Sofia

What is Sofia known for?


speaking+political

resulted in a 3–2 aggregate loss and the club's elimination from the competition. thumb right Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople (File:Constantinopolis coin.jpg) Licinius' defeat came to represent the defeat of a rival center of Pagan and Greek-speaking political activity in the East, as opposed to the Christian and Latin-speaking Rome, and it was proposed that a new Eastern capital should represent the integration of the East into the Roman Empire as a whole, as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation for the whole of the Eastern Roman Empire . Gilbert Dagron, ''Naissance d'une Capitale'', 24 Among the various locations proposed to this alternate capital, Constantine appears to have toyed earlier with Serdica (History of Sofia) (present-day Sofia), as he was reported saying that "''Serdica is my Rome''". Petrus Patricius ''excerpta Vaticana'', 190: Κωνσταντίνος εβουλεύσατο πρώτον εν Σαρδική μεταγαγείν τά δημόσια· φιλών τε τήν πόλιν εκείνην συνεχώς έλεγεν „η εμή Ρώμη Σαρδική εστι.“ Sirmium and Thessalonica were also considered. Ramsey MacMullen, ''Constantine'', Routledge ed., 1987, 149 Eventually, however, Constantine decided to work on the Greek city of Byzantium, which offered the advantage of having already been extensively rebuilt on Roman patterns of urbanism, during the preceding century, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla, who had already acknowledged its strategical importance. Dagron, ''Naissance d'une Capitale'', 15 19 The city was then renamed ''Constantinopolis'' ("Constantine's City" or Constantinople in English), and issued special commemorative coins in 330 to honor the event. The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross, the Rod of Moses (Nehushtan) and other holy relics, though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city. Sardonyx cameo depicting constantine the great crowned by Constantinople, 4th century AD at "The Road to Byzantium: Luxury Arts of Antiquity". ''The Hermitage Rooms at Somerset House'' (30 March 2006 – 3 September 2006) The figures of old gods were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism. Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite. Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision (Vision (religion)) led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls. The capital would often be compared to the 'old' Rome as ''Nova Roma Constantinopolitana'', the "New Rome of Constantinople". According to the ''Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum'', vol. 164 (Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann, 2005), column 442, there is no evidence for the tradition that Constantine officially dubbed the city "New Rome" (''Nova Roma'' or ''Nea Rhome''). Commemorative coins that were issued during the 330s already refer to the city as ''Constantinopolis'' (Michael Grant, ''The Climax of Rome'' (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), 133). It is possible that the emperor called the city "Second Rome" (''Deutera Rhome'') by official decree, as reported by the 5th century church historian Socrates of Constantinople. *Bulgaria has an embassy in Copenhagen.


games helping

-02-13 work TimesOnline accessdate 2009-09-10 location London and with it is has cemented Richard Dunne as Ireland's top defender and one of the best players. He played in all ten games helping Ireland finish second and qualify for a play-off whilst also scoring goals in both 1–1 draws with Bulgaria (Bulgaria national football team), as well as winning the man of the match award in the away game held in Sofia.


national opera

are among the most visited, second only to cinemas. The oldest such institution is the Ivan Vazov National Theatre, which performs mainly classical plays and is situated in the very centre of the city. A large number of smaller theatres, such as the Sfumato Theatrical Workshop, show both classical and modern plays. The National Opera and Ballet is a combined opera and ballet collective, established in 1891. However, it did not begin performances on a regular basis until

1909. Some of Bulgaria's most famous operatic singers, such as Nicolai Ghiaurov and Ghena Dimitrova, have made their first appearances on the stage of the National Opera and Ballet. Bulgaria Hall and Hall 1 of the National Palace of Culture regularly hold classical concerts, performed both by foreign orchestras and the Sofia Philharmonic. The city has played host to many world-famous musical acts including AC DC, Sting (Sting (musician)), Elton John, Madonna

(entertainer) Madonna , George Michael, Metallica, Tiesto, Kylie Minogue, Depeche Mode, Rammstein, Rihanna, Roxette and Lady Gaga. thumb upright right The National Opera and Ballet (File:National Opera Sofia 2009 20090406 003.JPG) Bulgaria's largest art museums are located in the central areas of the city. The National Art Gallery (National Art Gallery (Bulgaria)) holds a collection of works mostly by Bulgarian authors, while the National Gallery for Foreign


architectural+team

'' ) is an Eastern Orthodox church in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, a cathedral of the Sofia bishopric of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Sveta Nedelya is a medieval church that has suffered destruction through the ages and has been reconstructed many times. The present building of the temple is among the landmarks of Sofia. It was designed by the famous Bulgarian architectural team Vasilyov (Ivan Vasilyov)-Tsolov. The '''St Nedelya Church assault''' was an attack upon St


band+participating

. *Vysoka Skola Financni a Spravni (The Institute of Finance and Administration), Prague, Czech Republic *The International School, Sofia and Pravetz, Bulgaria *Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China Image:HS Psara F454.jpg ''HS Psara'', F-454, in Operation "Enduring Freedom". File:UnitGR Parade.jpg The Hellenic Navy band participating in the Army Day parade in Sofia, Bulgaria. * Australia, Sidney - 15.000 attendants * 1990 Bulgaria, Sofia, Vasil Levski National Stadium - 100.000 attendants * 1984 Romania, Timișoara, Stadionul Dan Păltinişanu - 65.000 attendants *2 October 2010 - Gothenburg, Sweden - Hogsbohallen Angasvallen *3 November 2010 - Sofia, Bulgaria - Nai Club (cancelled due to death of her father) *25 December 2010 - Hamburg, Germany - Balkannight Club *21 October 2011 - Beograd, Serbia - Beogradska Arena - 25,000 attendants *3 December 2011 - Sofia, Bulgaria - Armeets Arena - 20,000 attendants *8 December 2011 - Niš, Serbia - Hala Čair - 7,000 attendants The city is the economic and cultural centre of southwestern Bulgaria. It is located in the valley of the Struma River at the foot of the Rila and Pirin Mountains, 101 km south of Sofia, close to the Greek (Greece), Serbian and Republic of Macedonia borders. Blagoevgrad features a pedestrian downtown with preserved 19th century architecture and numerous restaurants, cafes, coffee shops, and boutiques. Blagoevgrad is the perfect place to live and study, according to The Rough Guide to Bulgaria. Students represent a quarter of the town’s population. The Rough Guide goes on to describe “the lovingly restored old quarter,” and notes that Blagoevgrad’s clubs and cafes are the “most stylish” in all of Bulgaria. The Blagoevgrad region abounds in natural beauty and tourist attractions such as the Rila Monastery (a UNESCO World Heritage site), the spa town of Sandanski, and the Seven Rila Lakes. World-class ski resorts, horse-riding and hiking tracks are nearby in the Pirin Mountains. Istanbul is easily accessible by car or bus, and Greece is a two-hour drive. Bulgaria’s capital, Sofia, is an hour away. Its international airport is your link to exciting cities all over Europe. With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the Macedonian upper stratum had to decide whether Macedonia was to emerge as an independent state or as part of a “Greater Bulgaria”. The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940–1944, Frederick B. Chary, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972, ISBN 0822984431, p. 45. During this period, the first expressions of ethnic nationalism by certain Macedonian intellectuals occurred in Belgrade, Sofia, Istanbul, Thessaloniki and St. Petersburg. The activities of these people was registered by Petko Slaveykov "The Macedonian question" published 18 January 1871. and Stojan Novaković Балканска питања и мање историјско-политичке белешке о Балканском полуострву 1886–1905. Стојан Новаковић, Београд, 1906. The emergence of Macedonian identity was a relatively nascent and nebulous affair because Ottoman rule (a regimen which suppressed liberalism and nationalism) had lasted there the longest, the subsequent propaganda and armed conflict between newly formed Balkans monarchies (Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia) over Macedonian territory, and indeed the cultural similarity between Macedonians and their closest neighbours (especially Bulgarians). Rossos A. ''Macedonia and the Macedonians''. Hoover Institution Press 2008. Sliven is located 300 km east of Bulgaria's capital Sofia, 100 km from Bourgas, the country's largest commercial port, 130 km from the border with Greece and 130 km from the border with Turkey. It is located in close proximity to the cities of Yambol and Nova Zagora. The tram system of Sofia, Bulgaria has 16 lines totaling 221 km served by 190 trams, some of which are Tatra PCCs. In Romania, Bucharest's extensive tramway network features a large fleet of Tatra T4R PCCs. Qatar Airways is expanding. The airline has launched 22 new destinations since 2010, with 9 more destinations announced. These new destinations which Qatar Airways has already launched are Ankara, Aleppo, Bangalore, Barcelona, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Hanoi, Montreal, Nice, Phuket (Phuket (city)), São Paulo, Shiraz, Kolkata, Medina, Oslo, Sofia, Stuttgart and Venice, and Tokyo. Qatar Airways will also launch Baku, Tblisi, and Entebbe during 2011.


legal activities

of Bulgaria Bulgaria DATE OF DEATH On 20 April 1929, Pavelić and others co-signed a declaration in Sofia, Bulgaria together with members of the Macedonia (Macedonians (Bulgarians))n National Committee, asserting that they would pursue "their legal activities for the establishment of human and national rights, political freedom and complete independence for both Croatia and Macedonia". Due to this, the Court for the Preservation of the State in Belgrade sentenced Pavelić and Perčec to death on 17 July 1929. The exiles started organizing support for their cause among the Croatian diaspora in Europe, North and South America. In January 1932, they named their revolutionary organization "Ustaša". In November 1932, ten Ustaše led by Andrija Artuković, supported by four local sympathisers, attacked a gendarme outpost at Brušani in the Lika Velebit area. The goal of attack was to scare Yugoslav authorities. The incident has sometimes been termed the Velebit Uprising. In the beginning of the new century, in 19 August 2004, the Bulgarian (Bulgarians) archeologist Georgi Kitov discovered a 673g golden mask of a Thracian (Thracians) king in the burial mound "Svetitsata" near Shipka (Shipka (town)), Central Bulgaria. It is a very fine piece of workmanship made out of massive 23к gold. Unlike other masks discovered in the Balkans (of which 3 are in Republic of Macedonia and two in Greece), it is now kept in the National Archaeological Museum (National Archaeological Museum (Bulgaria)) in Sofia. It is considered to be the mask of the Thracian (Thracians) king Teres (Teres I). The trunk road running from the north down the Morava River valley forks into two major lines at Niš: southern, leading to Thessalonica and Athens, and eastern leading towards Sofia and Istanbul. *Mediana - Archeological site, an Imperial villa, from the late Roman period (Ancient Rome) located on the road leading to Sofia near EI Nis. *Niška Banja (Niš spa) - A very popular spa during the summer season. It is located at 10km from city center on the road leading to Sofia, in the bottom of Suva Planina Mountain. *Tinkers Alley - An old urban downtown zone in today's Kopitareva Street, built in the first half of 18th century. It was a street full of tinkers and other craftsmen, but today it is packed with cafes and restaurants. Niš is strategically located between the Morava (Morava (river)) river valley in North and Vardar river valley in the south, on the main route between Greece and Central Europe. In the Niš area, this major transportation and communication route is linked with the natural corridor formed by the Nišava river valley, which runs towards East in the direction of Sofia and Istanbul. Regional folk musical styles abound in Bulgaria. Dobrudzha, Sofia, Rodopi (Rhodope Mountains), Macedonia (Macedonia (region)), Thrace and the Danube plain all have distinctive sounds. Traditional folk music revolved around holidays like Christmas, New Year's Day, midsummer, and the Feast of St. Lazarus,


modern plays

are among the most visited, second only to cinemas. The oldest such institution is the Ivan Vazov National Theatre, which performs mainly classical plays and is situated in the very centre of the city. A large number of smaller theatres, such as the Sfumato Theatrical Workshop, show both classical and modern plays. The National Opera and Ballet is a combined opera and ballet collective, established in 1891. However, it did not begin performances on a regular basis until


active interest

. The Olympic Committee initially dropped volleyball for the 1968 Olympics, meeting protests. align


original film

with his compatriot and Kole Nedelkovski, who shared his thinking. After Nedelkovski's death, Racin returned to Skopje. In Skopje he was arrested by the Bulgarian police and interned in the village of Kornica, Nevrokop. '''''Boa vs. Python''''' is a 2004 Sci Fi Pictures original film (Syfy). It was directed by David Flores, from a script by Chase Parker and Sam Wells, and was filmed in Sofia, Bulgaria, like many Sci Fi original movies. The film was a crossover (Fictional crossover) between 2001's Boa (New Alcatraz (film)) and 2000's Python (Python (film)).


place offering

type of place, offering traditional Bulgarian meals and drinks. It can be found in several locations throughout the city center. Mid to High End *

Sofia

'''Sofia''' ( ) is the capital (Capital city) and largest city (List of cities and towns in Bulgaria) of Bulgaria. Its history spans 2,400 years.

The city is located at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. It occupies a strategic position at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.

Sofia is the 15th largest city (Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits) in the European Union with population of around 1.3 million people. It has been ranked by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a Beta− city (Global city#GaWC study). Sofia, ''The Times''. Retrieved March 23, 2011 Many of the major universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies of Bulgaria are concentrated in Sofia. Internet Hostel Sofia, Tourism in Sofia. Retrieved Jan, 2012

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