about the aspects and limits of fascism. Israeli historian of fascism Zeev Sternhell describes Antonescu, alongside his European counterparts Pierre-Étienne Flandin, Francisco Franco, Miklós Horthy, François de La Rocque, Philippe Pétain and Italian King (King of Italy) Victor Emmanuel III (Victor Emmanuel III of Italy), as a "conservative (Conservatism)", noting that all of them "were not deceived by a fascist propaganda trying to place them in the same category as the fascist movements ." Zeev Sternhell, ''Neither Right nor Left: Fascist Ideology in France'', Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1996, p.5. ISBN 0-691-00629-6 A similar verdict is provided by German historian of Europe Hagen Schulze, who views Horthy, Franco and the Romanian leader alongside Portugal's ''Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal))'' theorist António de Oliveira Salazar and Second Polish Republic founder Józef Piłsudski, as rulers of "either purely military dictatorships, or else authoritarian governments run by civilian politicians", and thus a category apart from the leaders of "Fascist states." Hagen Schulze, ''States, Nations and Nationalism'', Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2002, p.292. ISBN 0-631-20933-6 For Schulze, the defining elements of such governments is the presence of a "conservative establishment (The Establishment)" which ensured "social stability" by extending the control of a "traditional state" (thus effectively blocking "revolutionary suggestions" from the far left and the far right alike). The term "conservative autocrat (Autocracy)" is used in relation to the ''Conducător'' by British political theorist Roger Griffin, who attributes to the Iron Guard the position of a subservient fascist movement, Roger Griffin, "Staging the Nation's Rebirth: The Politics and Aesthetics of Performance in the Context of Fascist Studies", in Günter Berghaus (ed.), ''Fascism and Theatre'', Berghahn Books, Providence, 1996, p.18. ISBN 1571818774. Griffin also draws direct comparisons between Antonescu's conflict with the Iron Guard on one hand and António de Oliveira Salazar's clash with the National Syndicalists (National Syndicalists (Portugal)) (1993, pp.151–152). while others identify Antonescu's post-1941 rule as a military rather than a fascist dictatorship. Laqueur, pp.203, 205; Morgan, p.86; Roper, pp.8, 11 Several other scholars prefer "conservative" as a defining term for Antonescu's policies. Veiga, pp.281–283, 290, 296, 305, 327; White, p.158 Antonescu described himself as "by fate a dictator", and explained that his policies were "militaristic (Militarism)" or, on one occasion, "national-totalitarian (Totalitarianism)". ''Final Report'', pp.115, 323 Before 1945 After Poland regained independence with the end of the World War I in 1918, the party merged with agrarian groups from territories previously occupied by Imperial Russia and formed the first PSL led by Wincenty Witos, becoming one of the most important political parties in the Second Polish Republic until it was removed by the Sanacja regime (see also People's Party (People's Party (Poland))). * Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia)’s Province of Posen (1818–1919) * Second Polish Republic’s Poznań Voivodeship (1921–1939) DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
Operational Group Polesie stationed there for some time. First Germans appeared in Radzyń after the Battle of Kock. The town was a major center of Home Army, with 4200 members, and German occupation there lasted until July 23, 1944, when the Red Army entered the towns. During the Second Polish Republic (or interwar) period, Biała was growing fast. The town was the seat of the Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów (PWS), which manufactured Polish airplanes. After the Partitions
; which provided as follows: Andrzejewski studied philology at the University of Warsaw in the Second Polish Republic. In 1932 he debuted in ''ABC Magazine'' with his first short story entitled ''Wobec czyjegoś życia''. In 1936 he published a full collection of short stories called ''Drogi nieuniknione'', in ''Biblioteka "Prosto z mostu"'', and soon received broad recognition for his new novel ''Ład serca'' from 1938. Immediately after World War II, Andrzejewski published
9783885570899 language German thumb Berlin in ruins after World War II (File:Potsdamer Platz 1945.jpg) DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
including a large number of Russian Jews who immigrated to Poland following a wave of Ukrainian pogroms (Kiev Pogroms (1919)) which continued until 1921. Arno Joseph Mayer, The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions. Published by Princeton University Press, pg. 516 The Jews were entitled by a peace treaty in Riga to choose the country they preferred and several hundred thousand joined the already large Jewish minority of the Polish Second Republic. History of the Jews in Russia (History of the Jews in Russia#Under Lenin .281917-1924.29) The '''military history of the Soviet Union''' began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power. The new government formed the Red Army to fight various enemies in the Russian Civil War. The years 1918-1921 saw Red Army's defeats in the Polish-Soviet war and Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independence wars. In the late 1930s, the Red Army invaded Finland (Winter War); fought the brief Battle of Halhin Gol (together with its ally Mongolia) with Japan and its client state Manchukuo; and, was deployed when the Soviet Union, in agreement with Nazi Germany (Molotov-Ribbentrop pact), took part in the partition of Poland (Second Polish Republic), annexed the Baltic States, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (from Romania). In World War II, it was the major military force in the defeat of Nazi Germany. After the war, it occupied (military occupation) East Germany, and many nations in central and eastern Europe, which became satellite states in the Soviet bloc (Eastern bloc). During the civil war, the Bolsheviks fought counterrevolutionary groups that became known as the White armies (White movement) as well as armies sponsored by Russia's former allies such as the Britain (United Kingdom) and France, which saw a need to overthrow the Bolshevik government. The Red Army enjoyed a series of initial victories over their opponents, and in a surge of optimism Lenin ordered the Soviet Western Army (Western Army (Russia)) to advance West in the vacuum created by the German forces (Russian westward offensive of 1918-1919) retreating from the ''Ober-Ost'' areas. This operation swept the newly formed Ukrainian People's Republic and Belarusian People's Republic and eventually lead to the Soviet invasion of Second Polish Republic, a newly independent state of the former Russian Empire (Imperial Russia). By invading Poland and initiating the Polish-Soviet War the Bolsheviks expressed their belief that they would eventually triumph over opposing capitalist (capitalism) forces both at home and abroad. thumb The grave of Michał Drzymała in Miasteczko Krajeńskie (Image:Miasteczko Krajenskie grave of Michal Drzymala.jpg) '''Michał Drzymała''' (13 September 1857 in Zdroj (Zdrój, Greater Poland Voivodeship) near Grätz (Grodzisk Wielkopolski) (''Grodzisk Wielkopolski''), Kingdom of Prussia - 25 April 1937 in Grabówno near Miasteczko Krajeńskie, Poland (Second Polish Republic)) was a Polish (Poles) peasant, living in the Greater Poland region (or the Grand Duchy of Posen) under the Prussian rule. He is a Polish folk hero because after he was denied permission to build a house on his own land (only because he was Polish) by the Prussian authorities in the village of Kaisertreu (Drzymałowo), so he bought a circus wagon and turned it into his home. At the time, Prussian law considered any dwelling a house if it remained stationary for more than 24 hours. Drzymała use the mobility of the wagon to exploit the law and to avoid the negative consequences by moving the wagon each day and thus preventing the Prussians the ability to penalize him. His dwelling became known as Drzymała's wagon (''Wóz Drzymały''), and gained notoriety when this case was described by the Polish and European newspapers, making fun of the Prussian state, and energizing the Poles living under the Prussian authority against it. Weimar Republic Within Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic), the Prussian Province of Silesia was divided into the provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia (Province of Lower Silesia) in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I. Silesian Uprisings of Poles against Germans occurred in Upper Silesia from 1919 and 1920. Uproar over the Upper Silesia plebiscite of 1921 led to a third uprising, which culminated in the Battle of Annaberg. According to the ''German-Polish Accord on East Silesia'', Cf. Deutsch-polnisches Abkommen über Ostschlesien (Genfer Abkommen) signed in Geneva on May 15, 1922 the eastern Upper Silesian lands were transferred from Germany to the Second Polish Republic on June 20 and became part of the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. The territory remaining in Prussian Upper Silesia was administered within Regierungsbezirk Oppeln (Oppeln (region)) and - according to Polish (Poles) sources - had 530,000 Poles within it. ref name "Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN">
to Budapest and taking back one of his thrones; the information, according to Constantinide, was passed to him by an Austrian officer in Hungary's service, who had decided to betray his superiors. The information proved accurate, but Ionescu reportedly dismissed similar news, received some time after, of Charles' planning a second such attempt &mdash; this was to be effected in October, and, although more successful than the March episode, it too ended in Charles' expulsion (''see Charles IV of Hungary's conflict with Miklós Horthy''). thumb riht Map of current states of Germany (Image:Germany former prussian lander.png) that are completely or mostly situated inside the old borders of Imperial Germany’s Kingdom of Prussia After the fall of the German Empire the Kingdom of Prussia was reconstituted with a republican government as the Free State of Prussia. It had to cede virtually all territory belonging to the provinces of Posen (Province of Posen) and West Prussia (Province of West Prussia) to the newly created state of Poland (Second Polish Republic) and the League of Nations mandate of the Free City of Danzig. Smaller areas had been ceded to Belgium (East Cantons, formerly Rhineland), Czechoslovakia (Hlučín Region, formerly Silesia), Denmark (South Jutland (Southern Jutland), formerly Schleswig-Holstein), the League of Nations mandate of the Memel Territory (formerly East Prussia), Poland (eastern Upper Silesia, formerly Prov. of Silesia), and the Mandatory Saar (League of Nations) (formerly Rhineland). Prussia and its provinces formally continued to exist even though political control was eventually taken over by the National Socialist German Workers Party following their rise to power in 1933. Both Prussia and Nazi Germany was finally dissolved following the end of World War II in 1945. After the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, most of West Prussia was granted to the Second Polish Republic (the Polish Corridor) or the Free City of Danzig, while small parts in the west and east of the former province remained in Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic). The western remainder formed Posen-West Prussia in 1922, while the eastern remainder became part of Regierungsbezirk West Prussia (Marienwerder (region)) within East Prussia. Reichswehr After the end of the war and the dissolution of the old imperial army it fell to Seeckt to organize the new Reichswehr within the strict restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. He successfully laid the basis for a strong Reichswehr and disguised the new leadership, the forbidden General Staff, under the name the ''Truppenamt'', or Troop Office. He is also known for his hostile attitude towards the Second Polish Republic, and for seeking an alliance with the Soviet Union against Poland. After seeing encouraging signs from the newly established War Commissar's Office of Leon Trotsky, Seeckt sent out a secret staff to conduct a military alliance with the Soviets, unbeknownst to the Weimar government (Weimar Republic). In October 1919 Seeckt sent out his close friend Enver Pasha (İsmail Enver) on a secret mission to Moscow to make contracts with the Soviets. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 126. In the summer of 1920, Enver sent Seeckt a letter from Moscow asking for German arms deliveries to the Soviet Union in exchange for Trotsky promised to partition Poland with the ''Reich''. Through Seeckt did not hesitate to use military force against ''putsch'' attempts by the German Communists, this did not affect his relations with the Soviet Union. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 139. Seeckt regarded his informal alliance with the Soviet Union in purely non-ideological terms. Seeckt regarded the efforts of General Rüdiger von der Goltz and his ''Freikorps'' to create an anti-communist, German-dominated state in the Baltic as a ludicrous attempt to turn back the clock. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 122. Seeckt was all for seeing von der Goltz conquer the Baltic states if that was possible, but was very antagonistic towards Goltz's efforts to use his proposed state as a basis for overthrowing the Bolsheviks. Seeckt saw Poland as the main enemy and the Soviet Union as a very useful ally against Poland, so he viewed Goltz's anti-Communist schemes with some hostility. thumb von Seeckt together with officers at the Reichswehr maneuvers in Thuringia (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0163, Thüringen, Reichswehrmanöver, Hans v. Seeckt.jpg) 1925 After the First World War, the Pomeranian Voivodeship (Pomeranian Voivodeship (1919–1939)) of the Second Polish Republic was established from the bulk of West Prussia;Poland became a democracy and introduced women's right to vote already in 1918 Poland became a democracy and introduced women's right to vote God's Playground: A History of Poland, By Norman Davies, Columbia University Press, 1982, p. 302 thumb 160px Since the late 19th century, the Pomeranian coast is a tourist resort. In Binz (Image:Binz Kurhaus.JPG), tourism started in the 1860s. thumb right 160px Gdynia (Image:Sea Towers Skwer.jpg), a major port city constructed in 1921 as Poland's (Second Polish Republic) harbour within the Polish Corridor *1806–1813: Napoleonic Wars in Pomerania Buchholz (1999), pp.363,364 *1918: November Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–1919) after World War I, "soldiers' and workers' councils" take over most Pomeranian towns Buchholz (1999), p.471 *1919: Treaty of Versailles: West Prussia dissolved, Pomerelia becomes part of the Second Polish Republic as part of Pomeranian Voivodeship (Pomeranian Voivodeship (1919–1939)), Danzig (Gdansk) made Free City of Danzig *1919: Counter-revolution, Freikorps active in German Pomerania Buchholz (1999), p.472 In 1933, the Province of Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)) like all of Germany came under control of (Enabling act of 1933) the Nazi regime (Nazi Germany). During the following years, the Nazis led by Gauleiter Franz Schwede-Coburg manifested their power by Gleichschaltung and repression of their opponents. Buchholz (1999), pp.500ff,509ff ISBN 3-88680-272-8 Pomerelia then formed the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic. Concerning Pomerania, Nazi diplomacy aimed at incorporation of the Free City of Danzig and a transit route through the corridor, which was rejected by the Polish government. Joachim C. Fest, ''Hitler'', Harcourt Trade, 2002, pp.575-577, ISBN 0-15-602754-2 the centre of national political power moved to Kraków in the 11th century, and later to Warsaw, Poznań remained an important regional center, being the chief city of the Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region. It came under Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) (later German (Germany)) rule for most of the period from 1793 to 1918, during which it expanded significantly, and was also heavily fortified (as ''Festung Posen''). The city resumed its role as a Polish voivodeship (voivodeships of Poland) capital in the Second Polish Republic, and later, following the 1939–1945 Nazi occupation (German occupation of Poland), in the communist Polish People's Republic. Since 1999 Poznań has been the capital of Greater Poland Voivodeship. Aftermath Local Polish and Czech self-governments were established on the territory of Cieszyn, which on 5 November 1918 signed an interim agreement according to which the territory - including the town of Cieszyn itself - was divided along the Olza (Olza (river)) river. The convention however failed to settle the border conflict between the newly established state of Czechoslovakia and the Second Polish Republic claiming further areas of the former Cieszyn duchy with a predominantly Polish (Polish language) speaking population. The ongoing conflict escalated when Czechoslovak troops crossed the Olza river on 23 January 1919 starting the Polish–Czechoslovak War. No Germanization was performed in Lithuania Minor prior to 1873. Prussian Lithuanians were affected voluntarily by German culture. In the 20th century, a good number of Lithuanian speakers considered themselves to be Memellandish and also Germans. After the Treaty of Versailles divided East-Prussia into four parts (Polish (Second Polish Republic), German (Weimar Republic), Danzig (Free City of Danzig), and Lithuanian), Lithuania started a campaign of Lithuanisation in its acquired region DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France. In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with ''Repulsion'' (1965). In 1968 he moved to the United States, and cemented his status by directing the Oscar-winning horror film ''Rosemary's Baby (Rosemary's Baby (film))'' (1968). The Second French Republic was created in 1848, and the Third French Republic in 1871. Spain briefly became the First Spanish Republic, but the monarchy was soon
Union was interested in conquering territories in Eastern Europe, France was determined to protect the fledgling nations there. This led to a rosy German–Soviet relationship in the 1920s. However, Adolf Hitler's foreign policy centered on a massive seizure of Eastern European and Russian lands for Germany's own ends, and when Hitler pulled out of the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva in 1933, the threat hit home. Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov reversed Soviet policy
, Upper Silesia was divided between the German Weimar Republic, the Second Polish Republic, and the state of Czechoslovakia, while the Prussian Lower Silesia remained in Germany and was re-organized into the Lower Silesia Province (Lower Silesia Province (Prussia)) of the Free State of Prussian (Free State of Prussia (1918–1933)) consisting of the ''Breslau'' and ''Liegnitz'' regions. The Division's Support The Division enjoyed support from multiple political and religious
image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.
The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.
Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.