cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0020) Iraq as an independent monarchy ,' 1988, accessed March 2010 Following the persecution of the Assyrians which culminated in the Simele Massacre of 1932, a conscription law was introduced, which strengthened the army at the expense of the tribal sheiks. In 1938-1939, Iraqi Army forces were concentrated near the Kuwait border, as the military part of a policy by then-King Ghazni to encourage union with Iraq. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
) or the '''Russian Campaign''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Marko Aleksandrovich Ramius and CIA analyst Jack Ryan (Jack Ryan (Tom Clancy)). '''''The Cardinal of the Kremlin''''' is a novel by Tom Clancy, featuring his character Jack Ryan (Jack Ryan (Tom Clancy character)). It is a sequel to ''The Hunt for Red October'', based on the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative and its Soviet (Soviet Union) equivalent, covering themes including intelligence gathering and counterintelligence, political intrigue, and guerrilla warfare in Afghanistan (Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan). Jack Ryan, a rising CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) analyst, attends a diplomatic conference in Moscow as part of an American delegation to the Soviet Union. He learns that the CIA’s most highly-placed agent, codenamed "CARDINAL", is none other than Colonel Mikhail Semyonovich Filitov, the personal aide to the Soviet Minister of Defense (Minister of Defence (Soviet Union)) and a national war hero. Filitov was recruited by GRU colonel and British agent Oleg Penkovskiy, and offered his services to the CIA after the deaths of his wife and two sons; the latter two were killed during their service in the Red Army. As a result, Filitov has been passing political, technical, and military intelligence to the CIA for the past thirty years. Throughout his career, Clark has been through a number of real-life crisis zones. In addition to the Vietnam War, he has also been through the Iran hostage crisis and the Gulf War, plus a number of missions in the Soviet Union, and claims to have "had Abu Nidal's head in my gunsights", but never got the green light allowing him to kill the man (''Clear and Present Danger''). There is a 75 kilometres railway (rail transport) service between Uzbekistan and the northern Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif, all of which is built to Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
: pigfaceboy.co.uk music Video of ''A Complete History Of The Soviet Union As Told By A Humble Worker, Arranged To The Melody Of Tetris'' by Pig With The Face Of A Boy * The Timbers Army sings this melody with altered lyrics during Portland Timbers games, usually accompanied by a simple dance with a large visual effect. http: www.katu.com portlandpulp blogs rough-draft 126273308.html An older version called Horizont, produced in the Soviet Union
, relevant logic does not employ the structural rule of weakening (also called the rule of monotonicity), and this rule is unlike the other structural rules (Dosen). '''TheatreClub Kiev''' was one of the first independent experimental theatre groups in post-Soviet (Soviet Union) Ukraine. It was established by Oleg Liptsin in Kiev in 1989 and was active until 1998. During this time TheatreClub Kiev produced a number of avant-garde style award-winning productions
to Alger Hiss. Elinor Langer, "The Secret Drawer," ''The Nation'', May 30, 1994, p. 756 Elinor Langer, ''Josephine Herbst'' (Boston: Little, Brown, 1984) ISBN 978-0446328531 The '''Jewish Relief Agency''' ('''JRA''') is a charitable organization (foundation (charity)), associated with the Chabad-Lubavitch (Lubavitch) movement, whose aim is to identify and feed needy Jewish clients in the Greater
in Germany SMAD , and was renamed ''Sowjetische AG Maschinenbau Awtowelo'', ''Werk BMW Eisenach'' (Soviet Awtowelo Co., Eisenach BMW Works). Production restarted with the BMW 321, of which almost 4,000 were made between late 1945 and 1950. A handful of BMW 326s were made in 1946-7 and 161 BMW 325-2s were made in 1952. right thumb 300px B-11 recoilless rifle in Batey ha-Osef Museum (Image:B-11-107mm-recoilless-rifle-batey-haosef-2-1.jpg), Israel. The '''B-11 recoilless rifle''' (It is also known as RG107) is a Soviet (Soviet Union) 107 mm smoothbore recoilless rifle. It entered service in 1954, and was typically towed by a 6x6 ZIL-157 truck or a UAZ 4x4 truck. The '''14.5×114 mm''' (.57 Cal) is a heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge used by the Soviet Union, the former Warsaw Pact, modern Russia, and other countries. The '''KPV-14.5 heavy machine gun''' (Krupnokaliberniy Pulemyot Vladimirova, in Russian as Крупнокалиберный Пулемёт Владимирова, or '''КПВ''') is a Soviet (Soviet Union) designed 14.5x114mm-caliber heavy machine gun, which first entered service as an infantry weapon (designated ''PKP'') in 1949. In the 1960s the infantry version was taken out of production because it was too big and heavy. It was later redesigned for anti-aircraft use, because it showed excellent results as an AA gun, with a range of 3,000 meters horizontally and 2,000 meters vertically against low flying planes. KPVT large-calibre tank machine-gun It was used in the ZPU series of anti-aircraft guns (ZPU). Its size and power also made it a useful light anti-armour weapon on the BTR series of vehicles (Bronetransporter) and the BRDM-2 scout car. * ''Cossacks 2'' (2005) is set during the Napoleonic Wars, and supports battles of up to 64000 soldiers. It has a high degree of realism with its morale system and damage model, as well as the fact that the player controls companies of certain number of individual units. Morale serves as a role similar to hit points, increasing or decreasing based upon certain events (such as soldiers being fired at, or soldiers firing upon the enemy). The player is thus deprived of control over the company whenever it falls under a certain level of danger. Soldiers in the Napoleonic wars carried muskets, which did little damage over long distances and took a lot of time to reload. This is reflected in the game, as it takes a long time for a company to reload before it can produce another volley. Further, reloading costs resources, and the food resource is constantly drained depending on how many soldiers the player controls. * ''World in Conflict'' (2007) is set in an alternate 1989 as the Soviet Union invades Western Europe and the United States' West Coast in a last-ditch effort to hold onto power while economic troubles threaten to cripple the country. * ''Tom Clancy's EndWar'' (2008) is based on a fictional World War III in 2020 where nuclear weapons are obsolete and conventional warfare makes up the bulk of the gameplay. During World War II, she worked at the Ministry of Information (Ministry of Information (United Kingdom)) and the Foreign Office. A fluent Russian (Russian language) speaker, she edited the ''British Ally'', a newspaper published by the British government in the Soviet Union. She also worked at the British Embassy in Moscow. In 1948, she married general practitioner Dr Santo Jeger, who had been Member of Parliament for St Pancras South East (St Pancras South East (UK Parliament constituency)) since the 1945 UK general election (United Kingdom general election, 1945). She left the civil service in 1949, and worked for ''The Manchester Guardian (The Guardian)'' from 1951-55. Barbarossa Decree The background behind the Barbarossa Decree was laid out by Hitler during a high level meeting with military officials on March 30, 1941, where he declared that war against Soviet (Soviet Union) Russia would be a war of extermination (genocide), in which both the political and intellectual elites of Russia would be eradicated by German forces, in order to ensure a long-lasting German victory. Hitler underlined that executions would not be a matter for military courts, but for the organised action of the military. The decree, issued by FeldMarshal Keitel (Wilhelm Keitel) a few weeks before Operation Barbarossa, exempted punishable offenses committed by enemy civilians (in Russia) from the jurisdiction of military justice (court martial). Suspects were to be brought before an officer who would decide if they were to be shot. Prosecution of offenses against civilians by members of the ''Wehrmacht'' was decreed to be "not required" unless necessary for the maintenance of discipline. As a result of these views, the majority of the German Army worked enthusiastically with the SS in murdering Jews in the Soviet Union. The British historian Richard J. Evans wrote that junior officers tended to be especially zealous National Socialists with a third of them being Nazi Party members in 1941. The ''Wehrmacht'' did not just obey Hitler's criminal orders for Barbarossa because of obedience, but rather because they shared Hitler's belief that the Soviet Union was run by Jews, and that it was necessary for Germany to completely destroy "Judeo-Bolshevism". Jürgen Förster wrote that the majority of ''Wehrmacht'' officers sincerely believed that most Red Army commissars were Jews, and that the best way to defeat the Soviet Union was to kill all of the commissars so as to deprive the Russian soldiers of their Jewish leaders. The '''Albanian Subversion''' is one of the earliest and most notable failures of the Western covert (Covert operation) paramilitary operations behind the Iron Curtain. Based on wrong assessments about Albania, and thinking that the country was ready to shake off its Stalinist regime, the British (United Kingdom) SIS (Secret Intelligence Service) and the American (United States) CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) launched a joint subversive operation, using as agents Albanian expatriates. Other noncommunist Albanians and many nationalists worked as agents for Greek (Greece), Italian (Italy) and Yugoslav (Yugoslavia) intelligence services, some supported by the UK and U.S. secret services. A Soviet (Soviet Union) mole (Mole (espionage)), and later other spies tipped off the missions to Moscow, which in turn relayed the information to Albania. Consequently, many of the agents were caught, put on a show-trial, and either shot or condemned to long prison terms at hard labor (Penal labour). In March 1981, the girls and their team announced their break-up at the time they had planned to promote their recordings in new territories (Japan, Soviet Union....). To the public's great surprise, the group made a farewell performance on July 22, 1981 on the ''Nederland Muziekland'' show on Veronica (TV channel) by singing Tingalingaling (which was released as a single). This final broadcast was filmed in Spakenburg. Luv' also appeared at the Efteling theme park during '''Hitkrant's Zomerspelen''' (a summer multi-sport event with Dutch celebrities which was organized by teen magazine '''Hitkrant'''). They were expected to sing at a UNICEF gala in Greece but their participation in this show was called off. Then the compilation album "Goodbye Luv'" came out. Another important feature is that under the MPC, any action not explicitly outlawed is legal. This concept follows the saying, "That which is not forbidden is allowed" as opposed to "That which is not allowed is forbidden." Legal scholars contrast the MPC's limits with laws passed by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which allowed people to be punished for acts not specifically outlawed but similar to acts that were. The MPC provision has a prospective effect in that it applies to those acts which may be committed in the future. This is not the same as a retrospective effect of past acts which are protected by the rule against ex post facto laws. Soviet Navy, 1945–1949 Following the training of Russian personnel in the operation of the ship, ''Charlottesville'' was decommissioned on 12 July 1945 and transferred to the Soviet Union the next day under Lend-Lease. The ship was returned to United States custody on 17 October 1949 at Yokosuka, Japan, and laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, Yokosuka. Bulbul was awarded the highest order of the Soviet Union – the USSR State Prize, as well as the ''"Stella di Garibaldi"'' order in Italy. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
in the paper's news room. As a national correspondent for 17 years at the Times, he wrote articles and series on such diverse topics as the Soviet Union during glasnost, the Jews of Los Angeles, arms control, urban crises, national politics and the military, as well as covering several presidential elections. The Times entered Scheer's work for the Pulitzer Prize 11 times, and he was a finalist for the Pulitzer national reporting award for a series on the television industry. In 1935, under the ''nom de guerre (Pseudonym)'' ''Ercole Ercoli'', he was named member of the secretariat of the Comintern. In 1939 he was arrested in France: released, he moved to the Soviet Union and, remained there during World War II, broadcasting radio messages to Italy, in which he called for resistance to Nazi Germany and the Italian Social Republic. Despite his allegedly tight relationship with Soviet Union, Togliatti's leadership remained unscathed after the 1956 Hungarian Revolution (which was everywhere else a cause for major conflicts within the left (left-wing)). He coined the development of the polycentrism theory (unity in diversity within the communist parties in all countries). In the 1958 elections (Italian general election, 1958), the number of Communist votes was still on the rise. In the 1963 elections (Italian general election, 1963), the PCI gained 25.2% of the votes, but again failed to reach a relative majority. right framed Naftaly Frenkel (File:Frenkel2.jpg) (far right) at the White Sea – Baltic Canal works The Soviets (Soviet Union) presented the canal as an example of the success of the First Five-Year Plan. Its construction was completed four months ahead of schedule. The entire canal was constructed in twenty months, between 1931 and 1933, almost entirely by manual labor. The '''KSShch''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
as that of Pandido Khambo lama, the head of the Russian Buddhists. Spiritual activity of the datsan is manifested in temple rites, medical practice, Buddhist education traditional system. Buddhist university «Dashi Choinkhorling» was opened in 1991 attached to the datsan. The Jewish population has increased slightly in recent times http: www.jewishnews.net.au exhibition-shows-it%E2%80%99s-not-all-black-and-white due to immigration from South Africa and the former Soviet
to Sara Alpysqyzy Nazarbayeva (Sara Nazarbayeva), with whom he has three daughters: Dariga (Dariga Nazarbayeva), Dinara (Dinara Nazarbayeva) and Aliya (Aliya Nazarbayeva). Dariga was married to Rakhat Aliyev, son of a former minister of healthcare, who served as the First Deputy Foreign Minister and twice as the Kazakh Ambassador to Austria. Dinara is married to Timur Kulibayev, son of a former Minister of Construction, who serves as the First Deputy Chairman of the national holding company
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).