Soviet Union

What is Soviet Union known for?


title experimental

Mar last1 Neznamov first1 GG last2 Koshelev last3 Voronina last4 Trofimov title Experimental and clinical rationale for complex treatment of mental disorders in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident volume 65 issue 2 pages 12–6 issn 0869-2092 journal Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia url format first2 VV first3 TA first4 SS It is a selectively anxiolytic benzodiazepine.


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League First League . thumb right 150px alt A young man, wearing a black top, white shorts, long, dark-coloured socks and red trainers. He appears to be in the middle of a running or jumping motion; he is upright, but neither of his feet are touching the grass. Armenia national football team Armenia (File:Генрих Мхитарян.jpg) international Henrikh Mkhitaryan started his career in the Armenian Premier League. Although the country was part


work military

title Soderzhaniye work Military Parade format PDF The BMP-1 was the world's first mass-produced infantry fighting vehicle (IFV).

was: United States-Pakistan Defence Relations url http: www.defencejournal.com 2002 june loveaffair.htm work MIlitary Consortium of Pakistan publisher Military Consortium of Pakistan accessdate 11 February 2012 The new defence minister Ayub Khan was obsessed with modernization of the armed forces (Pakistan Armed Forces) in shortest possible time saw the relationship with United States the only way to achieve his organizational and personal objectives. The launch of Sputnik I, the world's first artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957, demonstrated not only the accomplishments of the Soviet Union's space program, but also the capability to launch nuclear warheads from one continent to another. In response, the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) was established on May 12, 1958. The '''Elbrus''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


films+combining

. He began his film career as a director and animator of stop-motion short films, and became a director of feature length films combining live-action, stop-motion, creative special effects, and Russian mythology. Along the way he would be responsible for a number of firsts in Russian film history (including the first feature (feature film)-length animated film, and the first film in color), and would make several extremely popular and internationally praised films full


great period

-2. In 1957, after the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev allowed the Chechens to return and the Chechen republic was reinstated in 1958, the authority of the Soviet government gradually eroded. thumb left ''Tregor and Tregoff, Cornwall'', 1947, Tate Gallery (File:Bomberg, Tregor and Tregoff, Cornwall.jpg). From there followed Bomberg's great period of painting and drawing in landscape, in Spain at Toledo (Toledo, Spain) (1928), Ronda (1934–35 and 1954–57

States Embassy in Moscow. state.gov The third great period of the Danish Royal Ballet came in 1932, when Harald Lander took over the helm of the corps. Trained in the United States and the Soviet Union, he both adapted traditional ballets and choreographed original works for the company. He encouraged local choreographers, who went on to create prominent works that won international acclaim. Among them was Børge Ralov, who choreographed the first modern Danish Ballet, ''The Widow in the Mirror'', in 1934. He also trained many prominent international dancers, including Erik Bruhn. birth_date Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


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and hidden all over the world. (''Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater'') Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, 2005 Volgin had illegally inherited this money, '''Granin''': (...) Volgin's father was in charge of the Philosopher's money laundering activities. In the confusion of the war, he somehow ended up with their treasure. And Volgin inherited that treasure illegally. (''Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater'') Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, 2005 and Snake learns


critical work

. 317–320. Following the Khrushchev Thaw of the late 1950s and early 1960s, censorship was diminished. During this time, a distinctive period of Soviet culture developed characterized by conformist public life and intense focus on personal life. Greater experimentation in art forms were again permissible, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced. The regime loosened its emphasis on socialist realism; thus, for instance, many protagonists of the novels of author Yury Trifonov concerned themselves with problems of daily life rather than with building socialism. An underground dissident literature, known as ''samizdat'', developed during this late period. In architecture the Khrushchev era mostly focused on functional design as opposed to the highly decorated style of Stalin's epoch. In the second half of the 1980s, Gorbachev's policies of ''perestroika'' and ''glasnost'' significantly expanded freedom of expression in the media and press. "Gorbachev, Mikhail." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2 October 2007 <http: www.britannica.com eb article-9037405>. "Under his new policy of glasnost ("openness"), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government." Attempt to challenge the dissolution of the Soviet Union in Court Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


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Horrocks General Horrocks with its mascot, a young wild boar named 'Chewing Gum'. p.70, Horrocks, Brian, Belfield, Eversley, Essame, H., Corps Commader, Magnum Books, London, 1977 After the war she was awarded the title Righteous Among the Nations by the Israeli government. During the 1950s, the Queen aggravated the Americans (USA) by visiting the Soviet Union, China (People's Republic of China) and Poland (People's Republic of Poland), trips


classical political

and winning the national championship of his new homeland in 1987, 1989, and 1991. These were the last Olympic Games for two of the world's "dominating" sport powers, Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games. '''Productive and unproductive labour''' were concepts used in classical political economy mainly in the 18th and 19th century, which survive today to some extent in modern management


long view

of character and self-restraint and perseverance and the long view. And these are qualities which require many years of training and education. American University speech : Commencement Address at American University, June 10, 1963 (10 June 1963). In his speech the President asks the graduates to re-examine their attitudes towards peace, the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), and the Cold War (w:Cold War), famously remarking, "If we cannot end now our differences, at least we can make the world safe for diversity." The President also announces that he, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan have agreed to hold discussions concerning a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Finally, he explains that the United States will not conduct atmospheric nuclear tests on the condition that other countries uphold this same promise. thumb right Our problems are manmade—therefore, they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. (File:JFK1968-Front&Back.jpg) * I would say to the leaders of the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), and to their people, that '''if either of our countries is to be fully secure, we need a much better weapon than the H-bomb (w:H-bomb)--a weapon better than ballistic missiles or nuclear submarines--and that better weapon is peaceful cooperation.''' Sourced * "In the same way that the Soviets (w:Soviet Union)' Sputnik (w:Sputnik program) satellite (w:satellite) woke up the country to the need for math and science education, the outsourcing conversation cries out for a constructive, long-term solution that ensures Americans (w:United States) have world-class education, a world-class workforce and the ability to remain a competitive global leader." (2004 (w:2004)) ** "High Tech, Strangled By the Beltway", ''The Washington Post (w:The Washington Post)'', 13 March (w:13 March) 2004 (w:2004) thumb My arms are up to the elbows in blood. That is the most terrible thing that lies in my soul. (File:Hrušćov1.JPG) '''Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchyov (w:Nikita Khrushchev)''' (17 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union) after the death of Joseph Stalin. He was First Secretary (w:General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (w:Communist Party of the Soviet Union) from 1953 to 1964 and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (w:Council of Ministers (Soviet Union)) from 1958 to 1964. thumb right Orbiting Earth (File:Gagarin, Yuri A.jpg) in the spaceship, I saw how beautiful our planet is. People, let us preserve and increase this beauty, not destroy it! '''Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин; Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (w:Yuri Gagarin)''' (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet (w:Soviet Union) cosmonaut (w:cosmonaut) and the first human in space (12 April 1961). thumb A Type 2 AK-47 assault rifle, the first machined receiver variation. (File:AK-47 type II Part DM-ST-89-01131.jpg) The '''AK-47 (w:AK-47)''' is a selective-fire (w:selective fire), gas-operated (w:gas operated) 7.62×39mm (w:7.62×39mm) assault rifle (w:assault rifle), first developed in the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union) by Mikhail Kalashnikov (w:Mikhail Kalashnikov). :'''Buffy (w:Buffy Summers)''': Tell me what's in the steam! :'''Coach Marin''': After the fall of the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), documents came into light detailing experiments with fish DNA in their Olympic swimmers. Tarpon (w:tarpon), mako shark (w:Isurus)... But they couldn't crack it. :'''Buffy''': And you did... sort of. Why? '' Del and Rodney are in the flat, discussing the British response to a World War III (w:World War III). '' :'''Rodney''': And what have we got in this country to combat the might of the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union)? Three Jump Jets (w:Harrier Jump Jet) and a strongly worded letter to the Russian ambassador. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик

Soviet Union

The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.

The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.

In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.

Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).

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