triggers. '''Russian postmodernism''' refers to the cultural (culture), artistic (art), and philosophical (philosophy) condition in Russia since the downfall of the Soviet Union and dialectical materialism. With respect to statements about post-Soviet philosophy or sociology, the term is primarily used by non-Russians to describe the state of economic and political uncertainty they observe since the fall of communism and the way this uncertainty affects
the Republic of Azerbaijan deny the fact that he was of Kurdish origin, and claim he was a ”proud Turk”. This conjecture is however not supported by any modern scholar or historian who consider him, ”Father of Medieval Kurdish history. ) was a political body created by Polish communists
credentials to the premier. Lawrence, "Soviet Is Pictured As Big U.S. Market", ''New York Times'', June 20, 1944; Reston, "Johnston Extols Soviet Peace Aim", ''New York Times'', July 14, 1944. History The Soviet Union tried to develop a flying submarine during World War II. The design could have operated at 150 knots in the air and 3 knots in the water. Metal plates
OMNI-_THE_NEW_FRONTIER trailer P00528576.htm title Omni: The New Frontier (1989) trailer work Video Detective accessdate January 23, 2011 It was 5.5 times
; The first song they recorded, "Distant Memories", under the name ''Shades of May'', was selected for a compilation album, ''Local Heroes'', by San Diego radio station 91X (XETRA-FM) in 1984. Shades of May subsequently received offers to play live, and the brothers began to study music and computer technology seriously in turn. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
in the 1988 Summer Olympics held in Seoul, South Korea in the 4 x 100 metres where she won the bronze medal with her team mates Lyudmila Kondratyeva, Galina Malchugina and Marina Zhirova. She also won a World Championship gold in this event for Russia in 1993 and performed very well in the 200 metres event. From 1956 to 1961, under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Economic Research, Nutter undertook a massive study of the history of the economy of the Soviet Union culminating in the publication of ''The Growth of Industrial Production in the Soviet Union'', 1962, Princeton University Press. His extensively documented study attempted to correct the widely-held view that Soviet industrial production had grown at a pace much greater than that of Western economies. The study concluded that Soviet economic growth over the first half of the 20th Century was indeed remarkable, and that there had been periods of growth spurts which, taken out of historical context, might suggest that the Soviet Union would eventually overtake the United States in economic capacity. But when the entire Soviet period was taken into consideration, Soviet growth lagged behind Western economies and Soviet economic capacity showed every sign of falling further behind rather than catching up with the West. At the time of its publication, the study's conclusions were not highly regarded by many Sovietologists who held that Soviet growth rates were much higher than those represented by the study. In the intervening years, as the fall of the Soviet Union revealed more realistic data, Nutter's estimates of Soviet growth rates have been vindicated; in fact, if anything Nutter overstated rather than understated Soviet economic performance. Legacy thumb Statue of Thevar garlanded during ''Thevar Jayanthi (File:Thevar Jayanthi in Madurai, 2007.jpg)'' in Madurai, 2007. The pillars of Thevar's political thought were spiritualism, nationalism, anti-communism, anti-imperialism and non-Congressism (wanting to create a non-Congress political alternative). Although committed to the construction of a federal socialist India, Thevar rejected Marxism-Leninism as a foreign concept and he opposed the trade policy of the Soviet Union as discriminatory towards countries like India. But first and foremost, his animosity towards the communists was due to the rejection of the Indian communists of Subhas Chandra Bose (who they had called a 'quisling'). His relationship to Marxism was further complicated by his spiritualistic orientation. Bose, K.; ''Forward Bloc''. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. p. 110-117, 220 right thumb Thevar Statue in T.Kallupatti (Image:thevarkallupatti.jpg) '''Igor Borisovich Korolev''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
by the Soviet Army, although it was rejected in favour of the more conventional AK-47. The United States briefly experimented in the same year with the integrally-scoped Model 45A bullpup, which never progressed beyond the prototype stage. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
; On 7 October 1991 the Alignment ceased to exist, with all factions formally merged into the Labor Party. At this time, the Likud Government faced numerous problems, such as economic problems, the challenge
bombing the bombing , which remains unsolved. McCabe, Scott, "Crime History: "Bomb at LaGuardia Kills 11, Injures Another 75," ''The Washington Examiner'', December 29, 2011, Page 8. * IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale)-Finmeccanica buys out Fiat to become sole owner of Aeritalia. Mondey, David, ed., ''The Complete Illustrated History of the World s Aircraft'', Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0
* December 1 – Cold War – Antarctic Treaty (Antarctic Treaty System): 12 countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign a landmark treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent (the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War). * December 2 – Malpasset Dam (Malpasset) in southern France collapses and water flows over the town of Frejus (Fréjus), killing 412. * August 19 ** Cold War: In Moscow, the downed American U - 2 (Lockheed U-2) pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to 10 years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage. ** Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 5, with the dogs Belka (Belka (dog)) and Strelka (Russian space dogs) (Russian for "Squirrel" and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants. The spacecraft returns to earth the next day and all animals are recovered safely. ** Cold War: In Moscow, the downed American U - 2 (Lockheed U-2) pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to 10 years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage. ** Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 5, with the dogs Belka (Belka (dog)) and Strelka (Russian space dogs) (Russian for "Squirrel" and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants. The spacecraft returns to earth the next day and all animals are recovered safely. * August 20 – Senegal breaks away from the Mali Federation, declaring its independence. * October 12 ** Cold War: Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a table (shoe-banging incident) at a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, his way of protesting the discussion of the Soviet Union's policies toward Eastern Europe. ** Otoya Yamaguchi assassinates Inejiro Asanuma, the chairman of the Japanese Socialist Party. ** ''Boynton v. Virginia'': The Supreme Court (U.S. Supreme Court) declares that segregation (Racial segregation in the United States) in public transportation is illegal in the United States. * December 7 – The United Nations Security Council is called into session by the Soviet Union in order to consider Soviet demands for the Security Council to seek the immediate release of the former Congolese Premier (Democratic Republic of the Congo) Patrice Lumumba. * December 8 – For the first time, the Mary Martin ''Peter Pan (Peter Pan (1954 musical))'' is presented as a stand-alone two-hour special on NBC instead of as part of an anthology series. This version, rather than being presented live, is shown on videotape, enabling NBC to repeat it as often as they wish without having to restage it. Although nearly all of the adult actors repeat their original Broadway (Broadway theatre) roles, all of the original children have, ironically, outgrown their roles and are replaced by new actors. ** Tragic week (Argentina) ** Estonian Freedom War (Estonian War of Independence): The Soviet (Soviet Union) Army (Red Army) meets resistance from Estonian forces. * January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin. * January 1 ** The Soviet Union begins its program of economic restructuring (perestroika) with legislation initiated by Premier Mikhail Gorbachev (though Gorbachev had begun minor restructuring in 1985). ** The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is established, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States. * April 14 ** In the Geneva Accords (Geneva Accords (1988)), the Soviet Union commits itself to withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan. ** The ''USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58)'' strikes a naval mine in the Persian Gulf, while deployed on Operation Earnest Will, during the Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War. * November 15 ** In the Soviet Union, the unmanned Shuttle ''Buran (Buran (spacecraft))'' is launched by an Energia rocket on its maiden orbital spaceflight (the first and last space flight for the shuttle). ** Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: An independent State of Palestine is proclaimed at the Palestinian National Council meeting in Algiers, by a vote of 253–46. * February 19 – Asama-Sansō incident: Five United Red Army members break into a lodge below Mount Asama, taking the wife of the lodge keeper hostage. * February 21 – The Soviet (Soviet Union) unmanned spaceship (Spacecraft) ''Luna 20'' lands on the Moon. * February 21–February 28 – U.S. President Richard M. Nixon makes an unprecedented 8-day visit (Nixon visit to China 1972) to the People's Republic of China and meets with Mao Zedong. * January 16 – Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser vows to reconquer Palestine. * January 25–26 (January 26) – Finnish (Finland) troops reoccupy Porkkala after Soviet (Soviet Union) troops vacate its military base. Civilians can return February 4. * January 26 – The 1956 Winter Olympic Games (1956 Winter Olympics) open in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. June * June 1 – Vyacheslav Molotov resigns as foreign minister of the Soviet Union; he later becomes ambassador in Mongolia. * June 3 – British Rail renames 'Third Class' passenger facilities as 'Second Class' (Second Class facilities had been abolished in 1875, leaving just First Class and Third Class). * November 3 – MGM's film ''The Wizard of Oz (The Wizard of Oz (1939 film))'' makes its TV debut on the CBS network. This marks the first time a film running more than ninety minutes is shown in one evening uncut on television. * November 4 – 1956 Hungarian Revolution (Hungarian Revolution of 1956): More Soviet (Soviet Union) troops invade Hungary to crush a revolt that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country. * November 6 – United States presidential election, 1956: Republican (Republican Party (United States)) incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats Democrat (Democratic Party (United States)) challenger Adlai E. Stevenson (Adlai Stevenson II) in a rematch of their contest 4 years earlier. * January 22 – Ramsay MacDonald becomes the first Labour (Labour Party (UK)) Prime Minister. * January 23 – The Soviet Union officially declares that Lenin died January 21. * January 25 – The 1924 Winter Olympics open in Chamonix, France (Chamonix) (in the French (France) Alps). * July 17 – Voting in federal elections becomes compulsory in Australia, after a private member's bill proposed by Tasmanian Nationalist (National Party of Australia) senator Herbert Payne results in the passing of the Commonwealth Electoral (Compulsory Voting) Act 1924. * July 20 – The Soviet (Soviet Union) sports newspaper ''Sovetskiy Sport'' is founded. * August 18 – France begins to withdraw its troops from Germany. * August 28 – Georgia (Georgia (country)) rises against the Soviet Union in an abortive rebellion (August Uprising in Georgia), in which several thousands die. * January 16 – Licerio Gerónimo, Filipino military leader (b. 1855) * January 21 – Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary and first Premier (Premier of the Soviet Union) of the Soviet Union (b. 1870) * January 24 – Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (b. 1894) ** The Ohio River floods. ** The Soviet Union executes 31 people for alleged Trotskyism. * August 2 – The Marihuana Tax Act (1937 Marijuana Tax Act) Pub. 238, 75th Congress, 50 Stat. 551 (Aug. 2, 1937), is a significant bill on the path that will lead to the criminalization of cannabis. It was introduced to U.S. Congress by Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, Harry Anslinger. (The Act is now commonly referred to using the modern spelling as the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act.) * August 5 – The Soviet Union commences one of the largest campaigns of the Great Purge, to "eliminate anti-Soviet elements". Within
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).