of the war, fighting the Germans, taking part in mining trains and in ambushes around the Narocz Forest of Belarus. "The official attitude of the Soviet partisan movement was that there was no place for Jewish units" acting independently, said Arad. Yitzhak Arad interview for Martyrdom & Resistance, September October 2010. Tishri Cheshvan, 5771 birth_date
Provinces'' (London: Hollis & Carter 1950) Primary sources *set&set_number 268421&set_entry 000040&format 999 ''Small Statistical Yearbook, 1932'' (''Mały rocznik statystyczny 1932) complete text (in Polish) * set&set_number 268421&set_entry 000053&format 999
װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט ), or '''Yiddish Scientific Institute''', yivo is a source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. Although the organization was renamed the '''Institute for Jewish Research''' subsequent to its relocation to New York City, it is still primarily known by its original acronym. (The word ''yidisher'' means both Yiddish and Jewish.) With the success of the Greater Poland Uprising in 1918 (Wielkopolska Uprising (1918–1919)), Poland had re-established its statehood (Sovereign state) for the first time since the 1795 partition (Partitions of Poland#Third Partition) and seen the end of a 123 years of rule by three imperial neighbors: Russia (Imperial Russia), Germany (German Empire), and Austria-Hungary. The country, reborn as a Second Polish Republic, proceeded to carve out its borders from the territories of its former partitioners. The Western Powers, in delineating the new European borders after the Treaty of Versailles, had done so in a way unfavorable to Poland. Germany had decided to retain many of her eastern gains to recompense herself for expected losses in the west. Poland's western borders cut her off from the coal-basin and industrial regions of Silesia, leading to the Silesian Uprisings of 1919-1921. The eastern Curzon line left millions of Poles, living east of the Bug River, stranded inside Russia's borders. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
(then called Drexel Institute of Technology), with a degree in electrical engineering. He then joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, where he did technical work on UNIVAC models, the first brand of commercial computers in the USA.
in Vienna. The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic (Slavic peoples) Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre
to the Potsdam Agreement. It is currently divided between the Warmian-Masurian (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship) and Pomeranian Voivodeships. Born in Paris to Polish parents, he moved with his family back to Poland (Second Polish Republic) in 1937, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. He survived the Holocaust (Nazi Holocaust) and was educated in Poland (People's Republic of Poland) and became a director of both art house and commercial films.<
right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandates administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)) by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)), France, Germany, British India
result Decisive Red army strategic victory. Start of the major Red army counter-offensive combatant1 The '''1920 Kiev Offensive''' (or '''Kiev Operation'''), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, ref
a number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important cultural centre for the Polish Jews (History of the Jews in Poland) with a Zionist (Zionism) youth movement relatively strong among the city's Jewish population. Kraków was also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism), to Hasidic Judaism Chasidic
and Klaipėda signed a trade agreement in April 1922. Čepėnas (1986), p. 764 In addition, Poland attempted to establish its economic presence by buying property, establishing business enterprises, and making connections with the port. Eidintas (1999), p. 92 The extension of the building not only entailed a larger exhibition space but also a depot to store artworks, an unloading platform as well as an office wing with a separate entrance. The largest exhibition hall was named after the Polish painter Jan Matejko. Another room is named after Gabriel Narutowicz, the first president of the Second Polish Republic who was assassinated at Zachęta on December 16 in 1922 by Eligiusz Niewiadomski, a Polish painter and critic. To commemorate the president and Wojciech Gerson, one of the founders of the ''Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts'', two plaques were revealed during the gallery's anniversary celebrations in 2000. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, Kiev was served by two stationary bridges. Both bridges had similar fates. Built at the times of the industrial revolution in the Russian Empire these engineering masterpieces of their time survived World War I and the Russian Civil War. Both were blown up in 1920 by the Polish (Second Polish Republic) troops retreating from Kiev following their unsuccessful armed intervention into Ukraine (Kiev Offensive). The second stationary bridge was built in 1868-1870 with the construction supervision conducted personally by Amand Struve. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.
The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.
Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.