What is Sidon known for?

historical amp

Following this episode Jesus withdrawas into the "parts of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and Sidon" near the Mediterranean Sea where the Canaanite woman's daughter episode takes place in Matthew 15:21–28 (wikisource:Bible (American Standard) Matthew#15:21) and Mark 7:24-30 (wikisource:Bible (American Standard) Mark#7:24). ''Jesus the miracle worker: a historical &amp; theological study'' by Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0-8308-1596-1 pages 133-134<


architecture becomes safeguarded and protected as well as promoted for quality life-styles. Sidon can learn from more modest yet successful examples in Lebanon itself, such as the restoration and adaptive re-use of the old quarters of Byblos and its small seaport entourage, or to be inspired in a humbler scale by the development of Downtown Beirut. The modern city of Sidon that extends outside the walls of the medieval quarters is generally chaotic, deprived of any notable aesthetics, built

with Byblos, even though the old district of Sidon contains a great wealth in old and ancient architecture. The Biblical Sidon thumb Shrine commemorating the last meeting place between St. Paul (File:Shrinepeter.jpg) and St. Peter inside the Old City of Sidon. The Bible describes Sidon in several passages: * It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan (Canaan (Biblical figure)), the grandson of Noah (Genesis (Book of Genesis) 10:15, 19

;ref name "Hugh Chrisholm 1911, p. 968" The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pethor at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to conquer the Canaanite Phoenician cities of (Byblos), Sidon, and finally Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed a ''nahiru'' or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim

religious focus

into the northern Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)) and southern Kingdom of Judah, which retained the historic seat of government and focus of the Israelite religion at the Temple in Jerusalem. Omri, King of Israel, continued policies dating from the reign of Jeroboam, contrary to the laws of Moses, that were intended to reorient religious focus away from Jerusalem: encouraging the building of local temple altars for sacrifices, appointing priests from outside


settlement_type motto image_skyline Sidon 004.jpg imagesize 300px image_caption image_flag flag_size image_seal seal_size image_shield shield_size image_blank_emblem blank_emblem_type blank_emblem_size

;!-- Location ------------------ coordinates_region LB subdivision_type Country subdivision_name subdivision_type1 Governorate (Governorates of Lebanon) subdivision_name1 South Governorate (South Governorate, Lebanon) subdivision_type2 District (Districts of Lebanon) subdivision_name2 Sidon District subdivision_type3 subdivision_name3 subdivision_type4 subdivision_name4 !-- Politics

blank1_name blank1_info website footnotes '''Sidon''' or '''Saïda''' (''' , ''Ṣīḏōn'';

range including

Sidon, Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) and Antioch. The British Museum holds two of the finest Roman pieces, the Lycurgus Cup, which is a murky mustard colour but glows purple-red to transmitted light, and the Portland vase which is midnight blue, with a carved white overlay. The exact region referred to as "Blessed Land" in the Qur'an verse 21:71 has been interpreted differently by various scholars: Abdullah Yusuf Ali likens it to a wide land range including, Syria


the assaults of chaotic and irreverent builders. Moreover, the old city of Sidon that was always connected to the sea and its waves has been separated from its seashores by a very wide highway of asphalt that the locals refer to as the "corniche". These rather defacing aspects are also set against a total lack of green public spaces and gardens. This aggressive degradation in the urban and architectural qualities has furthermore reached a dangerous turn in ecological terms with the disposal of sewage in the seafront and the dumping of refuse material that culminated in a mountain of rubbish known as the "Makab" (as noted in the section above), which threatens not only Sidon's sea and the life within it, but also a vast stretch of the Eastern Mediterranean coastline. In fairness, one still has to note that Sidon is not worse in its urban and environmental conditions than other Lebanese cities like Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) or Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon). The greatest maritime city of Sidon, which was once set in a longstanding marriage with the sea, and that used to be adorned in all sides by gardens and orchids, is now turned against itself, becoming a living threat to the sea that also consumes the remainder of the green landscape and litters it. Maybe the future generations of this once grand city will someday experience the saving awakenings before it is too late. Perhaps the expat immigrant Sidonians who have been exposed to the qualities of life in North America, Europe, and the rich Arab states of the Gulf may bring novel initiatives of more refined development. Shopping and entertainment thumb Clothing stores in Sidon's city center (File:Saidasouk.jpg) Sidon contains several shopping venues boasting local and international brands, as well as a handful of food and beverage outlets like the "Spinneys" and "BSAT" supermarkets. Traditional Coffeeshops serving Turkish coffee and the fruit-flavored Hubble Bubble occupy the seafront of the Old City while modern restaurants, especially those that serve Lebanese and Italian cuisine, are centered in the new city. From McDonald's and KFC to Starbucks, Burger King and Pizza Hut, several western chains have opened at least one branch in the city, with more opening in the near future. Traditional Oriental sweets are Sidon's speciality with regionally renowned sweetshops found all over the city. Shopping is concentrated within two areas: East Boulevard, and the city center. From the high-end designer stores of Pierre Cardin and Christian Dior to stores directed to low and middle-income consumers, clothing stores in Sidon cater to all tastes and needs. Several other international clothing brands could be found in the city. These include ALDO, Jack & Jones, Vero Moda, Springfield (Springfield (clothing)), Timberland (The Timberland Company), Zara (Zara (clothing)), Mango (Mango (clothing)), Pull and Bear, Mothercare, Bossini, H&M, Benetton (Benetton Group), and GS (GS Group). Some of these stores could be found in the 2 malls in the city, Saida Mall (24,000 sq meters) and Le Mall (12,000 sq meters), aside to kids entertainment facilities, cafes and restaurants. Sidon also has a large Amusement Park near its southern entrance. class "wikitable" - ! Hospital ! Type ! Email - Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center Private University - Labib Hospital Private N A - Saida Governmental Hospital Public N A - Al Janoub hospital Private N A - Alaeddine hospital Private - South Health Complex Private - Dallaa hospital Private - Al Nakib hospital Private N A - Al Rai Hospital Private N A - Jebeili hospital Private N A Education Sidon is home to numerous educational facilities ranging from public elementary schools to private universities. According to a 2006 study, the city is home to 29 schools that serve a total of 18,731 students: 37% are in public schools, 63% are in private schools. Sidon also contains 10 universities, 5 of which are private universities. class "wikitable" - ! University ! Faculty ! Type - Lebanese International University (LIU) N A Private - Lebanese University (LU) Faculty of Law, Political Science and Public Administration Public - University of Saint Joseph (USJ) N A Private - American University of Lebanon (AUL) N A Private - Al-Jinan University N A Private - Lebanese University (LU) Faculty of Public Health Public - Lebanese University (LU) Faculty of Literature and human Science Public - Lebanese University (LU) Institute of Social Sciences Public - American University of Science and Technology N A Private - Lebanese American University N A Private - Lebanese University (LU) Institute of Technology Public The Beirut Arab University declared recently that its future Sidon Campus will host its Faculty of Medicine. Festivals and celebrations * The "Nights of the Khan" festival, consisting of a series of concerts and performances held in the Khan El-Franj in the Old City of Sidon. The festival takes place during the holy month of Ramadan. It is organized by the International Sidon Festivals Committee and the Hariri Foundation. The Festival hosts a wide array of artists and performers; it features Sufi art, poetry recitals, religious song medleys, Folkloric Lebanese and Palestinian (Palestinian people) dance groups. The festival was frequently attended by the Prime Minister of Lebanon, Tourism Minister, Education Minister, Culture Minister aside to numerous social, political and religious Lebanese figures. * The "Wedding of the City" is a street carnival held in Sidon in the El-Fitr Muslim Holiday. The carnival runs for three consecutive days and is organized by the International Sidon Festivals Committee and the Hariri Foundation. The Carnival takes place on a 300-meter-long section of the Coastal Highway -extending between the Sidon Sea Castle and the Port- that gets closed and transformed into a Pedestrian-only zone. Last summer, the carnival attracted more than 30,000 spectators on its 3rd day. The carnival features European and Local Acrobats, giant floating balloons, exotic dancers, a light and sound show...etc. * Independence Day Celebrations. Sidon played a significant role in Lebanon's quest for Independence in the early 1940s whether through its nationalist politicians or through its citizens' protests and demonstrations demanding Independence. Hence, On 22 November of every year, Sidon celebrates Lebanon's Independence through a series of festivities that involve: a Military Parade in the Barracks of the Lebanese Army, an honorary reception in the city's serial held by the Governor, and a tribute to Sidong's independence figure Adel Osseiran. 2009's Independence day celebrations featured an extra festivity which is the erection of the largest Lebanese flag, on the city's northern entrance. * Prior to these events, the 1960s witnessed the famous "Spring Festival", especially during the Republican term of President Charles Helou and mainly under the direction of the illuminated Governor of the South Lebanon region (''muhãfaza''), Ghalib El-Turk. One of the main features of this festival was commemorated with a special edition stamp by the postal services in Lebanon in 1965. It shows the local mariners' boat converted into decorated small Phoenician ships, which took a large audience in formal dress (black-tie stylish gala of formal soirée attire) to the small island facing Sidon (the so-called "Zireh" or "Ziri" abbreviations of "al-Jazira"). The island itself was transformed into a large amphitheatre facing a theatrical stage floating on the sea waves, with the backdrop of the island shaped like a large white cruiser ship with chimneys. Then the famous Lebanese artist Sabah (singer) performed that evening, and she descended unto the floating sea-stage on a large model of a lit crescent moon, sparkling in this eastern Mediterranean summer night sky. These elegant features of the performing space and of the procession were at the time designed by the local artist Mohammad Mouhib El-Bizri (aka: Mouhib El-Bizri). The locals and visitors at the time thought of this festival as being akin to a "one thousand and one night" fairytale of glamour that was nonetheless done under a limited budget, and yet yielding a memorable spectacle of visual effects that many of the elderly of the city still recall to date. These festivals of the "belle époque" dwindled soon after the war of 1967 and were terminated by the early 1970, and none of the subsequent ceremonials lived up to these bygone standards in refinement and quality. Politics thumb Public beach near the Saida International Stadium (File:Saida International Stadium with beachgoers.jpg) The sectarian division in Sidon is evident. Although the locals have found some sort of understanding to settle together and coexist, the division managed to rise to the surface on several occasions. The city proper is largely occupied by Sunni Muslims, while Christians dwell in the densely populated suburbs, forming an urban belt that encircles the city. Shiite Muslims live in a large hilly terrain that extends south of the city. This sectarian and demographic division rose to the surface during the Lebanese Civil War, when armed clashes erupted between the pro-Palestinian Sunni Muslims and the anti-Palestinian Christians. The clashes ended with the surrender of the Christian front, and the Christians were forced to move to east Beirut. After the war ended in 1990, the Christians have gradually returned to their hometowns. The city of Sidon since the time of independence has been active in the political arena, especially in the period leading up to the end of the 20th century. It was the center of the 1958 uprising of the fishermen against the government of President Chamoun at the time. It was and continues to be a seat for the Nasserites, and it had a representation of a wide variety of political parties, Arab nationalism, Syrian nationalism, communists, and then a rise of Islamic movements. It was a key city for the P.L.O. during the Lebanese civil war. It clashed with the Syrian army in 1978 in joining ranks with the P.L.O. at the time, and then lived in relative peacefulness with the presence of the Syrian army till the 1980s. It then underwent severe hits during the 1982 Israeli invasion and fell under a brutal occupation. It was one of the first places in Lebanon to contribute to the earliest forms of resistance against the Israeli occupation. It was attacked by the Lebanese Forces militias in 1985 and was able to defend itself until the end of the Lebanese civil war. It was the city from which Rafic Hariri established his power in political and financial terms through initial reconstruction and charity work. The city of Sidon despite its open relation to modernity remained conservative, and like most political practices in Lebanon it is still ruled by families. The local politics of Sidon in the 20th century was mainly dominated up till the 1980s by allegiances around two main families, the El-Bizri and Saad. The El-Bizri politicians were known for their business connections, close ties with eminent Lebanese and Levantine leaders, and their bent on serving the Lebanese state as government ministers, officials and mayors. The Saad politicians tended to be populist and became engaged in violent protests in the 1940s, 1950s and then during the Lebanese civil war as Nasserites (populist followers of Nasser in Lebanon). The local political conflict between these two families was always resolved through amicable means and ties of kinship. Their hold over the political aspects of the city was similar to that of Mediterranean families in Sicily or to being also influenced by the ties of Arab families, clans, and tribes in traditionalist forms. The most notable figures of the El-Bizri family in the first half of the 20th century were: Ahmad El-Bizri (born 1899), Salah El-Bizri, Eizeddine El-Bizri (commonly known as Eizzo) and Anwar El-Bizri (born 1910). These four brothers were businessmen and politicians who dominated the political life of the city up till the late 1940s, using traditional inherited forms of governance since Ottoman times. With intelligence and strength they maintained their power for over 50 years. It is from their ranks that Maarouf Saad started his public life, and their close cousins, Nazih El-Bizri, Amin El-Bizri, and Fouad El-Bizri became the next generation of politicians and statesmen in Lebanon; holding positions as ministers and members of parliament. The El-Bizri and the Saad political practices were bent on social justice and on local service in public affairs. The El-Bizri were since the Ottoman rule bent on serving the state, and this continued with their loyalty and support to the successive governments of Lebanon since the times of independence. They also helped eminent politicians and statesmen from Sidonian descent such as the Prime Ministers Riad Solh, Taki El-Din Solh and Rashid Solh, they also gave their support to former Prime Minister Saab Salam, father of the current Lebanese prime minister, Tamam Salam. The presence of the El-Bizris was at times intimidating on the local scene, but they were also known for their goodwill and dignified public service. The Saad family developed their links with Nasserism in the 1950s and engaged in the uprising and armed protest of 1958 against the government of the Lebanese President Chamoun. They also became involved in the civil war as part of the left wing politics of the Lebanon (Al-Haraka al-Wataniyya) with PLO connections, and they actively contributed to resisting the Israeli occupation after 1982. They remained populist in their politics and focused on the grassroots, while the El-Bizri were generally appealing to the middle and upper classes. In the middle 1980s, the Hariri family started to rise to prominence and it became the most influential in Sidon in political and financial terms, even though the presence of the Saad and the El-Bizri in local politics remained significant at the level of visibility and activism. The politics of Sidon is similar to that of the traditional old cities of the Levant in the sense of being family-based. In broad terms one could say that the El-Bizri family had an influence since Ottoman times, and then most significantly across almost the entirety of the 20th century. It was local in impact at first, but then the members of this family became influential within the Lebanese state and institutions, and they supported the Solh family that had successive Prime Ministers and that moved its power base from Sidon to Beirut. The Saad family developed its original politics from within the sphere of influence of the El-Bizri family and then became a power to reckon with on its own after 1948, and most powerfully in 1958, then in the civil war and up till today. Maarouf Saad, the leader of his family, and a local influential politician, was assassinated at the eve of the Lebanese civil war in 1975. The Saads retained their populism and grassroots appeal, and attracted a core of loyal adherents since the middle of the 20th century. While the El-Bizri were Levantine in their Arabism (namely focused mainly on Bilad al-Shaam in regional politics), and the Solh being also similar to them in this, the Saad were leaning more towards a broader pan-Arabism (Nasserite, Libyan, and then Syrian). As for the Hariri family, they are regionally focused on Saudi orientations in politics. The Hariri family started to rise to political and economic prominence in the 1980s and became perhaps the most influential family in Lebanon by the middle 1990s. It is now one of the most organized in political terms and it follows modern forms of political practice through a large party (Future Movement) that cuts across various economic classes but that is usually seen as a Sunni political movement with regional weight due to its close ties with Saudi Arabia. The Hariri family came to its political and financial height through the towering figure of Rafic Hariri who became a Prime Minister of the Lebanon in successive terms until his assassination in 2005. His son Saad became a Prime Minister and a leader of the Future Movement, and his sister Bahia a longstanding member of Parliament, while his oldest son, Bahaa focused on his international business with global impact as entrepreneur. The weight of the Hariri family is now measured at the regional and international scene in levels unprecedented for Sidonians in modern politics. Archaeology '''Sidon I''' is an archaeological site located to the east of the city, south of the road to Jezzine. An assemblage of flint tools was found by P. E. Gigues suggested to date between 3800 to 3200 BC. The collection included narrow axes or chisels that were polished on one side and flaked on the other, similar to ones found at Ain Cheikh, Nahr Zahrani and Gelal en Namous. The collection appears to have gone missing from the Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut. Gigues, P.E., Leba'a, Kafer Garra et Qraye, nécropoles dde la région sidonienne. BMB, vol. 1, pp. 35–76, vol. 2, pp. 30–72, vol. 3, pp. 54–63. '''Sidon II''' is said to be "near the church" at approximately fifty meters above sea level (Above mean sea level). P. E. Gigues suggested that the industry found on the surface of this site dated to the Acheulean. '''Sidon III''' was found by E. Passemard in the 1920s, who made a collection of material that is now in the National Museum of Beirut marked "Camp de l'Aviation". It includes large flint and chert bifacials that may be of Heavy Neolithic origin. '''Sidon IV''' is the tell mound of ancient Sidon with Early Bronze Age (3200 BC -) deposits, now located underneath the ruined Saint Louis Castle and what are also thought to be the ruins of a Roman (Ancient Rome) theatre. Commons:Sidon

famous school

and landing at Sidon, whence he proceeded by land to Damascus, Aleppo, and then through Mesopotamia to Mosul, Baghdad and Mendeli. Award recipients: *Great Omari Mosque (Sidon, Lebanon) *Rehabilitation of Asilah (Asilah, Morocco) The latter recommended him to the Bishop of Sidon and Beiteddine, Abdullah al-Bustani, who sent him at the age of 11 to the school at ‘Ayn Warqa, the most famous school of that period, to continue his studies there. At ‘Ayn Waraqa he learned Syriac and Latin. He spent ten years there and learned several foreign languages including French, Italian and English. The Biblical view of humanity is set forth in Genesis (Book of Genesis):10, where various peoples are described as different lines of descent from Noah. In particular, Canaan is one of the sons of Ham (Ham, son of Noah), who is also said to be the ancestor of the Egyptians, and the Philistine (Philistines). The sons of Canaan are given as Sidon, Heth, then the (ancestors of?) the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgasites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites (Canaan), Arvadites, Zemarites, and the Hamathites. * Commons:Sidon

traditional architectural

offer an array of local snacks and drinks. * The Sidon Resthouse (''Istirahat Saida''), a traditional architectural structure that houses an elegant and well-known Lebanese restaurant, overlooking the Sea Castle and the old port, with a view of the Ziri from its long terraces and garden. It also features a courtyard interior with a fountain and ornamented walls with masonry archways. * The Largest Lebanese Flag. On Lebanon's 66th Independence Day, Sidon witnessed the erection of the largest Lebanese flag. The flag is 12 meters long and 6 meters wide, and was erected on a 21 meter high pole. The flag was raised on the intersection of Rafik Hariri Boulevard and Riyad Solh Street, and is easily accessible from the Corniche. The flag was painted by 66 students from the city. * The ''Bahaa El-Dine'' Mosque. Financed by Rafik Hariri and named after his father, the mosque is a 21st-century take on Istanbul's Ottoman Mosques. Located on a roundabout on the city's northern entrance, the mosque is an architectural gem that dots the city's skyline. The mosque with its authentic Arabesque (Arabesque (Islamic art)) designs, interior Islamic inscriptions, inner courtyards, Mecca-styled minarets and awe-inspiring 36-meter-high dome is a non-miss landmark in the city. * The British War Cemetery in Sidon. Opened in 1943 by units of His Majesty's (King George VI) British Forces occupying the Lebanon after the 1941 campaign against the Vochi French troops. It was originally used for the burial of men who died while serving with the occupation force, but subsequently the graves of a number of the casualties of the 1941 campaign were moved into the cemetery from other burial grounds or from isolated positions in the vicinity. The cemetery now contains 176 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War and nine war graves of other nationalities. It was designed by G. Vey. It is perhaps that only garden in modern Sidon that is elegantly kept and cared for. It is not a public garden but can be visited when the wardens have its gateways opened Commons:Sidon

ancient architecture

with Byblos, even though the old district of Sidon contains a great wealth in old and ancient architecture. The Biblical Sidon thumb Shrine commemorating the last meeting place between St. Paul (File:Shrinepeter.jpg) and St. Peter inside the Old City of Sidon. The Bible describes Sidon in several passages: * It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan (Canaan (Biblical figure)), the grandson of Noah (Genesis (Book of Genesis) 10:15, 19

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CE that glass mirrors began to show up, now believed to have originated in Sidon, in what is modern-day Lebanon. In Ptolemaic (History of Ptolemaic Egypt) Egypt small glass mirrors were made backed by lead, tin, or antimony. In the early 10th century, the Iranian scientist al-Razi


'''Sidon''' or '''Saïda''' (''' south of the capital Beirut. In Genesis (Book of Genesis), Sidon is a son of Canaan (Canaan (biblical figure)), a grandson of Noah. Its name coincides with the modern Arabic word for fishery.

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