University Press. p. 202 Through supporting Ukrainian culture, religious autonomy, and Ukrainization of the Orthodox church, Piłsudski (Józef Piłsudski) and his allies wanted to achieve Ukrainian loyalty to the Polish state and to minimize Soviet influences in the borderline region. This approach was gradually abandoned after Piłsudski's death in 1935. Timothy Snyder. (2005). ''Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine''. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 32-33, 152-162 A customs union with Poland was created by the victorious allies of WWI, which gave the Danzig Westerplatte port to the Second Polish Republic; it became the Polish military transit depot. The separation of the Danzig port, post office and customs office under the treaty was said to be justified by Poland's need for direct access to the Baltic Sea. Poland then stationed a small squad of troops at Westerplatte. Due to the massive resentment by the Danzigers and with large foreign investments, Poland began building a large military port in Gdynia, just 25 km away from Danzig. Unlike Danzig, Gdynia was in the direct possession of Poland and soon became the so-called "Polish outside window". Franco-Soviet relations were initially hostile because the USSR officially opposed the World War I peace settlement of 1919 that France emphatically championed. While the Soviet Union was interested in conquering territories in Eastern Europe, France was determined to protect the fledgling nations there. This led to a rosy German–Soviet relationship in the 1920s. However, Adolf Hitler's foreign policy centered on a massive seizure of Eastern European and Russian lands for Germany's own ends, and when Hitler pulled out of the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva in 1933, the threat hit home. Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov reversed Soviet policy regarding the Paris Peace Settlement, leading to a Franco-Soviet rapprochement. In May 1935, the USSR concluded pacts of mutual assistance with France and Czechoslovakia; the Comintern was also instructed to form a united front (Popular Front (France)) with leftist parties against the forces of Fascism. The pact was undermined, however, by strong ideological hostility to the Soviet Union and the Comintern's new front in France, Poland (Second Polish Republic)'s refusal to permit the Red Army on its soil, France's defensive military strategy, and a continuing Soviet interest in patching up relations with Germany. The Commission was one of Germany's prime instruments in the official policy of Germanization of historically Polish lands. The Commission ultimately purchased 613 estates from German owners and 214 from Poles, functioning to bail out German debtors as often as it fulfilled its declared mission. By the end of its existence, a total of 21,886 German families (154,704 persons) out of a planned 40,000 had been settled. The Commission's activities had a countereffect in Poles using "defensive nationalism" and unifying "Polish nationalism, Catholicism and cultural resistance" and triggered Polish countermeasures, climaxing after World War I, when the Second Polish Republic was established, in the expropriation of Commission-owned lands and reversing Germanization. According to Szymon Datner some of the German colonists remaining in Poland were active in a Nazi campaign of genocide against Poles in 1939. Szymon Datner, 55 dni Wehrmachtu w Polsce. Zbrodnie dokonane na polskiej ludności cywilnej w okresie 1. IX. -25. X. 1939 r. (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo MON, 1967 thumb 250px right Former seat of the Prussian Settlement Commission, now Poznań University (Image:Collaegium Maius Poznan front.jpg)'s ''Collegium Maius'' The Second Polish Republic and Germany made good progress towards coming to terms on the question of Upper Silesia. Through the mediation of the Swiss deputy Felix Calonder, the two countries came to an agreement in April. The agreement was designed to last fifteen years, which gave prospect of a lasting settlement. The most difficult questions were those of the protection of minorities, and of German private property liquidation in the portions of Upper Silesia assigned to Poland. Difficulties arose when Poland claimed an unrestricted right of liquidation, and failed to recognize the right of the chairman of the Mixed Commission to arbitrate. A compromise was reached, in which Poland gained a limited right of liquidation, without inflicting too great a hardship on the German owners. The Free City was created on 15 November 1920 DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
Polish Republic Poland and Czechoslovakia (First Czechoslovak Republic). '''Lviv Polytechnic National University''' ( DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
College Press. 1997 – 235 pages. However, regardless of these changing economic and social conditions, the increase in antisemitic activity in prewar Poland was also typical of anti-semitism found in other parts of Europe at that time, developing within a broader, continent-wide pattern with counterparts in every other European country. Robert Blobaum Antisemitism and its opponents in modern Poland Cornell University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-8014-8969-5 Between 1921 and 1939 the white-red-white flag was used by the Belarusian national movement in West Belarus (part of the Second Polish Republic), both by political organizations like the Belarusian Peasants' and Workers' Union or the Belarusian Christian Democracy, and non-political organizations like the Belarusian Schools Society. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
in Vienna. The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic (Slavic peoples) Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre
begun to support himself through portrait painting and continued to do so on his return to Zakopane in Poland (Second Polish Republic). He soon entered into a major creative phase, setting out his principles in ''New Forms in Painting'' and ''Introduction to the Theory of Pure Form in the Theatre''. He associated with a group of "formist" artists in the early 1920s and wrote most of his plays during this period. Of about forty plays written by Witkiewicz between 1918 and 1925, twenty
a number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important cultural centre for the Polish Jews (History of the Jews in Poland) with a Zionist (Zionism) youth movement relatively strong among the city's Jewish population. Kraków was also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism), to Hasidic Judaism Chasidic
and was located in the Lwow Voivodeship. In 1928 the Ukrainian private gymnasium opened in the center of the city and is currently operational. In late 1920s town's population was some 40 000 and its oil refinery Polmin was one of the biggest in Europe, employing 800 people. Numerous visitors came there to see beautiful wooden Greek Catholic churches, among them the Church of St. Yur, which was regarded the most beautiful such construction in the Second Polish Republic, with frescoes from
. When the province of Posen-West Prussia was disbanded in 1938, Dramburg became part of Regierungsbezirk Schneidemühl (Schneidemühl (region)). During World War II, the SS (Schutzstaffel) established a large training school for motorcyclists and mechanics in Dramburg. On March 4, 1945 Soviet (Soviet Union) and Polish troops captured the city, whose center was largely destroyed during the fighting (Eastern Front (World War II)). Biography Zygmunt Bauman was born to non
and Klaipėda signed a trade agreement in April 1922. Čepėnas (1986), p. 764 In addition, Poland attempted to establish its economic presence by buying property, establishing business enterprises, and making connections with the port. Eidintas (1999), p. 92 The extension of the building not only entailed a larger exhibition space but also a depot to store artworks, an unloading platform as well as an office wing with a separate entrance. The largest exhibition hall was named after the Polish painter Jan Matejko. Another room is named after Gabriel Narutowicz, the first president of the Second Polish Republic who was assassinated at Zachęta on December 16 in 1922 by Eligiusz Niewiadomski, a Polish painter and critic. To commemorate the president and Wojciech Gerson, one of the founders of the ''Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts'', two plaques were revealed during the gallery's anniversary celebrations in 2000. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, Kiev was served by two stationary bridges. Both bridges had similar fates. Built at the times of the industrial revolution in the Russian Empire these engineering masterpieces of their time survived World War I and the Russian Civil War. Both were blown up in 1920 by the Polish (Second Polish Republic) troops retreating from Kiev following their unsuccessful armed intervention into Ukraine (Kiev Offensive). The second stationary bridge was built in 1868-1870 with the construction supervision conducted personally by Amand Struve. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
made 65% of Poland's GNP. After 123 years of partitions, regions of the country were very unevenly developed. Lands of former German Empire were most advanced – in Greater Poland and Pomerelia, crops were on Western European level. The situation was much worse in former Congress Poland, Kresy, and former Galicia (Galicia (Eastern Europe)), where agriculture was most backward and primitive, with a large number of small farms, unable to succeed on both domestic and international market. Furthermore, another problem was overpopulation of the countryside, which resulted in chronic unemployment. Living conditions were so bad that in several regions, such as counties inhabited by the Hutsuls, there was permanent starvation. Farmers rebelled against the government (see: 1937 peasant strike in Poland), and the situation began to change in the late 1930s, due to construction of several factories for the Central Industrial Region (Central Industrial Region (Poland)), which gave employment to thousands of countryside residents. German trade In the 1920s there was a trade war with Germany, involving tariffs and restrictions. After 1933 the trade war ended and new agreements regulated and promoted trade. Germany was Poland's largest trading partner, followed by Britain. In October 1938 Germany granted a credit of Rm 60,000,000 (120,000,000 zloty, or £4,800,000). Germany would deliver factory equipment and machinery in return for Polish timber and agricultural produce. This new trade was to be in addition to the existing German-Polish trade agreements. ''Keesing's Contemporary Archives'' Volume 3, (October 1938) p 3283 Education and culture DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.
The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.
Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.