(diplomacy) ambassador to this country. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
--Cambridge University Press Since the Axis powers Axis lost World War II (aftermath of World War II), this plan was never implemented. See A-A line for more information. Industry The most famous large-scale industry in Irkutsk is Irkut (company). Irkut Home page (English) ( ) refers to the Irkutsk Aviation
aidsindia.htm Overview of HIV and AIDS in India . Avert.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03. Category:Government of Belarus Category:Aviation in Belarus Komar & Melamid’s first joint exhibition, ''Retrospectivism,'' was held at the Blue Bird Cafe in Moscow, 1967. The following year, they joined the youth section of the Moscow Union of Artists and began teaching art. In 1972, Komar & Melamid founded a movement they called ''Sots Art,'' a unique version of Soviet Pop art
in countries formerly belonging to "Warsaw Pact" and or to "Comecon", type, electric power and decommissioning cost per kilowatt of power: World Nuclear Association, Nuclear Decommissioning article by the international association of nuclear reactor builders http: www.world-nuclear.org OSTI (Russia & USA). The game is set in 1989 during the History
Union , Lewis continues the liberal tradition in Islamic historical studies. Although his early Marxist (marxism) views had a bearing on his first book ''The Origins of Ismailism'', Lewis subsequently discarded Marxism. His later works are a reaction against the left-wing (left-wing politics) current of Third-worldism, which came to be a significant current in Middle Eastern studies. After the war, Linna got married and started writing whilst working
it this was due to the presence of the American flag, not to the context. The cover was replaced for the domestic release with a simple green cover (the international release on Koch Records was unaltered). The band went on a 20th-anniversary "Farewell Tour," accompanied by Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) band Turbo (Turbo (Czech band)) and West German veterans The Lords (The Lords (German band)). Radiosumava.cz <
Komsomol . It also has a children's group, the José Martí Pioneer Organization. As First Lady, Pat Nixon promoted a number of charitable causes, including volunteerism. She oversaw the collection of more than 600 pieces of historic art and furnishings for the White House, an acquisition larger than that of any other administration. She was the most traveled First Lady in U.S. history, a record unsurpassed until twenty-five years later. She
, this portion of the Fleming's book can be considered as secret history. * According to John Madden's (John Madden (director)) 1998 film ''Shakespeare in Love'', the play that became ''Romeo and Juliet'' was originally intended as a comedy, but developed into the tragic play we know due to a doomed love affair which Shakespeare himself underwent at the time. Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions became visible with its films making early inroads into the Soviet Union
to more drastic actions. Post-war activities After World War II, Kramish worked for the Atomic Energy Commission (United States Atomic Energy Commission) as a liaison to the Central Intelligence Agency providing intelligence estimates on Soviet nuclear capabilities and worked with Edward Teller on the design and development of the Hydrogen bomb. Physicist Samuel Cohen credited Kramish with being one of the first to obtain accurate information about Soviet efforts and making his best efforts to pass on that knowledge to senior officials. He assisted in the interrogation of David Greenglass, who was one of the atomic spies for the Soviet Union together with Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. He was later employed as a nuclear weapons research strategist by the RAND Corporation. The original Ahearne Cup The original Ahearne Cup was held in Sweden annually from 1952 to 1977, with the exception of 1957, with the finals at Johanneshovs Isstadion (Hovet) in Stockholm, and co-arranged by newspaper Dagens Nyheter. It was held in December and open to both club teams and national teams, although national teams seldom competed. While most teams were from Sweden, many teams from Great Britain, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Canada and Finland also competed. The record for most tournaments attended is shared between Swedish teams Södertälje SK and Djurgårdens IF (Djurgårdens IF Hockey), both with 20 entries, followed by Leksands IF and AIK (AIK Hockey) with 12 each. Djurgården also has the record for most wins, four, while Harringay Racers and Spartak Moscow (HC Spartak Moscow) won the tournament three times each. Soviet Use of Cam Ranh Air Base In 1979, the Soviet Union started leasing the base rent-free from Vietnam under a 25-year leasing treaty. As part of this agreement, the Soviet Air Force stationed MiG-23 Flogger fighters, Tupolev Tu-95 long range reconnaissance aircraft, Tupolev Tu-16, Tupolev Tu-22M and occasionally, near the end of the USSR, Tupolev Tu-160 bombers at Cam Ranh Air Base. These aircraft were maintained by cannibalization and or black market smuggling of spare parts. They were phased out of service in the 1980s and 1990s, in all probability due to lack of spares. Some of the aircraft were shipped to Vietnam's allies like Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union and East Germany. Others were sold to private foreign owners, although probably a dozen or so UH-1s still remain in VPAF service. Following the 1917 October Revolution, the ethnic Tatar government proclaimed the Crimean People's Republic on December 13, 1917, which was the first Muslim Democratic state. The republic did not manage to hold on to its independence for too long and was overrun by Bolshevik forces in January 1918 as many other newly-formed states after the fall of the Russian Empire. Its territory was reformed as the Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic briefly in early 1918 before being overrun by the forces of the Ukrainian People's Republic with a military assistance from the German Empire. After the reassertion of Soviet (Soviet Union) control in 1921, the lands of the governorate were divided between the peninsular Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic under the Russian SFSR and the mainland portions which accrued to the Ukrainian SSR and were divided between what would become (in 1932) the Kherson (Kherson Oblast) and Dnepropetrovsk Oblast (Dnipropetrovsk Oblast)s. Today the mainland portion forms parts of Kherson and Zaporizhia Oblasts while Crimea is the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Crimea), all subdivisions of Ukraine. Stadler was several times wounded severely. His personal bravery won him the Close Combat Clasp in Gold as a divisional commander in 1944. In 1943, Stadler was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross after the German recapture (Third Battle of Kharkov) of Kharkov – a strategically located city south of Kursk in the Soviet Union – during Spring 1943. The Knight's Cross was upgraded with Oak Leaves (Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross) following the Battle of Kursk (the ''Eichenlaub'' - Nr. 303 - was presented to Stadler personally by Adolf Hitler). The award was upgraded once more just before the end of the war with Swords (Iron Cross) (''Schwertern'' - Nr. 152), presented to him by Sepp Dietrich. The 1960s, the ALPAC report and the seventies Research in the 1960s in both the Soviet Union and the United States concentrated mainly on the Russian (Russian language)-English language pair. Chiefly the objects of translation were scientific and technical documents, such as articles from scientific journals. The rough translations produced were sufficient to get a basic understanding of the articles. If an article discussed a subject deemed to be of security interest, it was sent to a human translator for a complete translation; if not, it was discarded. The publication of the report had a profound impact on research into machine translation in the United States, and to a lesser extent the Soviet Union and United Kingdom. Research, at least in the US, was almost completely abandoned for over a decade. In Canada, France and Germany, however, research continued. In the US the main exceptions were the founders of Systran (Peter Toma) and Logos (OpenLogos) (Bernard Scott), who established their companies in 1968 and 1970 respectively and served the US Dept of Defense. In 1970, the Systran system was installed for the United States Air Force and subsequently in 1976 by the Commission of the European Communities. The METEO System, developed at the Université de Montréal, was installed in Canada in 1977 to translate weather forecasts from English to French, and was translating close to 80,000 words per day or 30 million words per year until it was replaced by a competitor's system on the 30th September, 2001. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
as the progress achieved by the planned economy of the Soviet Union. Domestic policy tended towards protectionism, with a strong emphasis on import substitution industrialisation, economic interventionism, a large public sector, business regulation (Regulation (socio-legal concept)), and central planning, Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).