Shu Han

What is Shu Han known for?


228

— with the former even recognising Sun Quan's legitimacy when the latter broke with Wei and declared himself "Emperor of Wu" in 229. Zhuge Liang advocated an aggressive foreign policy towards Wei, because he strongly believed it was critical to the survival of Shu and its sovereignty. Between the years of 228 and 234, he launched a series of five military campaigns (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Wei, with the aim of conquering Chang'an, a strategic city located on the road

to the Wei capital, Luoyang. Most of the battles were fought around present-day Gansu and Shaanxi provinces. However, aside from gaining Jiang Wei as an officer in 228, Shu failed to achieve any significant victories or lasting gains in the five expeditions. During his final campaign, fought against the Wei general Sima Yi, an already taxed and ill Zhuge Liang died under the strain of the long stalemate with the Wei forces at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains. The Shu

are put to death. * Sun Hao succeeds Sun Xiu (Sun Xiu (emperor)) as ruler of the Chinese Kingdom of Wu (Three Kingdoms). * Deng Zhong (Deng Zhong (Three Kingdoms)), general of Wei, son of famed general Deng Ai (b. 230) * Jiang Wei, general of Shu Han, grand commander and strategist, and foster son of Zhuge Liang (b. 202) * Liao Hua, general of Shu Births * Ma Su, military strategist of Shu (Shu Han) (d. 228) * Gaius Furius Sabinius Aquila


234

— with the former even recognising Sun Quan's legitimacy when the latter broke with Wei and declared himself "Emperor of Wu" in 229. Zhuge Liang advocated an aggressive foreign policy towards Wei, because he strongly believed it was critical to the survival of Shu and its sovereignty. Between the years of 228 and 234, he launched a series of five military campaigns (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Wei, with the aim of conquering Chang'an, a strategic city located on the road

. 200) * Wei Yan, general of Shu (Shu Han) (d. 234) * Yang Xiu (Yang Xiu (Three Kingdoms)) (d. 219) * Yang Yi, minister of Shu (Shu Han) * Chen Zhen (Chen Zhen (minister)), minister under Liu Bei of Shu (Shu Han) (b. 170) * Ke Bineng (b. 172) * Zhang He, general under Cao Cao (d. 231) * Zhang Fei, general of Shu Han (d. 221) * Zhang Yi (Zhang Yi (Junsi)) (d. 230) The Three Kingdoms Period (Three Kingdoms) consisted

not come again. Indeed, against Liu Ye's advice, he appointed Sun Quan the King of Wu and granted him the nine bestowments. *Battle of Wounded Knee (Wounded Knee Massacre) - 1890 - Sioux Wars *Battle of Wuzhang Plains - 234 - Fought between Shu Han and Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China After the collapse of a united China under the Han dynasty in 220 AD due in large


play important

men, who would later play important roles in the establishment of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. It is also often alluded to as a symbol of fraternal loyalty. '''Wei Yan''' (died 234) de Crespigny (2007), p. 857. was a military general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history (History of China). He became a soldier of Liu Bei when the latter fled Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) and seek protection from the eastern warlord Sun Quan in 208. In 211, Wei had climbed up the ranks and become a general in Liu Bei's invasion to Yi Province (益州, modern Sichuan and Chongqing). de Crespigny 2007, p.857. His talent and performance during battles helped him to become a major general of Liu Bei's army in a short period of time. He was later named Administrator of Hanzhong (漢中) This post had previously been held by Lu Su. See Passage G of Jian'an 15 in the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang; '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


264

http: books.google.com books?id ssO_19TRQ9AC&pg PA112&dq Kongming+balloon Births * Jiang Wei, general, regent of Shu Han (d. 264) China * Zhuge Liang, Chancellor of Shu Han, embarks on his last Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei. During the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, he falls sick and sends secret orders for his army to retreat. * Wei Yan is executed for treason after refusing to accept

to avenge the death of Guan Yu and the loss of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)). Zhao Yun attempted to dissuade Liu Bei from waging war on Wu, and advised him to attack Wei (Cao Wei) first, but Liu Bei ignored his advice. Liu Bei then left Zhao Yun in charge of Jiangzhou, while he personally led an army to attack Wu, but was defeated at the Battle of Xiaoting. '''Jiang Wei''' (202–264) was a military general and regent of the state

, with an invading force of 180,000 men commanded by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai. In late 263, Liu Shan, the emperor of Shu Han, surrendered to Deng, bringing an end to his state. After the fall of Shu Han, Deng was framed for treason by Zhong and stripped of command. In early 264, Zhong plotted with Jiang Wei to restore Shu Han and eliminate all the Cao Wei generals who might oppose him. However, the generals started a counterinsurgency and killed Zhong and Jiang. Shu Han's former


280

1,082,000 footnotes today '''Shu''' or '''Shu Han''' (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu (state) Shu

families. Although the Three Kingdoms were reunified by the Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) in 280, this structure was essentially the same until the Wu Hu uprising. * Felicissimus, Roman financial minister (''rationalis'') * Liu Shan, last Emperor of the Kingdom of Shu (Shu Han) (b. 207) * Pei Xiu, minister and cartographer (cartography) of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 224) * Sun Ce, elder brother of founder of the Wu Kingdom, Sun Quan (d

. This war weakened the Jin Dynasty, and it soon fell to the kingdom of Han Zhao. This ushered in the Sixteen Kingdoms. thumb left Technical illustration (File:Aeronautics2.jpg) from 1818 showing early balloon designs Unmanned hot air balloons are popular in Chinese history. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, in the Three Kingdoms era (220–280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. These lanterns are known as Kongming lanterns (孔明灯).


period

1,082,000 footnotes today '''Shu''' or '''Shu Han''' (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu (state) Shu

the battle and retreated to Baidicheng, where he died from illness a year later. Liu Shan's reign thumb 290px A Qing dynasty (File:Wei and Shu battle at the banks of River Wei.jpg) illustration of a battle between Wei and Shu at the banks of the Wei River. Many battles were fought between Shu and Wei in the Three Kingdoms period. Liu Bei's son Liu Shan succeeded his father, making him

, Chengdu; of Eastern Wu and Eastern Jin, Jiankang; of Western Jin, Chang'an'' After Cao Cao reunified the north in 208, his son proclaimed the Wei (Cao Wei) dynasty in 220. Soon, Wei's rivals Shu (Shu Han) and Wu (Eastern Wu) proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms Period. This period was characterized by a gradual decentralization of the state that had existed during the Qin and Han dynasties, and an increase in the power of great


classical world

the end of his days. It was claimed that many refugees fled west to Sasanian Persia (Sasanian Empire) when Shu fell in 263. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE CLASSICAL WORLD 500 BC AD 600, by John Haywood, copyright 1998 Andromeda Oxford Ltd, ISBN 0-7607-1973-X(casbound), ISBN 0-7607-1974-8(paperback), section 2.25 Economy Shu was not merely a nation at war. During peace time, the Shu state began many irrigation and road-building projects


story part

Han ''' ('''Three Kingdoms''') Chengdu (成都) 221—263 - The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel actually follows literally hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu


modern metal

), was the direct descendent of Zhuge Liang's wooden ox. Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 262. Furthermore, he pointed out that the 3rd century 'gliding horse' wheelbarrow featured the simple difference of the shaft pointing backwards (so that it was pushed instead). thumb right 150px A modern, metal wheel barrow in Haikou (File:Wheelbarrow in Haikou 01.jpg) City, Hainan


military theories

was the younger brother of Ma Liang (Ma Liang (Three Kingdoms)). Ma Su had conspicuous talent in military theories and was admired by the Shu chancellor (Chancellor (China)) Zhuge Liang. However, a tactical blunder by Ma Su at the Battle of Jieting resulted in Shu being dealt a huge defeat by Zhang He, a general of the rival state of Wei (Cao Wei). 200px thumb The Oath of the Peach Garden as depicted in a Ming Dynasty (Image:Peach garden ceremony.jpg) edition of '' Romance of the Three Kingdoms'' The '''Oath of the Peach Garden''' was a fictional event in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. In this event, Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei took an oath of fraternity in a ceremony amid peach blossom trees, and became sworn brother (Blood brother)s from then on. Their goal in taking the oath was to protect the Han Dynasty from the Yellow Turban rebels (Yellow Turban Rebellion). The oath bound the three men, who would later play important roles in the establishment of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. It is also often alluded to as a symbol of fraternal loyalty. '''Wei Yan''' (died 234) de Crespigny (2007), p. 857. was a military general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history (History of China). He became a soldier of Liu Bei when the latter fled Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) and seek protection from the eastern warlord Sun Quan in 208. In 211, Wei had climbed up the ranks and become a general in Liu Bei's invasion to Yi Province (益州, modern Sichuan and Chongqing). de Crespigny 2007, p.857. His talent and performance during battles helped him to become a major general of Liu Bei's army in a short period of time. He was later named Administrator of Hanzhong (漢中) This post had previously been held by Lu Su. See Passage G of Jian'an 15 in the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang; '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.

Shu Han

'''Shu''' or '''Shu Han''' (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu (Shu (state)). "Shu Han" is therefore named after its location "Shu", and "Han" refers to the Han dynasty, because its founder, Liu Bei, was directly related to the imperial clan of the Han dynasty and shared the same surname – Liu – as the Han emperors.

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