a letter condemning the Soviet (Soviet Union) invasion of Czechoslovakia. He became a vocal critic of the Castro government, writing frequently until his death on April 16, 2010. thumb ''In 2006, at his home in Puerto Rico, in front of a painting with one of his poems'' alt An old man with painting in the background (File:CarlosFranquiThumb.jpg) Because of his dissident attitude, he continued to have problems with the Cuban government. Eventually, he was allowed to leave Cuba with his
this. Consequently British and Soviet forces invaded and occupied Persia. The Shah was deposed (removed from power) and his son put on the throne. Following the removal from office of Henry A. Wallace in September 1946, Lippmann became the leading public advocate of the need to respect a Soviet (Soviet Union) sphere of influence in Europe, as opposed to the containment strategy being advocated at the time by people like George F. Kennan. Soviet period In 1917 Kazan became one of the revolution (October Revolution) centers. In 1918, Kazan was the capital of the Idel-Ural State, which was suppressed by the Bolshevist government. In the Kazan Operation of August 1918, it was briefly occupied by Czechoslovak Legions. In 1920 (after the October Revolution), Kazan became the center of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city's mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR (Soviet Union). During World War II, many industrial plants and factories to the west were relocated in Kazan, making the city a center of the military industry, producing tanks and planes (fixed-wing aircraft). After the war Kazan consolidated as an industrial and scientific center. In 1979, the city's population reached one million. The overland trail suffered from political changes at the end of the 1970s. The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and the Shah was deposed by an Islamic revolution in Iran. Still, the travel organizers "Sundowners" and "Topdeck" pioneered a route through Baluchistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)). Topdeck continued its trips throughout the Iran-Iraq war and later conflicts, but took its last trip in 1998. Perle was considered a hardliner in arms reduction negotiations with the Soviet Union and has stated that his opposition to arms control under the Carter administration had to do with his view that the US was giving up too much at the negotiation table and not receiving nearly enough concessions from the Soviets. Perle called the arms talks under negotiation in the late 1970s "the rawest deal of the century". In 1948 Air Training Command began rebuilding its training programs. After the massive demobilization after World War II, plans were made by the new United States Air Force to rebuild a combat force capable of defending against the threat of the Soviet Union after the breakout of the Cold War. On 13 January 1948, the facility was renamed '''Las Vegas Air Force Base'''. It was then assigned as a sub-installation of Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, on 1 April 1948 to provide advanced training for fighter pilots. The smaller part of the isthmus to the southeast of the old Russia-Finland border is considered historically as Northern Ingria, rather than part of the Karelian Isthmus itself. The rest of the isthmus was historically a part of Finnish Karelia. This was conquered by the Russian Empire during the Great Northern War in 1712 and included within the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland (1809–1917) of the Russian Empire. When Finland became independent in 1917, the isthmus (except for the territory roughly corresponding to present-day Vsevolozhsky District and some districts of Saint Petersburg) remained Finnish. Finnish Karelia was ceded to the Soviet Union by Finland following the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944). In 1940–1941, during the Interim Peace, most of the ceded territories in the isthmus were included within the Karelo-Finnish SSR. However, since World War II the entire isthmus has been divided between the city of Saint Petersburg (mostly Kurortny District), as well as Priozersky District, Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District (Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Oblast) of Leningrad Oblast. In November 1939, the Soviet Union staged the Shelling of Mainila and invaded Finland in what became known as the Winter War, which took a disproportionally heavy death toll on the Red Army. Only in February 1940 did the Soviet forces manage to penetrate the Mannerheim Line across the isthmus, strength of which is often exaggerated. Van Dyke, Carl. ''The Soviet Invasion of Finland 1939-1940''. London: Frank Cass, 1997. ISBN 0-7146-4314-9. Finland ceded the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia to the Soviet Union in the Peace of Moscow (Moscow Peace Treaty (1940)) of March 12. According to the protocol appended to the Moscow Peace Treaty, the fighting was ended at noon (Leningrad time), March 13, and by March 26 the Finnish troops had been completely withdrawn. Protocol appended to the treaty of peace concluded between Finland and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on March 12, 1940 The entire Karelian population of the ceded areas of about 422 thousand people was evacuated to other parts of Finland (see Evacuation of Finnish Karelia). On March 31 most of the ceded territories were incorporated into Karelo-Finnish SSR by a decision of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union (in the Karelian Isthmus the districts of Jääski, Kexholm and Vyborg). The districts of Kanneljärvi, Koivisto (Primorsk, Leningrad Oblast) and Rautu as well as the town of Terijoki were, however, included into Leningrad Oblast. Степаков, Виктор, Евгений Балашов. В «Новых районах»: Из истории освоения Карельского перешейка, 1940-1941, 1944-1950. Saint Petersburg: Нордмедиздат, 2001. Petri moved with Busoni to Switzerland during World War I where he assisted him in editing Bach's keyboard works. In the 1920s Petri taught in Berlin; Victor Borge, Stanley Gardner, Gunnar Johansen and Vitya Vronsky (Vronsky & Babin) being among his students. In 1923 he became the first non-Soviet soloist to play in the Soviet Union. In 1927 he moved to Zakopane in Poland where he conducted summer and early fall sessions and master-classes to a group of pre-selected piano students until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. From 1929 he made a number of recordings for several labels including Columbia Records. '''Soyuz 21''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Swift 's novel to become more communist, but does so with a didactic verbosity that makes it sometimes hard to bear. It nevertheless is a masterpiece of animation, featuring amazing mass scenes with hundreds of extras, very expressive mimics in close-ups, and innovative, very flexible camera work combined with excellent scenography. Ptushko became the first director of the newly founded Soyuzdetmultfilm-Studio, but soon after left to devote himself to live-action cinema. Still, even
their own, competing "Fourth International". Trotskyists regard themselves as working in opposition to both capitalism and Stalinism. Trotsky advocated proletarian (proletariat) revolution as set out in his theory of "permanent revolution", and believed that a workers' state (Socialist state) would not be able to hold out against the pressures of a hostile capitalist world unless socialist revolution (communist revolution)s quickly took hold in other countries
, practiced to be ready in the event of nuclear war (Nuclear warfare). In 1950, during the first big Civil Defense push of the Cold War; the movie ''Duck and Cover (Duck and Cover (film))'' was produced (by the Federal Civil Defense Administration (Federal Civil Defense Authority)) for school showings in 1951. At the time, it was believed the main dangers of a Hiroshima-type nuclear blast were from heat and blast damage Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
important. Numerous Crimean Tatar (Crimean Tatars) villages, mosques, monasteries (monastery), and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The number of Crimean residents who consider Ukraine their motherland increased from 32% to 71.3% from 2008 through 2011; according to a poll by Razumkov Center in March 2011. This is the lowest number in all Ukraine (93% on average across the country). Poll: Most Crimean residents consider Ukraine their motherland, Kyiv Post (11 April 2011) Surveys of regional identities in Ukraine have shown that around 30% of Crimean residents claim to have a "Soviet (Soviet Union) identity". Soviet conspiracy theories and political culture in Ukraine:Understanding Viktor Yanukovych and the Party of Region by Taras Kuzio (23 August 2011) Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
of radical green politics and socialism and their political "red-green alliances" in the post-Soviet (Soviet Union) era. This focus on eco-socialism has informed an essay, ''On Socialist Ecological Civilisation'', published in September 2006, which, according to chinadialogue, "sparked debate" in China (People's Republic of China). ''chinadialogue'' Interview with Pan Yue 18th December 2006 - ''"The rich consume and the poor suffer the pollution"'' The current Constitution of Bolivia, promulgated in 2009, is the first both ecologic and pro-socialist Constitution in the world, making the Bolivian state officially ecosocialist. was alleged by the Soviets on multiple occasions that American CIA agents were helping smuggle opium out of Afghanistan , either into the West, in order to raise money for the Afghan resistance or into the Soviet Union in order to weaken it through drug addiction. According to Alfred McCoy (Alfred W. McCoy), the CIA supported various Afghan drug lords, for instance Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Hashomer Hatzair, and the youth organizations Hatzofim (Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel) and Hechalutz. Amichal, page 16 Supporting theories of Stern's progressive leanings is his comment that "We... want to establish the Kingdom of Israel and to rebuild it on the eternal foundations of Fraternity, Respect and Friendship to all the nation's sons whoever they are." Lochamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi), writings, chapter 1, pages 70–71 ref>
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).