and opposition to the restoration of overseas colonies as threatening German racial purity. Hildebrand, Klaus ''The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich'', B.T. Batsford Ltd: London, United Kingdom, 1973 page 18 Another fraction, who Hildebrand refers to as the Wilhelmine Imperialists and whose leading personality was Hermann Göring, advocated at minimum the restoration of the borders of 1914 and the overseas empire, a zone of influence for Germany in Eastern Europe, and greater
who worked for Red Army Intelligence called it either the Fourth Department, the Intelligence Service, the ''Razvedupr'', or the RU. ... As a result of the re-organization in 1926 , carried out in part to break up Trotsky's hold on the army, the Fourth Department seems to have been placed directly under the control of the State Defense Council (Gosudarstvennaia komissiia oborony, or GKO), the successor of the RVSR. Thereafter its analysis and reports went directly to the GKO and Politburo
the rebuilding of the railway network in Soviet Union after the Second World War (World War II) and have since been used on the whole broad gauge network, including Finland and Mongolia. It is also used on the standard gauge networks of Iraq and on Malmbanan in Sweden for ore trains. The '''RPG-26''' ''Aglen'' is a disposable anti-tank rocket launcher (Rocket-propelled grenade) developed by the Soviet Union. It fires a single-stage rocket with jack-knife fins, which unfold after launch. The rocket carries a 72.5 millimeter diameter high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) single shaped charge warhead capable of penetrating 440 millimeters of armour (Vehicle armour), one meter of reinforced concrete or one and a half meters of brickwork. It has a maximum effective range of around 250 meters. History The RPG-27 ''Tavolga'' ('meadow grass') was developed by the State Research and Production Enterprise, Bazalt as a modern anti-tank grenade launcher designed to defeat modern and future tanks with advanced reactive (Reactive armour) and composite armor as well as fortified infantry. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
, following the closing argument for the prosecution (the defendants waived argument), Landis instructed the jury (jury instructions). The lead defense counsel objected to the wording of the jury charge several times, but Haywood believed it to have been fair. After 65 minutes, the jury returned with guilty verdicts for all of the remaining accused, much to their shock; they had believed that Landis's charge pointed towards their acquittal. When the defendants returned to court
was later secularized (Secularization) in the atheistic Soviet Union as the calling of Did Moroz to the New year celebrations. There has been a moderate revival of traditions after Ukraine achieved its independence (Independence of Ukraine) in 1991. While teaching drawing (from 1948 to 1955), Berger became an art critic, publishing many essays and reviews in the ''New Statesman''. His Marxist humanism and his strongly stated opinions on modern art made him a controversial
has made several TV appearances, including a ''Dance Fever'' celebrity judge, and an 'unforgettable appearance', acting in a dramatic role along side with Victor Newman in ''The Young and The Restless'' in 1981. A fictional
; In 1929 he organized a set of experiments involving nonhuman ape sperm and human volunteers, but was delayed by the death of his last orangutan. The next year he fell under political criticism from the Soviet government and was sentenced to exile in the Kazakh SSR; he worked there at the Kazakh Veterinary-Zootechnical Institute and died of a stroke two years later. The airline played a prominent role in the Vietnam War during the late 1960s, using Douglas DC-8-63 (Douglas DC-8) jets to connect McChord Air Force Base, Washington (Washington (U.S. state)) with Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam, fairly close to the front lines with North Vietnam. In 1968, one of these flights operating as Seaboard World Airlines Flight 253A was forced to land in the Soviet Union with 214 American troops on board. In 1969, a Seaboard World Airlines DC-8 landed by mistake at Marble Mountain Air Facility, when it had actually been cleared to land at the nearby Da Nang Air Base. Seaboard World DC-8 lands at Marble Mountain. ''YouTube'', 7 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2012. After only three months, a cabinet reshuffle became necessary due to the forced resignation of the increasingly strident pro-Axis Foreign Minister (Minister for Foreign Affairs (Japan)) Yōsuke Matsuoka. Toyoda, who had earlier opposed the Tripartite Pact and was vocal in this opposition to prospects for war with the Soviet Union, replaced Matsuoka as Minister of Foreign Affairs on July 18, 1941. One of his first priorities was to attempt to smooth over the rapidly deteriorating diplomatic relations with the United States, and he dispatched Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura as ambassador to Washington DC. Toyoda also advanced plans for a face to face meeting between Prime Minister Konoe and American President (President of the United States) Franklin D. Roosevelt. Duus, The Cambridge History of Japan: Vol. 6. Page 328 However, the negotiations failed to occur. In July, Toyoda also predicted that the further Japanese aggression southwards per the ''Nanshin-ron'' policy, and specifically plans for the Japanese occupation of French Indochina would lead to a total trade embargo by the United States, if not war. Talioferro. Balancing Risks:. Page 123 In October 1941, the entire Konoe Cabinet resigned. US-Japan War Talks Teijiro Toyoda Retrieved July 10, 2007 thumb At Fort Barry (Image:Nike-museum-Marin-Headlands-FortBarry.jpg) '''SF-88''' is a former Nike Missile (Project Nike) launch site at Fort Barry, in the Marin Headlands to the north of San Francisco, California, U.S. Opened in 1954, the site was intended to protect the population and military installations of the San Francisco Bay Area during the Cold War, specifically from attack by Soviet (Soviet Union) bomber aircraft. The site was originally armed with Nike Ajax missiles, and modifications were made to the site in 1958 to allow it to also be armed with Nike Hercules missiles. In 1974, SF-88 was closed, but was not demolished. It is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and is open to visitors. Normal visiting days are Wednesday-Friday, but a special tour with veterans of the base is available the first Saturday of each month. Restoration work to the site is done on remaining Saturdays by volunteers. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
into the '''Czech Republic '''and '''Slovakia'''. *1938 - 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections between Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Ruthenia was annexed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. *1939 - 1945: The region split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic (1939-1945) Slovak
that the U.S. is attempting to retrieve it. Alongside producer Gary Pig Gold he formed a group called "The Dave Rave Conspiracy", releasing the album "Valentino's Pirates" on Russia’s Melodiya record label in 1992. However, to appease cold war era Russian sensibilities, the album was credited to the Dave Rave "Group", as the label was uncomfortable with the word "conspiracy".
émigré spy sent to the Soviet Union. After the success of ''Seventeen Instants'', Semyonov created a large cycle of political detective novels featuring Stierlitz, as well as a series of novels about Felix Dzerzhinsky. He also published detective fiction, e.g. a series of novels on the militiaman polkovnik Kostenko (“Ogaryov street 6”). '''Vitaly Venediktovich Scherbo''' (or '''Shcherbo''') ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).