; There have been water disputes in the state, notablely between officials from Hermosillo and the relatively water-rich Ciudad Obregón. Yetman, pp. 7–8 The overpumping has drastically lowered water tables and has increaseds soil salinity in many areas. In some areas, the tables have dropped by as much as one or two meters per year, making fresh water increasing unavailable and forcing the abandonment of croplands. For this reason, in the last quarter
of Mexico’s largest commercial fisheries are in the state. Cartron, p. 67 Sonora is one of Mexico’s leading fish producing states, with 70% of Mexico’s total coming from the Pacific coast, including the Gulf of California. ref>
south of the Trincheras along the coast, with sites along extinct lagoons, estuaries, and river valleys. This tradition has a distinctive ceramic complex. Huatabampo culture shows similarities with the Chametla to the south and the Hohokam to the north. This probably ended around 1000 CE. Unlike the other two tradition, the Central Coast remained a hunter-gatherer culture, as the area lacks the resources for agriculture. Foster, p. 18 The higher elevations of the state were dominated by the Casas Grandes and Río Sonora tradition. The Río Sonora culture is located in central Sonora from the border area to modern Sinaloa. A beginning date for this culture has not been determined but it probably disappeared by the early 1300s. The Casas Grandes tradition in Sonora was an extension of the Río Sonora tradition based in the modern state of Chihuahua, which exterted its influence down to parts of the Sonoran coast. Foster, p. 19 Foster, p. 251 Climatic changes in the middle of the 15th century resulted in the increased desertification of northwest Mexico in general. This is the probable cause for the drastic decrease in the number and size of settlements starting around this time. The peoples that remained in the area reverted to a less complex social organization and lifestyle. Foster, p. 252 Whatever socially complex organization existed in Sonora before the Spaniards were long gone by the 16th century. Colonial period Little reliable information remains about the area in the 16th century following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. Some state that the first Spanish settlement was founded by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1530, near Huépac. Others state that Francisco Vásquez de Coronado founded a village on the edge of the Yaqui River in 1540 on his way north.
a large variety of sea life off its shores, making it popular for sports fishing and scuba diving. A number of Yaquis, Seris and Guaymas on and around the Tetakawi Hill, making a living from fishing.
, for sale, or neglected due to the suppressed economic conditions and the corresponding decline in tourism. Bahía Kino is located near San Carlos, with a dock located in the commuty of Kino Viejo. This bay's beaches have white sand, with warm calm waters off of them. For this reason, Bahía Viejo calls itself ''la perla del Mar de Cortés'' ("the pearl of the Gulf of California"). The area is popular for scuba diving and sports fishing as its waters are filled with various species
; Much of the catch is shrimp and sardines, with about three quarters exported to the U.S. In 2002, the catch totaled 456,805 tons of seafood with a value of about 2,031 million pesos. In addition to what is caught at sea, there is active fish farming which raises mostly oysters and shrimp. Much of the commercial and sports fishing is essentially unregulated and has had a very
deserts. In Mexico, the species' range flanks the Sea of Cortez in Sonora and Baja California Norte. In the United States, it is found in the western two thirds of Arizona, the Colorado Desert and Mojave Desert regions of southern California, southern Nevada, and extreme southwestern Utah. Arizona Desert hairy scorpions are a warm-desert species, specially adapted to hot and dry conditions. They are usually found in and around washes or low-elevation valleys where they dig elaborate burrows (up to
, squirrels, moles (mole (animal)), beavers, coyotes, wolves, foxes, jaguars, and mountain lions. Amphibians and reptiles include frogs and toads, desert tortoises, chameleons, gila monsters, rattlesnakes and other types of snakes. The number of bird species native to the state is not known, but major species include roadrunners, quail, turkeys, buzzards and doves. Climate File:Sonoran desert sunset.jpg
location Sonora Mexico language Spanish trans_title Upper Gulf and Delta accessdate February 15, 2011 The Bahía e islas de San Jorge ("Bay and Islands of San Jorge"), covering , are located on Sonora’s northern coast between Caborca and Puerto Peñasco. The islands were first made a federal reserve in 1978 due to its important to migratory birds. They are especially important to species such as the Sterna antillarum, colonies of Sula
"gorenstein243" Foster, p. 243 Agriculture first appeared around
unit_pref Metric area_footnotes area_total_km2 179355 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 area_water_percent area_note Ranked 2nd (List of Mexican states by area) elevation_m elevation_max_footnotes elevation_max_m 2620 elevation_max_ft elevation_min_m elevation_min_ft population_footnotes population_total 2,755,258 population_as_of 2012 population_density_km2 auto population_density_rank 27th (List of Mexican states by population density) population_demonym Sonorense population_note population_rank 17th (List of Mexican states by population) timezone1 MST (Mountain Time Zone) Miriam de Regil. Inicia el domingo el Horario de Verano. ''El Financiero'', Viernes, 31 de marzo de 2006. utc_offset1 −7 timezone1_DST utc_offset1_DST postal_code_type Postal code (Postal codes in Mexico) postal_code 83–85 area_code_type Area code area_code title Area codes (Area codes in Mexico by code (600-699)) frame_style border:none; padding: 0; title_style list_style text-align:left;display:none; 1 • 622 2 • 623 3 • 631 4 • 632 5 • 633 6 • 634 7 • 637 8 • 638 9 • 641 10 • 642 11 • 643 12 • 644 13 • 645 14 • 647 15 • 651 16 • 653 17 • 662 iso_code MX-SON blank_name_sec1 HDI (Human Development Index) blank_info_sec1 0.776 '''High''' Ranked 4th of 32 (List of Mexican states by HDI) blank_name_sec2 GDP blank_info_sec2 US$ 16,416,142.57 th (Thousand) website footnotes a. Joined to the federation under the name of ''Estado de Occidente'' (Western State) also recognized as ''Sonora y Sinaloa''.
'''Sonora''' ( ), is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District (Mexico City), comprise the 32 federal entities (Political divisions of Mexico) of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities (Municipalities of Sonora); the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua (Chihuahua (state)) to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border (Mexico–United States border) with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.
Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo (Mayo people), the Yaqui (Yaqui people), and Seri (Seri people). It has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. After the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.