Shusha

What is Shusha known for?


historical architectural

liberation movement. The initial clashes between ethnic Armenians and Azerbaijanis took place in Baku in February 1905. Soon, the conflict (Armenian–Tatar massacres 1905–07) spilled over to other parts of the Caucasus, and on August 5, 1905 first conflict between the Armenian and Azerbaijani inhabitants of Shusha took place. As a result of the mutual pogroms and killings, hundreds of people died and more than 200 houses were burned. Mkrtchyan, Shahen. ''Historical-Architectural Monuments of Nagorno Karabagh''. Yerevan, 1989, p. 341. After World War I and subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire, Karabakh was claimed by Azerbaijan to be part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920), a decision hotly disputed by neighboring Armenia and by Karabakh's Armenian population. After the defeat of Ottoman empire in the World War I, British (United Kingdom) troops occupied Karabakh. The British command provisionally affirmed Khosrov bey Sultanov (appointed by the Azerbaijani government) as the governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur (Kapan), pending final decision by the Paris Peace Conference (Paris Peace Conference, 1919). Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal. ISBN 90-411-1477-7 Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. ISBN 0-231-07068-3 To make the local Armenians surrender to the Azerbaijani rule Sultanov employed most severe measures against them such as terror, blockade and famine. Mutafyan Claude (1994) "Karabagh in the twentieth century." In Chorbajyan Levon, Donabedian Patrick and Mutafian Claude (eds.) ''The Caucasian Knot: The History and geo-politics of Nagorno-Karabakh''. London: Zed Books, pp. 109–170. Walker J. Christopher (ed.) (1991) ''Armenia and Karabakh: The Struggle for Unity''. London: Minority Rights Group. In August 1919, the Karabakh National Council was forced to enter into a provisional treaty agreement with the Azerbaijani government, recognizing the authority of the Azerbaijan government until the issue of the mountainous part of Karabakh would be settled at the Paris Peace Conference. Despite signing the Agreement, the Azerbaijani government continuously violated the terms of the treaty, employing even more severe measures against the Armenian population was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


studies program

was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


traditional view

was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


century main

-breeding, carpet-weaving and wine and vodka production. Shusha was also the biggest center of silk production in the Caucasus. Most of the Muslim population of the town and of Karabakh in general was engaged in sheep and horse-breeding and therefore, had a semi-nomadic lifestyle, spending wintertime in lowland Karabakh in wintering pastures and spring and summer in summering pastures in Shusha and other mountainous parts. Early 20th century


international show

and were awarded prizes in an international show in Paris in 1867. Shusha carpets also received awards in 1872 in Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition. thumb The rug trade in late 19th century Ganja, Azerbaijan Ganja (Image:Carpet market Ganja XIXcentury.jpg) (Elisabethpol) Azerbaijani carpets are traditionally divided into four types, so-called "carpet schools", all of which have distinct characteristics. These carpet schools are: 1) Guba


public international

Mutafyan Claude (1994) Karabagh in the twentieth century. In Chorbajyan Levon


science arts

. Karabakh carpets comprise 33 different compositions in total. Some of them were partly borrowed from the Tabriz and Iranian carpet schools, some are completely original. '''Mir-Mohsun Navvab''' (Azeri (Azerbaijani language): ''Mir-Möhsün Nəvvab'') (1833, Shusha – 1918, Shusha) occupies a prominent place in the history of Azerbaijani culture (Culture of Azerbaijan) as the last representative of old traditional school of science, arts

and literature. Navvab was versatile person of his time. He is known as a poet, artist, music historian, astronomer, carpenter, chemist and mathematician. '''Mir-Mohsun Navvab''' (Azeri (Azerbaijani language): ''Mir-Möhsün Nəvvab'') (1833, Shusha – 1918, Shusha) occupies a prominent place in the history of Azerbaijani culture (Culture of Azerbaijan) as the last representative of old traditional school of science, arts and literature. Navvab was versatile person


online history

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: History of Azerbaijan Hewsen, Robert H. (Robert H. Hewsen), ''Armenia: A Historical Atlas''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 155. The mid-18th century foundation is supported by Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary ref name "


manufacturing technique

-Shirvan with manufacturing centers in Guba (Guba, Azerbaijan), Shirvan region and Baku; 2) Ganje-Kazakh, with centers in Ganje (Ganja, Azerbaijan) town and Qazakh region; 3) Karabakh (with major centers in Shusha, surrounding villages; and 4) Tabriz with centers in Tabriz and Ardabil in South (Iranian) Azerbaijan (Iranian Azerbaijan). The carpets from various regional types differ by three features: ornaments, manufacturing technique and the kind of article in question. Karabakh carpets comprise 33 different compositions in total. Some of them were partly borrowed from the Tabriz and Iranian carpet schools, some are completely original. was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


water main

death, Natavan was closely engaged in philanthropy, promoting the social and cultural development of Karabakh. Among her famous deeds was a water main that was first laid down in Shusha in 1883, thus solving the water problem of the townsfolk. The local Russian "Kavkaz" newspaper wrote at the time: ''"...Khurshud Banu-Begum left an eternal mark in the memories of the Shushavians and her glory will pass on from generation to generation"''. was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.

Shusha

'''Shusha''' ( ), is a city in the disputed (Nagorno-Karabakh#International status) region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since its capture (Capture of Shusha) in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a ''de jure'' part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division (Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan) of the surrounding Shusha Rayon (Shusha (rayon)). Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains, Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era (Soviet Union).

According to some sources the town of Shusha was founded in 1752 by Panah Ali Khan. ''The Encyclopaedia of Islam'', Volume 4, Parts 69–78, Brill, 1954, p. 573.

The city was also a major center of Armenian cultural and economic life until the closing years of World War I. Along with Tbilisi; it was one of the two main Armenian cities of the Transcaucasus and the center of a self-governing Armenian principality from medieval times through the 1750s. ''Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia'', By Gary K. Bertsch, Scott A. Jones, Cassady B. Craft, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-415-92274-7, p. 297 It also had religious and strategic importance to the Armenians, housing the Ghazanchetsots Cathedral, the church of Kanach Zham, two other churches, a monastic convent, and serving (along with Lachin district to the west) as a land link to Armenia.

Throughout modern history the city mainly fostered a mixed Armenian–Azerbaijani population. Following the Shusha massacre in 1920 by Azerbaijani forces and their Turkish supporters, the Armenian half of the population of the city was mostly killed or expelled, and the city reduced to a town with a dominant Azerbaijani population. After the capture of Shusha in 1992 by Armenian forces, its population diminished dramatically again and is now almost exclusively Armenian.

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