Renaissance, such as Langston Hughes, who was in the 1930s a supporter of the Soviet Union and praised it in several of his poems. Despite much common ground with the Old Right in domestic and foreign policy, Hurston was not a social conservative. Her writings show skepticism toward traditional religion and affinity for feminist individualism. In this respect, her views were similar to two libertarian (Libertarianism) novelists who were her contemporaries, Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel
achievements in the field of computer science, made in early 1950s by Sergei Alekseyevich Lebedev. After the WW II, Bernstein came back to chess. In 1946, he took 2nd, behind Herman Steiner, at London. In 1946, he tied for 15th-16th at Groningen (Groningen (city)). In June 1946, he won a game against Lajos Steiner at a match Australia vs France in Australia. In December 1948, he drew a game against Reuben Fine at a cable match New York vs Paris. In April 1954, he lost two
received. Born in Moscow, Soviet Union, Alexander Yakushev is best known to North American hockey fans as one of the stars for the Soviet team that played Team Canada in the famous 1972 Summit Series. His style of play was atypical of his colleagues who were fast and skilled; he was often described as the equivalent of Canada's Phil Esposito. Although often overshadowed by his famous teammate Valeri Kharlamov, by the end of the Summit Series, Yakushev lead the Soviets in scoring with 7 goals and 4 assists for 11 points. Frelimo's first president was Eduardo Mondlane whose first objective was to forge a broad based insurgent coalition that could effectively challenge the colonial regime. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
was replaced by the Soviet Figure Skating Federation, and then lost coach after coach while struggling to finance her skating following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Her World Championship result in 1993 failed to qualify Russia for a spot in the 1994 Olympics. She came in 4th at the 1998 Olympics. Her persistence paid off when she defeated defending world champion Michelle Kwan at the 1999 World Championships. She received all first place ordinals in both the short and the long
programs at the 1999 worlds, dominating the competition in an upset victory. She was never able to win a second world title, or an olympic medal, although she did win the short program at the 2000 Worlds, and captured her second bronze medal. She ended her amateur career at the 2002 World Championships, withdrawing from the competition after skating poorly in the qualifying round. '''TKS spacecraft''' was a Soviet (Soviet Union) spacecraft design in the late 1960s intended to supply the military Almaz space station. The spacecraft was designed for manned or autonomous cargo resupply use. The design was used on four test missions but was never flown manned due to the abandonment of the Almaz program. Apparently due to financial difficulties, Yma Sumac and the original Inka Taky Trio went on a world tour in 1961, which lasted for five years. They performed in 40 cities in the Soviet Union, and afterward throughout Europe, Asia, and Latin America. Their performance in Bucharest, Romania, was recorded as the album ''Recital'', her only "live in concert" record. Yma Sumac spent the rest of the 1960s performing sporadically. birth_date Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
massives of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright architecture. After the end of the Soviet Union the situation improved. Many churches demolished in the Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. As for the original architecture, there is no more any common style in modern Russia, though International style (International style (architecture)) has
and the streets of New York. - first9 C pointing to a low contribution of ices to a comet's mass (dubbed the "icy dirtball" hypothesis). He also anticipated the era of artificial satellites and organized the members of Operation Moonwatch to track them. These groups were the only ones prepared and ready to make observations when the Soviet Union unexpectedly launched Sputnik I in 1957. He became director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical
in Russia through its embassy in Paris (France) and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg. Singapore and the Soviet Union (now Russia) entered into full diplomatic relations (Diplomacy) on 1 June 1968. The two nations engaged in trade and economic cooperation. After the start of Vladimir Putin's term, Singapore and Russia strengthened ties, participating in a number of regional meetings such as the ASEAN-Russia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum. Both Singapore and Russia are members of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). --valign "top" Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
internment by the Soviet Union, he taught both judo and aikido for many years at Waseda University. It was there that he formulated and expanded his theories concerning both kata based training methods and a particular form of free-style fighting which would put him at odds with much, but not all, of the aikido world. The premiere of the work in the Soviet Union is also worth noting since it was given just three days after the Paris premiere by two 19-year-olds, Nathan Milstein
''' was a Soviet (Soviet Union) unmanned Progress (Progress (spacecraft)) cargo spacecraft which was launched in 1978 to resupply the Salyut 6 space station. It was the maiden flight of the Progress spacecraft, and used the Progress 7K-TG configuration. It carried supplies for the EO-1 (Salyut 6 EO-1) crew aboard Salyut 6, which consisted of Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Romanenko and Georgi Grechko. The cargo carried by Progress 1 also included equipment for conducting scientific research, and fuel for adjusting the station's orbit and performing manoeuvres. Another historically significant example of forced labour was that of political prisoners and other persecuted people in labour camps (labor camp), especially in totalitarian regimes since the 20th century where millions of convicts were exploited and often killed by hard labour and bad living conditions. For much of the history of the Soviet Union and other Communist states, political opponents of these governments were often sentenced to forced labour camps. The Soviet Gulag camps were a continuation of the punitive labour system of Imperial Russia known as ''katorga'', but on a larger scale. The distinctive aroma and rich bouquet of these Brandies allowed the Yerevan Brandy Company to enjoy considerable success in international exhibitions and tastings. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
in November 1945 during their occupation of Northern Iran, making Pishevari its leader. His government's actions, including organizing and arming local militias, disarming of regular Iranian military and police forces, setting up an independent judiciary based on the Soviet legal system, levying taxes, land reform without ratification of the Majlis (Majlis of Iran), using Azarbaijani Turkish as the official language and banning the usage of Persian (Persian language), and setting up
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).