a sharp change of mood from his previous two films, the uplifting love story ''Show Me Love (Show Me Love (film))'' and ''Together (Together (2000 film))'', set in the 1970s. ''Lilja 4-ever'' is an unremittingly brutal and realistic story of the downward spiral of Lilja, played by Oksana Akinshina, a girl in the former Soviet Union whose mother abandons her to move to the United States. The story is loosely based on a true case and examines the issue of human trafficking
film ''From Russia with Love (From Russia with Love (film))''. In the film, it is referred to as being constructed by the Emperor Constantine, with no reference to Justinian. Its location is a considerable distance from the Soviet (Soviet Union) (now Russian) consulate, which is located in Beyoğlu, the "newer" European section of Istanbul, on the other side of the Golden Horn. In 1926, however, only 51% of the population over the age of 10 had achieved literacy. Male
. The game uses the controversial Strategic Defense Initiative (S.D.I.) as its plot device. True to its name, Cinemaware also looked to Hollywood for some inspiration of the storyline. The storyline is reminiscent of several secret agent movies (such as the 007 films ''From Russia with Love (From Russia with Love (film))'' and ''Moonraker (Moonraker (film))''). The game assumes that both the USSR and the United States have their own version of S.D.I. protecting
of the Medieval Georgian Kingdoms. They were, however, reclassified under the broader category of Georgian in the 1930s. Currently, most Mingrelians identify themselves as a subgroup of the Georgian nation and have preserved many characteristic cultural features - including the Mingrelian language - that date back to the pre-Christian Colchian (Colchis) era when the modern-day ethnic group of Georgians had yet to consolidate into a nation, rather than a collection of regional tribes. History
Medvedev , ''The Australian'', 9.12.1976 This nuclear accident, the Soviet Union's worst before the Chernobyl disaster, is categorised as a level 6 "serious accident" on the 0-7 International Nuclear Events Scale. The CPA was founded in March 1921 with the demand of a separate Abkhaz Soviet Republic (Republics of the Soviet Union). It was then led by E. Eshba. Eshba had formed
publisher Bharat-rakshak.com date 2001-09-11 accessdate 2010-06-01
to the Pechora labor camps in the northern part of European Russia, where he stayed until May 1942. Much later in life, Begin would record and reflect upon his experiences in the interrogations and life in the camp in his memoir ''White Nights (White Nights (book))''. On 30 November 1939, after a futile year-and-a-half campaign to persuade the Finnish government to cede territory to the Soviet Union and give up some sovereignty by conceding specific military and political favors, the Soviet Union launched an offensive against Finland, starting what came to be known as the Winter War. The Finnish Army faced large numbers of Red Army tanks. Being short on anti-tank guns, they improvised incendiary device to use against them. The '''Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact''', named after the Soviet (Soviet Union) foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled the '''Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union''' Russian: Договор о ненападении между Германией и Советским Союзом; German: Nichtangriffsvertrag zwischen Deutschland und der Union der Sozialistischen Sowjetrepubliken; from facsimile at 100(0) Schlüsseldokumente (www.1000dokumente.de), accessed 17 September 2009. and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939. Blank Pages by G.C.Malcher ISBN 1 897984 00 6 Page 7 It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral (Neutrality (international relations)) in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). The '''Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact''', named after the Soviet (Soviet Union) foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled the '''Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union''' Russian: Договор о ненападении между Германией и Советским Союзом; German: Nichtangriffsvertrag zwischen Deutschland und der Union der Sozialistischen Sowjetrepubliken; from facsimile at 100(0) Schlüsseldokumente (www.1000dokumente.de), accessed 17 September 2009. and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939. Blank Pages by G.C.Malcher ISBN 1 897984 00 6 Page 7 It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral (Neutrality (international relations)) in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). On 16 April 1922, Germany and Soviet Russia (Soviet Union) entered the Treaty of Rapallo (Treaty of Rapallo, 1922), pursuant to which they renounced territorial and financial claims against each other. ''German–Russian agreement, signed at Rapallo, 16 April 1922'' The parties further pledged neutrality in the event of an attack against one another with the 1926 Treaty of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1926)). ''Treaty of Berlin Between the Soviet Union and Germany; 24 April 1926 '' While trade between the two countries fell sharply after World War I, trade agreements signed in the mid-1920s helped to increase trade to 433 million Reichsmarks per year by 1927. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
to turn towards the Soviet Union and China amongst others to meet its short term military requirements. Nevertheless, the experience of using advanced and high quality Western equipment was not lost on any of the branches of the Iranian armed forces. Severely disappointed with the inferior Russian and Eastern equipment, Iran sought to develop its own indigenous ability to mirror the high technology of the west and to provide a totally reliable source of equipment for the future. The Iran
–Iraq War , and post revolutionary sanctions at the time had a dramatic effect on Iran's inventory of western equipment. Under the pressures of war all supplies were quickly exhausted and replacements became increasingly difficult to come by. The war eventually forced Iran to turn towards the Soviet Union, North Korea, Pakistan, Brazil, and China to meet its short term military requirements. Initial developments in every field of military technology were carried out
was the president of the Polish Artists Union ('' Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941'', Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55750-432-6, p. 114-115. * July 29 – An Arado Ar 79 sets an international solo speed record over a 2,000-km (1,242-mile) course for an aircraft of its class, averaging 227.029 km hr (141.07 mph). * July 29-August 11 – During the Lake Khasan Incident (Battle of Lake Khasan) along the border
to influence international public opinion and organise political and material support for the war campaign, especially amongst Jews in Allied countries. From 1945 to 1948 he was chairmain of Sovinformburo. In modern times, the sole country using this form of government is Switzerland, where directories rule all levels of administration, federal, cantonal and municipal. The Swiss Federal Council is elected by the Parliament for four years (members can't be dismissed); direct popular
a large-scale scientific and educational initiative for the Eastern parts of the Soviet Union, which resulted in the creation of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences (Russian Academy of Sciences). He was the founder and first director of the Institute of Mathematics at Akademgorodok near Novosibirsk, which was later to bear his name, and played an important role in the establishment and development of Novosibirsk State University. The populations separated
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).