. He began his film career as a director and animator of stop-motion short films, and became a director of feature length films combining live-action, stop-motion, creative special effects, and Russian mythology. Along the way he would be responsible for a number of firsts in Russian film history (including the first feature (feature film)-length animated film, and the first film in color), and would make several extremely popular and internationally praised films full of visual flair and spectacle. The '''R-36''', ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
. 317–320. Following the Khrushchev Thaw of the late 1950s and early 1960s, censorship was diminished. During this time, a distinctive period of Soviet culture developed characterized by conformist public life and intense focus on personal life. Greater experimentation in art forms were again permissible, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced. The regime loosened its emphasis on socialist realism; thus, for instance, many
and consultant. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Kingdom ). The goal of the conference was to establish a united, peaceful, and neutral democracy in Cambodia. From Paris Peace Agreement, October 23, 1991. In October 1991, all attending parties signed the Paris Peace Agreement. In 1929, he resigned, refusing to work with 'scab' (non-unionised) labour. He remained unemployed for the rest of his life, although, he was likely to be permanently busy on political business. He was extremely popular amongst the rank-and-file Party members, but his association with Hornerism (communists working within established trades unions), his turbulent private life and his distrust of the cult of personality (he was sent home from the Soviet Union for ignoring a standing ovation to Joseph Stalin) meant that he was repeatedly suspended and disciplined by the Party. As the Welsh organiser for the National Unemployed Workers Movement, widely regarded as a Communist front, he led the 1932 (National Hunger March, 1932), 1934 and 1936 hunger marches to London. Also in 1936, he was elected as one of the two Communist members on to the Glamorgan County Council. In South Wales at this time his attachment to the Communist Party would not have harmed his reputation as a political activist and leader. '''Yaroslav Igorevich Korolev''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Liukin , who won a gold medal at the Seoul Olympics (w:1988 Summer Olympics) in 1988. Her total score was 63.325: 15.025 in vault, 16.650 in uneven bars, 16.125 in balance beam and 15.525 in floor exercise. Her scores at balance beam and floor exercise were the top scores for the individual all-around competition. With this, India will become both the fourth country to place a flag on the moon and the fifth country to send a spacecraft to the moon. The other countries which have sent spacecraft to the Moon are the United States, the former Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), Japan, and China, along with the European Space Agency (w:European Space Agency) (ESA), a consortium of 17 countries. With this landing, India became both the fourth country to place a flag on the Moon and the fifth group to send a spacecraft to the Moon. The other countries which have sent spacecraft to the Moon are the United States, the former Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), Japan, and China, along with the European Space Agency (w:European Space Agency) (ESA), a consortium of 17 countries. Japan and China currently each have scientific satellites orbiting the Moon, though China has not yet put a spacecraft on the moon's surface. thumb left 120px Raúl Castro in 2008. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states (File:Castro cropped.JPG) commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Society, by George Grie. Background Beginning in the late 1950s the U.S. Navy sought a long-range, high-endurance interceptor to defend its carrier battle groups against long-range anti-ship missiles launched from Soviet (Soviet Union) jet bombers and submarines. The Navy needed a Fleet Air Defense (FAD) aircraft with a more powerful radar, and longer range missiles than the F-4 Phantom II to intercept both enemy bombers and missiles. Thomason 1998, pp. 3–5.<
of spying on 11 May 1963 and sentenced to eight years in prison; Penkovsky was sentenced to death and executed. Wynne was released in exchange for the spy Gordon Lonsdale in 1964. The '''North American XF-108 Rapier''' was a proposed long-range, high-speed interceptor aircraft designed by North American Aviation intended to defend the United States !---and Canada----sorry, Buttler is referring to a later "selling job" that was never the intention of the original project
his best to suppress the Communist movement in the South. This is why Pham Van Dong felt it necessary to take sides with China, whose tough attitude toward the Asian policies of the U.S. offered some hope. And yet he seems to have been cautious enough to make a statement that supported only the principle that China was entitled for 12-mile territorial seas along its territory but evaded the issue of defining this territory. While the preceding Chinese statement was very specific, enumerating all the islands (including the Paracels and the Spratlys) for which the PRC laid claim, the DRV statement did not say a word about the concrete territories to which this rule was applicable. Still, it is true that in this bilateral territorial dispute between Chinese and Vietnamese interests, the DRV standpoint, more in a diplomatic than a legal sense, was incomparably closer to that of China than to that of South Vietnam". Regarding the 1958 Letter by Pham Van Dong ''BBC Vietnamese (Translated by Thinh Do)'' 2018--09-23 Some international scholars argued that, Pham Van Dong who represented North Vietnam at that time has no legal right to comment on a territorial part which belonged to the South Vietnam (according to Geneva Treaty). Therefore, the letter has no legal value and is considered as a diplomatic document to show the support of the government of North Vietnam to the PRC at that time. * On 19 January 1974, the Battle of the Paracel Islands occurred between the People's Republic of China and South Vietnam. After the Battle, the PRC gained control over the entire Paracel Islands. *'''Foreign policy''': ''interventionism (interventionism (politics))'' (the nation should exert power abroad to implement its policy) vs. ''non-interventionism'' (the nation should keep to its own affairs); similarly, ''multilateralism'' (coordination of policies with other countries) vs. ''isolationism'' and ''unilateralism'' :* Relations with individual states or groups of states may also be vital to party politics. During the Cold War, parties often had to choose a position on a scale between pro-American and pro-Soviet Union, although this could at times closely match a left-right spectrum. At other times in history relations with other powerful states has been important. In early Canadian history relations with Great Britain were a central theme, although this was not "foreign policy" but a debate over the proper place of Canada within the British Empire. *'''International action''': ''Multilateralism'' (states should cooperate and compromise) versus ''Unilateralism'' (states have a strong, even unconditional, right to make their own decisions). The Israeli-Palestinian conflict A nonfiction essay that is embedded in ''There Will Be Time'' and attributed to the book's fictional protagonist, but seems to reflect Anderson's own views, sharply criticizes the American Left of 1972 (when it was written) for two instances of a double standard: for neglecting to address human rights violations in the Soviet Union and for failing to notice Israel's treatment of the Palestinians. The surge in paranormal research continued into the 1980s: the Parapsychological Association reported members working in more than 30 countries. For example, research was carried out and regular conferences held in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union although the word parapsychology was discarded in favour of the term "psychotronics". Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
of weight . Their use has been mostly shunned by American (United States) and British (United Kingdom) tanks, although the American T22 medium tank was one of the first to use an autoloader. The school has rapidly expanded due to the industrialization program of the Soviet (Soviet Union) Government, which created a high demand for engineering positions. The USTU was key in providing local industrial enterprises with technical and engineering staff
destruction in the early 1930s, founding and managing the Kolomenskoye and Andrei Rublev museums, and developing modern restoration technologies. thumb right Tape recorder "Tembr" (1964) without casing (From museum of political history of Russia, incorrectly attributed as "self-made") (File:Самодельный магнитофон 1970ых.jpg) '''Magnitizdat''' (in Russian магнитиздат) is a term used to describe the process of re-copying and self distributing live audio tape recordings
fictional weapons for the enemy as opposed to the Soviet and Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union) based weapons used in the previous versions. Although the game had initial problems with online play it worked well offline. A hotfix was launched shortly after the game's release which addressed several problems. Five days after release, players were allowed to play online due to the authorization servers not being able to register that players had completed training. * Raknehaugen - the largest tumulus of Northern Europe * Trandumskogen - A memorial honoring 173 Norwegian (Norway)s, 15 Soviet (Soviet Union) citizens and 6 Britons (United Kingdom) that were executed by the nazis during World War II. * Gardermoen Culture Park - An area close to Gardermoen Airport, which serves as the Norwegian Air Force's airplane collection and the Scandinavian Airlines Museum's location. thumb left Map of Vadsø municipality (Image:Vadsø map.jpg) In the 16th century, the settlement consisted of a fishing village and a church, located on the island of Vadsøya. The settlement later moved to the mainland. Township privilege (Town privileges) was granted in 1833, and soon settlers came from Finland and the northern part of Sweden, which suffered from famine. Finnish was rapidly becoming the language of the majority, and this continued for decades. Even today Finnish (Finnish language) is still spoken in some households. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, Vadsø suffered several air raids from the Soviet Union, which bombed Nazi troops. However, there are, unlike most places in Finnmark, a number of 19th century wooden houses preserved close to the city centre, notably the house of Esbensen, built by a Norwegian, and the house of Tuomainen, built by a Finn. On the island of Vadsøya is the airship mast used by Umberto Nobile and Roald Amundsen for their expedition over the North Pole with the airship ''Norge'' (Norge (airship)) in 1926, and used again on Nobile's flight with the airship ''Italia'' (Airship Italia) in 1928. thumb right An RNLAF Northrop F-5 NF-5A (File:F-5A RNoAF Bodo 1982.jpeg) at Bodø, March 1982. Bodø has a long history with the Norwegian Armed Forces, and especially the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF). The Norwegian Armed Forces Joint Operational Headquarters (Forsvarets operative hovedkvarter) are located at Reitan, east of Bodø. Parts of NATO air forces attending the annual Cold Response are stationed at Bodø Main Air Station. Bodø MAS is a major Norwegian military air base, housing two thirds of Norway's F-16 fighter force and two of RNoAFs SAR Sea Kings (Westland Sea King). Bodø, competing with Ørland (Ørland Main Air Station) and Evenes (Harstad Narvik Airport, Evenes), is a candidate for the Northern Air Base in the new RNoAF system. Bodin Leir located near the air station is an RNoAF recruit school including Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System (NASAMS) personnel and a national response unit. The base was central during the Cold War due to its strategic location and proximity to the Soviet Union. It would have been vital in the build-up of NATO air and land forces to defend Norway, and thus the entire Northern flank of NATO, in a war with the Warsaw Pact. It could also have been used as a forward base for American bombers to strike targets in the Soviet Union. Bodø received international attention during the U-2 Crisis (U-2 Crisis of 1960) in May 1960, when it became known that the American (United States) U-2 (Lockheed U-2) pilot Gary Powers had been shot down over the Soviet Union on his way from Pakistan to Bodø. The Germans continued to lengthen the road to Kirkenes, and it came to be known as ''Blodvegen'' ("the Bloodroad") by locals. This project involved prisoners of war (Prisoner of war), mostly from the former Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, in building this road under extremely harsh conditions. The workers lived in prisoner camps where they did not receive enough food for the hard work with the road. This caused many of the workers to collapse and die. A famous sign of this road is the blood cross one of the prisoners drew on the mountainside with his recently killed friend's blood. It has become a tradition to repaint this cross with red paint, so people who pass this will never forget what happened. It's still possible to walk this road, which stretches from Saltnes to Soksenvika. At Saltnes, you will find the Bloodroad museum. The '''Barents Region''' is a name given, by political ambition to establish international cooperation after the fall of the Soviet Union, to the land along the coast of the Barents Sea, from Nordland in Norway to the Kola Peninsula in Russia and beyond all the way to the Ural Mountains and Novaya Zemlya, and south to the Gulf of Bothnia of the Baltic Sea and the great lakes Ladoga (Lake Ladoga) and Onega (Lake Onega). Among the projects is the Barents Road from Bodø in Norway through Haparanda in Sweden and Finland to Murmansk in Russia. One concrete sign of the increased communication within the region is the establishment in 2006 of an IKEA warehouse in Haparanda, targeting customers 500 km away in Murmansk and northern Norway. The region has six million inhabitants on 1.75 million km², with three quarters of both belonging to Russia. The '''R-7 ''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).