these groups carry the label "Fourth Internationalist" either in their organisation's name, major political position documents, or both. Noel Field In 1992, records were found in Hungarian (Hungary) Interior Ministry archives in which self-confessed Soviet spy Noel Field named Alger Hiss as a fellow agent. An American citizen from a Quaker family who had grown up in Switzerland, Field attended Harvard and worked in the US Foreign Service from 1929 until 1936, when he left the State Department for a job at the League of Nations in Geneva, helping refugees from the Spanish Civil War. During World War II, Field, who never concealed he was a Communist, headed a Unitarian Services organization to aid displaced persons in Marseille, before fleeing to Geneva, where he collaborated with Allen Dulles of the OSS (who was based in Bern). In 1948, when the Hiss trials started, Field and his German wife were still living in Switzerland. By 1949 Field was broke, having been fired from the U.S.-based Unitarian Services Committee for his Communist associations. Wishing to avoid returning to the United States and possibly having to testify before Congress, Field traveled to in Prague, hoping to be hired as a lecturer at the Charles University (Charles University in Prague). Field lacked confidence he could stand up under testimony: "Alger defended himself . . . with great intelligence. He had been trained as a lawyer and knew all the phrases and tricks. I, on the other hand, had no such experience. . . . I did not trust myself to stand before my accusers and shout 'innocent' in their faces. . . . I also understood the same from a short letter from Hiss, who obviously could not write openly," he stated Sam Tanenhaus, ''Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?'' , ''N.Y. Times'', Oct. 15, 1993. Instead, he was seized by Stalinist security services from Poland and Czechoslovakia and secretly imprisoned in Hungary. Field was accused of having organized an anti-Communist resistance network in Eastern Europe for the OSS during the war and later for the new CIA James Srodes, ''Allen Dulles: Master of Spies'' (Regnery, 2000), p. 412. and was held for five years in solitary confinement. It has been suggested that Field was a victim of a disinformation campaign by Allen Dulles called Splinter Factor", see William Blum, ''Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II'' (London: Zed Books, 2003) p. 58, and even the inspiration for John le Carré's thriller, ''The Spy Who Came In From the Cold'', but the CIA disputes these theories. See Stephen Dorril, ''MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service'' (Simon and Schuster, 2002), p. 484. The narrator in Norman Mailer's fictional chronicle about the CIA, ''Harlot's Ghost'', refers to Noel Field as "the American Martyr". Repeatedly interrogated under rigorous torture, Field broke down and confessed to being "head of the U.S. Secret Service", under his controller, Allen Dulles, "the famous pro-Nazi OSS spymaster". Srodes, ''Allen Dulles'', p. 413. In written statements and oral transcripts Field made in final months of his captivity Field also refers four times to Hiss as a Soviet agent, for example: "Around the summer of 1935 Alger Hiss tried to induce me to do service for the Soviets. I was indiscreet enough to tell him he had come too late." This agreed with Hede Massing's assertion to US authorities in 1947 that when she attempted to recruit Noel Field for one Soviet spy network (the OGPU (State Political Directorate)), Field had replied that he already worked for another (the GRU). (Massing repeated this story at Hiss's second trial when she testified that at a party at Noel Field's house in 1935 she had obliquely joked with Hiss about recruiting Noel Field. ''The Alger Hiss Story: The Cast: Hede Massing''. For more on the dinner party story from newly available Soviet and Hungarian documents see the website, ''Documents Talk'', maintained by Svetlana Chervonnaya. ) In 1954, the Hungarian secret police released Field, exonerating him. He then formally wrote to the Communist Party's Central Committee (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) in Moscow stating for the record that the tortures he had undergone in captivity had made him "confess more and more lies as truth." Hiss's defenders argue that Field's implications of Hiss may well have been among of those lies. *NKVD - CIA *OGPU (State Political Directorate) - DIA *KGB - FBI History In 1934 Leonid Ramzin and other engineers sentenced in the Industrial Party Trial were formed into a special design bureau under State Political Directorate (GPU), which was then the Soviet secret police. Of communism, Dos Passos would later write: "I have come to think, especially since my trip to Spain, that civil liberties must be protected at every stage. In Spain I am sure that the introduction of GPU (State Political Directorate) methods by the Communists did as much harm as their tank men, pilots and experienced military men did good. The trouble with an all powerful secret police in the hands of fanatics, or of anybody, is that once it gets started there's no stopping it until it has corrupted the whole body politic. I am afraid that's what's happening in Russia." Diggins, John Patrick (John Patrick Diggins), "'Organization is Death': John Dos Passos," and "Visions of Order: Dos Passos," in ''Up From Communism'', 1975, Columbia University Press, then Harper & Row, pp. 74-117, and pp. 233-268. Following the collectivization (Collectivization in the USSR) of agriculture under Joseph Stalin, both autonomies were abolished and their populations were subsequently deported to Kazakhstan in 1934–1938. Many people starved during the deportation and after, since the deported were moved to sparsely populated areas, unprepared for migration, lacking basic facilities and infrastructure. The survivors were under the supervision of the OGPU (State Political Directorate) NKVD, cruelly punished for any sign of discontent. 21,000 Poles died during the Holodomor. In 1931, Orgburo of the Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) made a decision to build Volga-Moscow canal (Moscow Canal). Genrikh Yagoda, then the leader of State Political Directorate, was put in charge of construction. The Canal was completed in 1937. Ivankovo Reservoir and Ivankovo hydroelectrical plant were also created as a part of the project. Many villages and the town Korcheva were submerged under water. Russia In the "Trust Operation" (1921–1926), the Soviet State Political Directorate (OGPU) set up a fake anti-Bolshevik underground organization, "Monarchist Union of Central Russia". The main success of this operation was luring Boris Savinkov and Sidney Reilly into the Soviet Union, where they were arrested and executed. Plot Tintin, a reporter for ''Le Petit Vingtième'', and his dog Snowy are sent on an assignment to the Soviet Union. Departing from Brussels, his train is blown up en route to Moscow by an agent of the Soviet secret police, the OGPU (State Political Directorate), who believes him to be a "dirty little bourgeois". Tintin is blamed for the bombing by the Berlin police but escapes to the border of the Soviet Union. Here he is brought before the local Commissar's office, where the same OGPU agent that tried to kill Tintin on the train secretly instructs the Commissar that they must make the reporter "disappear... accidentally". After escaping again, Tintin finds "how the Soviets fool the poor idiots who still believe in a Red Paradise", by burning bundles of straw and clanging metal in order to trick visiting English Marxists (Communist Party of Great Britain) into believing that Soviet factories are productive, when in fact they are not even operational. Hergé 1999 1930 (#Her30) . pp. 4–30. Additionally, it is doubtful that all of the writers involved in the project were unaware of the brutality or actual living conditions present in the camp. In fact, one of the contributors, Sergei Alymov, was a prisoner at the Belomor camp and was the editor for the camp newspaper ''Perekovka,'' ("Re-forging"). Similarly, Aleksandr Avdeenko's account of the trip to Belomor includes conversations between OGPU (State Political Directorate) chief Semyon Firin and Prince Mirsky (D.S. Mirsky) that reveal at least some of the writers were aware of the true nature of Belomor. While in Astrakhan, Rakovsky was employed by the Regional Planning Committee (Economy of the Soviet Union) (''Gubplan''). He was also active as a writer, starting work on a volume detailing the sources of Utopian socialism and the thought of Saint-Simon (Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon). Rakovsky, in Fagan, ''Opposition and Exile''; Tănase, "The Renegade Istrati" Rakovsky remained involved in Trotskyist politics, was contacted by Panait Istrati and the Greek (Greece) writer Nikos Kazantzakis, and corresponded with Trotsky (who had himself been exiled to Almaty). Most of his writings were confiscated by the State Political Directorate, but the letter on Soviet "bureaucratism" he addressed to Nikolai Valentinov survived, and became notorious as a critique of Stalinism (under the title ''"Professional Dangers" of Power''). Rakovsky, in Fagan, ''Opposition and Exile''; Tismăneanu, p.61-62 Mistrusting Stalin's new leftist policies, he foresaw the renewed moves against the Left Opposition (inaugurated by Trotsky's 1929 expulsion). In January 1930, restored in the party and appointed to the Nizhniy-Novgorod Planning Committee; in 1932 member of the Board of the People's Commissariat of the Light Industry, acting head of the People's Commissariat of State Farms. In January 1933, expelled, arrested and interrogated by the GPU (State Political Directorate); sentenced to 3 years exile; finally expelled in 1936 and arrested again on 20 December 1936; he refused to confess and on 13 July 1937 he was sentenced to death and shot. He was rehabilitated by the government of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1988. With the creation of the Soviet Union all the Cheka departments were consolidated into the State Political Directorate of NKVD that consisted of the respective republican ministries. The republican security services were finally integrated into the Ministry of Internal Affairs of USSR on July 10, 1934 through March 13, 1954. At first it was named as the Chief Directorate of the State Security for NKVD, but was later reorganised during World War II and the death of Stalin. The propaganda story The most popular account of the story is as follows: born to poor peasants in Gerasimovka (Gerasimovka, Sverdlovsk Oblast), a small village 350 kilometers north-east of Yekaterinburg (then known as Sverdlovsk), Morozov was a dedicated communist (communism) who led the Young Pioneers at his school, and a supporter of Stalin's collectivization of farms (Collectivisation in the USSR). In 1932, at the age of 13, Morozov reported his father to the political police (GPU (State Political Directorate)). Supposedly, Morozov's father, the Chairman of the Village Soviet, had been "''forging documents and selling them to the bandits and enemies of the Soviet State''" (as the sentence read). The elder Morozov, Trofim, was sentenced to ten years in a labour camp (Gulag), and later executed. However, Pavlik's family did not take kindly to his activities: on September 3 of that year, his uncle, grandfather, grandmother and a cousin murdered him, along with his younger brother. All of them except the uncle were rounded up by the GPU and convicted to "the highest measure of social defense" - execution by a firing squad. After the assumption of power by the Bolsheviks, Golitsyn remained in Russia, earning his living by repairing shoes and by maintaining public vegetable gardens. Although he was not occupied with political activity, during the period from 1920 to 1924 he was twice arrested by the organs TO VCHK-OGPU (State Political Directorate), on the suspicion of connection with counterrevolutionaries. After his third arrest (on 12 February 1925), on the decision of the OGPU board of 22 June 1925, he was executed on 2 July 1925, in Leningrad. '''Active Measures''' ( ; 1885, Pavlograd - March 22, 1925) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service, the ''INO'' of the GPU (State Political Directorate), from 1921 until May 1922, when he was sent to head the GPU in the South Caucasus region where had been involved in the suppression of the 1924 August Uprising in the Georgian SSR. He died in a plane crash near Tiflis (Tbilisi) in unclear circumstances. Mogilevsky was born to Jewish parents in Pavlograd. In 1903 he joined the RSDRP, and in 1904 Mogilevsky was arrested. In 1906 he left Russia for Switzerland where Mogilevsky met Vladimir Lenin who recommended him to be admitted into Bolshevik section of the party. At the outbreak of the World War I he returned to Russia and was a soldier on the front. Mogilevsky participated in the 1917 October Revolution. During the Russian Civil War he was appointed to various positions in the GPU (State Political Directorate). Since May 1922 Mogilevsky headed the Caucausian GPU and was responsible for intelligence in Iran and Turkey. He participated in stifling the August Uprising in Georgian SSR. Mogilevsky was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner in 1924 for his outstanding activities in the suppression of the uprising

State Political Directorate

The '''State Political Directorate''' (also translated as the '''State Political Administration''') was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15th, 1923. Formed from the Cheka, the original Russian state security organization, on February 6, 1922, it was initially known under the Russian abbreviation '''GPU''' — short for "State Political Directorate under the NKVD of the RSFSR" (Russian (Russian language): Государственное политическое управление при НКВД РСФСР, ''Gosudarstvennoye politicheskoye upravlenie'' under the NKVD of the RSFSR"). Its first chief was the Cheka's former chairman, Felix Dzerzhinsky.

On paper, the new agency was supposed to act with more restraint than the Cheka. For instance, unlike the Cheka, it didn't have the right to shoot suspected "counter-revolutionaries" at will. All those suspected of political crimes had to be brought before a judge in normal circumstances.

The 'Foreign Department' of the GPU was headed by a former Bolshevik and party member, Mikhail Trilisser. Kindermann, Karl Gustav, ''In the toils of the O.G.P.U.,'' Translated by Gerald Griffin; Hurst & Blackett, 1933 Digitized Dec 5, 2007, p. 149. The Foreign Department was placed in charge of intelligence activities overseas, including espionage and liquidation of 'enemies of the people'. Trilisser himself was later liquidated by Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge in 1940.

With the creation of the USSR in December 1922, a unified organization was required to exercise control over state security throughout the new union. Thus, on November 15, 1923, the GPU left the Russian NKVD and was transferred into the all-union '''Joint State Political Directorate''', also translated as "All-Union State Political Administration". Its official name was "Joint State Political Directorate under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR" (Russian: ''Obyedinyonnoye gosudarstvennoye politicheskoye upravleniye'' under the SNK of the USSR, Объединённое государственное политическое управление при СНК СССР), or '''OGPU''' (ОГПУ).

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