(Somalia) National Security Service and then from the French Secret Service (SDECE), and was intended to become his uncle's successor. "The key to Guelleh's success is the skillful way in which he has played the cards in his strong hand", according to PINR (Power and Interest News Report). "As the head of Djibouti's security agency under his uncle's regime, Guelleh gained an intimate knowledge of the country's political forces and has used it to practice a politics
Society: 1936), p.301. Most of these finds are associated with the medieval Adal Sultanate, Bernard Samuel Myers, ed., ''Encyclopedia of World Art'', Volume 13, (McGraw-Hill: 1959), p.xcii. and were sent to the British Museum for preservation shortly after their discovery. *Solomon Islands: Solomon Islands Red Cross *Somalia: Somali Red Crescent Society *South Africa: South African
and Northland Power founder Jim Temerty, "whose family roots go back to one of the regions that was worst affected in the Holodomor". Toronto News: Ukrainians unite for Somali famine relief - thestar.com thumb 200px Vittorio Bottego (File:Vittorio Bottego 1889.jpg) '''Vittorio Bottego''' ( ; July 29, 1860 &
July 2008, UNICEF sent Aiken to Somalia and Kenya. Mohamed, Guled. "U.S. pop star appeals for world attention on Somalia." ''Reuters South Africa''. June 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-29 "Clay Aiken calls for Kenya's kids to return to school." ''UNICEF Field Notes''. July 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-22<
of American non-combatants from Albania. Many military events occurred during Clinton's presidency. The Battle of Mogadishu (Battle of Mogadishu (1993)) also occurred in Somalia in 1993. During the operation, two U.S. helicopters (MH-60 Black Hawk) were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. There were
showing religious distribution in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian (Christianity), while North Africa is predominantly Muslim (Islam). However, there are Muslim majorities in the Sahel and Sudan regions (Sudan (region)) and along the East African coast (Muslim majorities in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Somalia; comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in Chad, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Eritrea). Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 9780852299562 p. 306 Southern Africa is predominately Christian however. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid 1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. Traditional African religions can be broken into down linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages)-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun (West African Vodun), and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages) speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages)-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0815605226 Khoisan religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102-103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. thumb 300px Reconstruction of the ''Ecumene (File:Herodotus world map-en.svg)'' (inhabited world) ancient map from Herodotus, c. 450 BC. Herodotus spoke of the Macrobians, an ancient people and kingdom postulated to have been located on the Somali peninsula The Geography of Herodotus: Illustrated from Modern Researches and Discoveries by James Talboys Wheeler pg 528 The British Critic, Quarterly Theological Review, And Ecclesiastical Record Volume 11 pg 434 during the first millennium BC. They are mentioned as being a nation of people that had mastered longevity with the average Macrobian living till the age of 120. They were said to be the ''"Tallest and Handsomest of all men"''. Wheeler pg 526 The Persian Emperor (List of kings of Persia) Cambyses II upon conquering Ancient Egypt sent ambassadors to Macrobia bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission, but instead the Macrobian ruler replied with a challenge for the Persian ruler in the form of an unstrung bow, that if the Persians could manage to string, they would have the right to invade his country, but until then they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire. Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia
;Collective Punishment", p. 14 the North Eastern Province (North Eastern Province (Kenya)) of Kenya, and the Jubaland region of Southern Somalia. They also inhabit Somalia's major cities such as Mogadishu and Kismayo. Duan is also known for describing in his written work of 863 AD the slave trade, ivory trade, and ambergris trade of Bobali, which is now Berbera in Somalia, East Africa (see Tang_Dynasty#Seaports_and_maritime_trade
in Afghanistan Antica Babilonia in Iraq anniversaries Role WHCA has played an unremarked, but significant, role in many historical events: including World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, Panama and Guatemala, Operation Just Cause, Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, and Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. WHCA was also a key player in documenting the Assassination of John F. Kennedy assassination
Somalis (Somali people) for the most part blend in well with Yemeni society, as they share centuries of close religious, commercial and social ties. Following the outbreak of the civil war (Somali Civil War) in Somalia, Yemen unconditionally opened its borders to Somali asylum seekers. The ''World Refugee Survey 2008'', published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, estimates that 110,600 Somali refugees lived in Yemen in 2007, Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia
, on the prevention and resolution of deadly conflict. Its primary goals are a combination of field-based analysis, policy prescription, and aggressive advocacy, with key roles being played by a senior management team highly experienced in government and by a highly active Board of Trustees containing many senior diplomats. By its own accounts, the ICG plays a major role in six ways: * Ringing early warning alarm bells, in the monthly ''CrisisWatch'' bulletin, and in specific ‘crisis alerts’, e.g
Somalia has a population of around 10 million. Around 85% of residents are ethnic Somalis (Somali people), who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities make up the remainder and are largely concentrated in the southern regions. .
In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, John Kenrick (1855) ''Phoenicia'', B. Fellowes, p. 199. Jeanne Rose, John Hulburd (1992) ''The Aromatherapy Book: Applications and Inhalations'', North Atlantic Books, p. 94, ISBN 1556430736. and is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. . Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the so-called Campaign of the Sultanates (History of Somalia#20th century) against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to British military administration. Northern Somalia would remain a protectorate, while southern Somalia became a United Nations Trusteeship (Trust Territory of Somalia) in 1949. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. ''The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East'', Greystone Press: 1967, p. 338. Mohamed Siad Barre seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic. In 1991, Barre's government collapsed as the Somali Civil War broke out.
In the absence of a central government, Somalia's residents reverted to local forms of conflict resolution. A few autonomous regions (States and regions of Somalia), including the Somaliland, Puntland and Galmudug administrations, emerged in the north in the ensuing process of decentralization. The early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations. The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which reestablished national institutions such as the military (Military of Somalia).