of the Communist Party found refuge in Tashkent. From abroad, Zachariadis still enjoyed a mandate by the Soviet Union to act as leader of KKE. However, following the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, Zachariadis fell out of favour with new Soviet leadership, despite his support by the large number of party members. International reaction The siege of Beirut by Israeli military forces was highly controversial and was condemned even by Israel's traditional close ally, the United States, warning Israel that weaponry provided by the United States was only to be used for defensive purposes. When Push Comes to Shove: Israel flouts U.S. diplomacy with an attack on Beirut, Time (Time (magazine)), August 16, 1982. The U.S. government at one point even considered threatening sanctions against Israel in order to stop Israel from launching an assault on West Beirut in August 1982. The Soviet Union tried to pass a United Nations resolution calling for a worldwide arms embargo on Israel, which was vetoed by the U.S. World War II During World War II the Red Army of the Soviet Union deployed five Shock armies (Army (Soviet Army)#Shock armies). Many of the units which spearheaded the Soviet offensives on the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (World War II)) from the Battle of Stalingrad to the Battle of Berlin were Shock Armies. Shock Armies had high proportions of infantry, engineers and field artillery, but with less emphasis on operational mobility and sustainability. Soviet Shock Armies were characterized by a higher allocation of army-level artillery units to break German defense positions by weight of fire, and often had heavy tank regiments or heavy self-propelled gun regiments to add additional direct fire support. Once a breach in the enemy tactical position was made, more mobile units such as tank and mechanized corps would be inserted through the Shock Army's positions with the mission of penetrating deep into the enemy rear area. By the end of the war, though, Soviet Guards Armies typically enjoyed superior artillery support to that of the shock armies. Soviet rule After the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR) prior to the creation (Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) of the Soviet Union was created in Soviet Central Asia (excluding modern-day Kazakhstan), which in 1924 was split into the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmenistan) and Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbekistan). The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajikistan) was formed out of part of the Uzbek SSR in 1929, and in 1936 the Kyrgyz SSR (Kyrgyzstan) was separated from Kazakhstan. After the collapse of the Soviet Union (History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)), these republics gained their independence. The main beneficiary of these revisions was the Soviet Union, which expanded its borders at the expense of Germany, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Japan. The Soviet Union also acquired the three independent states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which had declared their neutrality before the outbreak of World War II. The Baltic states were occupied and annexed early in the war in agreement with the Nazis (Nazi Germany) via the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, then re-conquered in 1944. The Soviet Union also attempted to establish a separate government in that portion of Iran it had controlled during the war. The immense destruction wrought over the course of the war caused a sharp decline in the influence of the great powers. After the war, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) and the United States both became formidable forces. The U.S. suffered very little during the war and because of military and industrial exports became a formidable manufacturing power. This led to a period of wealth and prosperity for the U.S. in the fields of industry, agriculture and technology. Zdzisław Jeziorański was born in Berlin. He attended Gimnazjum i Liceum im. Stefana Batorego (Warsaw, Poland). After finishing his studies in economics in 1936, he worked as a teaching assistant at Poznań University. Mobilized in 1939, he fought in the Polish Army as an artillery NCO. He was taken prisoner of war by the Germans (Germany) in Volhynia, but managed to escape and returned to Warsaw. Most of his colleagues were taken prisoners of war by the Soviets (Soviet Union) and later killed in the Katyn Massacre. The Boys rifle was used in the early stages of World War II against lightly armoured (vehicle armour) German tanks and combat vehicles. Britain also supplied a large number of Boys anti-tank rifles to Finland in 1939 and 1940 during the Winter War with the Soviet Union. The weapon was popular with the Finns, because it could deal with Soviet T-26 tanks which the Finnish Army encountered in many engagements. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
invasion. Mallinson, p. 440 The British Army of the Rhine was the Germany garrison formation, with the main fighting force being I (BR) Corps (I Corps (United Kingdom)). The Cold War saw significant technological advances in warfare and the Army saw more technologically advanced weapons systems come into service. Mallinson, p. 442 *1989 (Biathlon World Championships 1989) Feistritz an der Drau, Austria (first
the dying sounds of a suffocating "lost cosmonaut (lost cosmonauts)". One of their most famous recordings was made on 28 November 1960. After about an hour of listening to static, the brothers recognised an SOS signal that seemed to be moving away from the Earth. The story was picked up by a Swiss-Italian radio station and the brothers became the station’s space experts. Contemporary View Especially directly after World War II, Nazi Germany was held to blame for starting
; some were extermination centers with gas chambers. Six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Many others, including Gypsies, Poles, homosexuals and political dissidents were also victims of the Nazi concentration camps. In recent years, concentration camps have existed in the former Soviet Union, Cambodia and Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest
in the Spanish American (Spanish-American War) and Boer Wars. During World War II, America's concentration camps were clearly distinguishable from Nazi Germany's. Nazi camps were places of torture, barbarous medical experiments and summary executions; some were extermination centers with gas chambers. Six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Many others, including Gypsies, Poles, homosexuals and political dissidents were also victims of the Nazi concentration camps. In recent years
, concentration camps have existed in the former Soviet Union, Cambodia and Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest of society let it happen.
- 011.jpg thumb right Kiev's famous Golden Gate (Golden Gate, Kiev) is now a museum. Having lost their military importance in 20th century, buildings continued to be used as barracks, storage and incarceration facilities. However, some of them played independent historical roles. The ''Kosyi Kaponir'' ("Skew Caponier") became a prison for the political inmates in the 1900s (decade)–1920s and was later turned into a Soviet (Soviet Union) museum. Now it is the center of the modern museum. A small fortress (Fortification) built in 1872 on the legendary ''Lysa Hora'' (Bald Mountain) in 1906 became a place of executions for convicted political inmates. It is now a landscape reserve (park) and part of the museum complex. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
veils"), a book written in 1928 by Joseph Douillet, former consul of Belgium in the USSR (Soviet Union). In this book, appearing not much more than a decade after the October Revolution, Douillet denounced the communist system for producing poverty, famine, and terror (state terrorism). The secret police maintained order and the propaganda deceived foreigners. Nonetheless, the anti-totalitarian theme of this first book would persist throughout the series. First albums
The first Tintin book, ''Tintin in the Land of the Soviets'', was crafted on the orders of Hergé's superiors, to be anti-Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda of limited outlook. Nonetheless, Hergé worked willingly: "I was sincerely convinced of being on the right path", he said later. His only source was ''Moscou sans voiles'' ("Moscow without veils"), a book written in 1928 by Joseph Douillet, former consul of Belgium in the USSR (Soviet Union). In this book
, appearing not much more than a decade after the October Revolution, Douillet denounced the communist system for producing poverty, famine, and terror (state terrorism). The secret police maintained order and the propaganda deceived foreigners. Nonetheless, the anti-totalitarian theme of this first book would persist throughout the series. In 1987, Sculley made several famous predictions in a ''Playboy'' interview.
conference was held; this time British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan arrived earlier than President Eisenhower, to make it clear that they were meeting on British territory, as tensions were still high regarding the previous year's conflict over the Suez Canal. It was said the two discussed the general situation of the world. Macmillan returned in 1961 for the third summit with President John F. Kennedy, who was familiar with Bermuda, having made numerous personal visits. The meeting was called to discuss Cold War tensions arising from construction of the Berlin Wall. The most recent summit conference in Bermuda between the two powers occurred in 1990, when British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher met U.S. President George Bush. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
. Minsk was recaptured by Soviet troops on 3 July 1944, during Operation Bagration. The city was the centre of German resistance to the Soviet (Soviet Union) advance and saw heavy fighting during the first half of 1944. Factories, municipal buildings, power stations, bridges, most roads and 80% of the houses were reduced to rubble. In 1944, Minsk's population was reduced to a mere 50,000. After World War II, Minsk was rebuilt, but not reconstructed. The historical centre
Broadcasting''' or '''USSR Gosteleradio''' ('''Государственный комитет по телевидению и радиовещанию СССР''', '''Гостелерадио СССР'''), which was in charge both of Soviet Central Television and USSR Gostelradio (Radio in the Soviet Union). History Regular TV broadcasting in the Soviet Union started in 1938, first in Moscow and Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) only. Television services Because of the Soviet Union's size, a few problems had to be overcome. The first
Soviet Union, uses a Cyrillic alphabet (Cyrillic script), consisting of 32 letters: New labels and lineups: 1984-2005 In 1986, the group performed on a stadium tour of Russia (Soviet Union). They appeared in the second episode of the 1987 comedy series ''Filthy Rich & Catflap'', playing themselves in a blackmail plot and performing "I'm In The Mood For Dancing".
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).