date 2003 publisher Elsevier isbn 0-08-044200-5 A definition pre-dating the USSR is an 1882 one by Keane and Temple, who defined it as "the two great administrative divisions of West and East Siberia, whose capitals are Omsk and Irkutsk respectively". It was, according to them "one vast political system, comprising nearly one-third of the whole continent, and, with a few trifling exceptions, directly administered by Russia".
important. Numerous Crimean Tatar (Crimean Tatars) villages, mosques, monasteries (monastery), and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The number of Crimean residents who consider Ukraine their motherland increased from 32% to 71.3% from 2008 through 2011; according to a poll by Razumkov Center in March 2011. This is the lowest number in all Ukraine (93% on average
, celebrates the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Directorate of Intelligence (1952) and its long record of service and achievement to provide our national leaders with timely, relevant, and accurate intelligence analysis. url http: books.google.com books?id aAYOu62zcVUC&q Heart+of+a+Dog#search_anchor isbn 0-674-57418-4 Its publication was initially prohibited in the Soviet Union, but circulated in samizdat until it was officially released in the country
of the system, they were forbidden by the Outer Space Treaty to place live warheads in space. The fractional orbital bombardment system was phased out in January 1983 in compliance with the SALT II treaty of 1979, which, among other things, prohibited the deployment of systems capable of placing weapons of mass destruction in such a partial orbit. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
;foreign trade" At its peak in 1988, it was the largest producer and second largest exporter of crude oil, surpassed only by Saudi Arabia. Science and technology
of agriculture was necessary in order to achieve an equally rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union and ultimately win World War II. Alec Nove claims that the Soviet Union industrialized in spite of, rather than because of, its collectivized agriculture. Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control by Stalin and his government, along with art
, 1991) Ukraine. It has a Ukrainian ethnic majority. In the referendum (Ukrainian independence referendum, 1991) on December 1, 1991, 92% of Chernivtsi Oblast residents supported the independence of Ukraine, a wide support from both Ukrainians and Romanians (Romanians of Chernivtsi Oblast). '''Rockefeller Republican''' (often termed "moderate Republican") refers to a faction of the United States History of the Republican Party (United
, author of ''Killing Hitler''. As the Soviet Union’s Communist regime collapsed, Wetzel was chief of a major operational analysis group. She saw the division through the critical time of the agency’s restructuring to align with new threats. Wetzel retired in 1999 as the Executive Directo of the NSAr, the third highest-ranking person in the agency. References Tests and outcome A windtunnel model was tested in early 1945 (1945 in aviation), and a full-scale wooden mockup was also built at the Dessau Junkers facility. The development stage had progressed far when the Red Army reached the Dessau complex and took possession of the Junkers Ju 287, EF 131 and EF 132 designs and components. In October, 1946 (1946 in aviation) the whole complex and the German engineers were transferred to GOZ No.1 (''Gosoodarstvenny Opytnyy Zavod'', State Experimental Plant), at Dobna in the Soviet Union, to continue development of the EF 131 and EF 132. Design work on the EF 132 continued under Dr. Brunholff Baade at OKB-1 (the design bureau attached to GOZ No.1), under order of Council of Ministers (Council of Ministers of the USSR) directive No.874-266, an unpowered example was constructed to gather additional data, but only slow progress was made before the project was terminated on 12th June 1948, by CoM directive 2058-805. right 200px thumb The Eastern entrance to Sea Gate. (File:Sea Gate gate jeh.JPG) In addition to long time residents, Sea Gate has seen an influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in recent years. Residents now represent Azerbaijan, Belarus, Poland, Romania and Ukraine, according to the 2000 U.S. census. Political views Bracher believes that totalitarianism, whether from the Left or Right, is the leading threat to democracy all over the world, and has argued that the differences between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were of degree, not kind. Bracher is opposed to the notion of generic fascism and has often urged scholars to reject "totalitarian" fascism theory as championed by the "radical-left" in favour of "democratic" totalitarian theory as a means of explaining the Nazi dictatorship. Burleigh, Michael & Wippermann, Wolfgang ''The Racial State : Germany 1933-1945'', Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1991 page 20. In particular, Bracher has argued that Fascist Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) and Nazi Germany possessed such fundamental differences that any theory of generic fascism is not supported by the historical evidence. He is pro-American (Pro-American sentiment) and was one of the few German professors to support fully the foreign policy of the United States during the Cold War. Bracher was a consistent advocate of the values of the Federal Republic, and its American ally against the values of East Germany and its Soviet patron. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s he often attacked left-wing and New Left intellectuals in particular for comparing the actions of the United States in the Vietnam War and the West German state (West Germany) to Nazi Germany. Kershaw, Ian ''The Nazi Dictatorship : Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation'', London : Arnold ; New York page 15; Bracher, Karl Dietrich "The Role of Hitler" pages 211-225 from ''Fascism: A Reader's Guide'', edited by Walter Laqueur, Harmondsworth, 1976 pages 212-213 & 218. For Bracher, these attacks were both an absurd trivialization of Nazi crimes and a sinister attempt to advance the cause of Communism. Bracher argued that the defeatist and uncertain mood of the 1970s-80s in West Germany was not unlike the mood of the 1920s-30s. thumb right 250px Lee Pressman giving testimony before a U.S. Senate subcommittee, March 24, 1938. (File:Pressman-Lee-1938.jpg) '''Lee Pressman''' (1906 - 1969) was a labor attorney and a US government functionary publicly exposed in 1948 for having been a spy for the Soviet (Soviet Union) foreign intelligence network during the middle 1930s. Pressman lost his job as counsel for the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1948 as a result of a purge of Communist Party (Communist Party USA) members and fellow travelers from that organization. The ''Langemarck'' acted primarily as support for the German Ardennes offensive, but following the Soviet (Soviet Union) campaign to capture the Oder River—realizing they couldn't hold out any longer, Müller gave his troops the option to surrender to the Allies or try to evade capture on their own. After burning the Division's records, Müller and the majority of his men surrendered to the allies at Schwerin. The domestic policies advocated by the adherents of the New Politics movement stressed strong support for civil rights legislation, while in foreign affairs the movement favored a less aggressive posture toward the Soviet Union (criticizing "Cold War liberals" within the party such as Harry Truman and Dean Acheson), prompting its critics to accuse it of being "soft on Communism." Younger adults accounted for many of its members, and provided it with an aura of youthful vibrance — this fact leading some opponents to attempt to link it to so-called "beatniks" (that term having been coined in 1958 by ''San Francisco Chronicle'' columnist Herb Caen). However, this may not have been accurate, as most of the prominent "Beat" writers of that era expressed little if any interest in electoral politics. '''Boris Artashesovich Babayan''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
;mifundatiasf" In discussing the of "technicist (Technicism) mythology" on the science fiction produced in countries of the Eastern Bloc, Stéphanie Nicot, a French writer and editor of ''Galaxies'' magazine, notes that, although being "economically backward" in comparison with Western countries, Communist Romania, alongside the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of Poland, produced a "lively" science fiction literature. ref name "
(see Founding History, below), but from its outset, the magazine covered censorship in right-wing dictatorships then ruling Greece and Portugal, the former military regimes of Latin America, and the former Soviet Union and its satellites. The magazine has covered other challenges facing free expression, including religious extremism, the rise of nationalism, and Internet censorship. Gun pods are commonly carried on military helicopters, and are often fitted to light aircraft to equip them for counter-insurgency (counter-insurgency#COIN_Aircraft) operations. Some air arms use gun pods for fighter bombers for use in strafing attacks. Since the Vietnam War, United States Air Force policy has been that the use of multi-million dollar aircraft for strafing is not economically justified, but the Soviet Union, and subsequently Russia, have remained proponents of strafing, and have continued to develop systems for this purpose. Soviet experience in Afghanistan in the 1980s led to an unusual innovation in the form of the SPPU (SPPU-20 Gun Pod) series of gun pods, which have traversable barrels allowing them to continue to fire on a fixed target as the aircraft passes overhead. The '''Soviet manned lunar programs''' were a series of programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon (lunar landing) in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961. The Soviet government publicly denied participating in such a competition, but secretly pursued two programs in the 1960s: manned lunar flyby missions using Soyuz 7K-L1 (Zond) spacecraft launched with the UR-500K (Proton) rocket (Proton rocket), and a manned lunar landing using Soyuz 7K-L3 and LK Lander spacecraft launched with the N1 rocket (N1 (rocket)). Following the dual American successes of the first manned lunar orbit on December 24-25, 1968 (Apollo 8) and the first Moon landing on July 20, 1969 (Apollo 11), and a series of catastrophic N1 failures, both Soviet programs were eventually brought to an end: the Proton Zond program was canceled in 1970, and the N1 L3 program was terminated de-facto in 1974 and officially canceled in 1976. Details of both Soviet programs were kept secret until 1990, when the government allowed them to be published under the policy of ''glasnost''. '''Valeriy Vasylyovych Lobanovskyi''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
academics to the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences and other conferences, often held in South Korea. excerpt The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7 Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 1976-08-10.<
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).