Sijilmasa

What is Sijilmasa known for?


public life

at Ouargla beyond the Atlas Mountains, whence in the 11th century they moved southwest to Oued M'zab. Maintaining their cohesion and beliefs over the centuries, Ibadi religious leaders have dominated public life in the region to this day. Tlemcen prospered as a commercial center and was called the "pearl of the Maghrib." Situated at the head of the Imperial Road through the strategic Taza Gap to Marrakech, the city controlled the caravan route to Sijilmasa, gateway for the gold and slave trade with the western Sudan. Aragon came to control commerce between Tlemcen's port, Oran, and Europe beginning about 1250. An outbreak of privateering out of Aragon, however, severely disrupted this trade after about 1420. In the mid 11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes (Fes, Morocco), in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen. From at least the 13th to the 19th century, Tabelbala was a stop on the caravan routes linking southern Morocco (notably Sijilmasa) to the Sahel, in particular Timbuktu. On the collapse of Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the (Ziyyanid (Zayyanid)) kingdom of Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) and was ruled for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


742

in Iraq. Another group of the Miknasa took part in the Maysara uprising (Berber Revolt) (739-742), adopted Kharijism and established the Emirate of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara. This became very wealthy as the western end-point of the Trans-Saharan trade route with the Sudan. In alliance with the Caliphate of Córdoba (Caliph of Cordoba) it was able to fight off the attacks of the Fatimids. However, when the Miknasa chief Al-Mutazz allied


strict

years of Maghrawa rule, the elders of Sijilmassa appealed to the Sanhaja Berber confederation, which was just beginning its transformation into the Almoravid movement. According to al-Bakri, in 1055, Abdallah ibn Yasin, the spiritual leader of the Almoravid movement, responded by bringing his new army to Sijilmassa and killed the leader of the Maghrawa, Mas'ud ibn Wanudin al-Maghrawi. The Almoravid imposed an extremely strict interpretation of Islam, smashing music instruments

the Almohad took the city in the mid-12th century, they also took advantage of the wealth of trade going through Sijilmassa. However, the strict philosophy imposed by the Almoravid at the beginning of their reign of Sijilmassa was overshadowed by the extremely violent practices of the Almohad. This culminated in the massacre of many of the Jews living in Sijilmassa . This is an observation made by Hirschberg in ''A History of the Jews in North Africa,'' pp. 109, 116-118 Amid


history historic

''' was a city in Morocco and the capital of the Tafilalet kingdom. It is now a national historic (history) site preserved by the Moroccan Ministry of Culture. It was established by Sufris in 757 AD, and it overlooked the Over Ziz River. Sijilmassa flourished from the regional gold trade. Today, Sijilmassa is recognized by the World Monuments Fund as an endangered site. -- Category:Oases of Morocco Category:Former populated places in Morocco


military power

. The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


prominent people

be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even


academic place

last Gibb first H.A.R. last2 Beckingham first2 C.F. trans. and eds. title The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 (Volume 4) place London year 1994 publisher Hakluyt Society isbn 978-0-904180-37-4 . This volume was translated by Beckingham after Gibb's death in 1971. * . *


original local

;For both points, see Louis Ginzberg, ''Geonica''. The present Sephardic liturgy should therefore be regarded as the product of gradual convergence between the original local rite and the North African branch of the Babylonian-Arabic family, as prevailing in Geonic times in Egypt and Morocco. Following the Reconquista, the specifically Spanish liturgy was commented on by David Abudirham (c. 1340), who was concerned to ensure conformity with the rulings of halachah (halakha). Despite this convergence, there were distinctions between the liturgies of different parts of the Iberian peninsula: for example the Lisbon and Catalonian rites were somewhat different from the Castilian rite, which formed the basis of the later Sephardic tradition. The Catalonian rite was intermediate in character between the Castilian rite and that of Provence (Hachmei Provence): Haham Gaster (Moses Gaster) classified the rites of Oran and Tunis in this group. Preface to the ''Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation, London'', above. After the revolt, Kharijites established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. Others, however, like Sijilmasa and Tilimsan (Tlemcen), which straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. In 750 the Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Al Qayrawan. Although nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabids, ruled independently until 909, presiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture. The Fatimids turned westward in 911, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla beyond the Atlas Mountains, whence in the 11th century they moved southwest to Oued M'zab. Maintaining their cohesion and beliefs over the centuries, Ibadi religious leaders have dominated public life in the region to this day. Tlemcen prospered as a commercial center and was called the "pearl of the Maghrib." Situated at the head of the Imperial Road through the strategic Taza Gap to Marrakech, the city controlled the caravan route to Sijilmasa, gateway for the gold and slave trade with the western Sudan. Aragon came to control commerce between Tlemcen's port, Oran, and Europe beginning about 1250. An outbreak of privateering out of Aragon, however, severely disrupted this trade after about 1420. In the mid 11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes (Fes, Morocco), in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen. From at least the 13th to the 19th century, Tabelbala was a stop on the caravan routes linking southern Morocco (notably Sijilmasa) to the Sahel, in particular Timbuktu. On the collapse of Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the (Ziyyanid (Zayyanid)) kingdom of Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) and was ruled for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


religious history

trade centres in the Maghreb during the Middle Ages. The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


818

of the Awraba into their sovereign. The Awraba leader Ishak responded by plotting against his life with the Aghlabids of Tunisia. Idris reacted by having his former protector Ishak killed and in 809 moved his seat of governement from the Awraba dominated Walili to Fes, where he founded a new settlement named Al-'Aliya. Idriss II (791–828) developed the city of Fez (Fes), already founded by his father as a Berber market town. Here he welcomed two waves of Arab immigration: one in 818 from

Sijilmasa

'''Sijilmasa''' (also '''Sijilmassa''', '''Sidjilmasa''', '''Sidjilmassa''' and '''Sigilmassa''') was a medieval Moroccan city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco. The ruins of the town lie for five miles along the River Ziz (Ziz River) in the Tafilalt oasis near the town of Rissani. The town's history was marked by several successive invasions by Berber (Berber people) dynasties. Up until the 14th century, as the northern terminus for the western trans-Sahara trade route (trans-Saharan trade), it was one of the most important trade centres in the Maghreb during the Middle Ages.

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