in Germany, 4,904 votes for Poland. Rocznik statystyki Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej(pdf, 623 KB). Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej GUS, Annual (Main Statistical Office of the Republic of Poland) (1920 1922, part II) Based on that result Stuhm was included in the Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder within East Prussia. '''Zaolzie''' is the Polish
Operational Group Polesie stationed there for some time. First Germans appeared in Radzyń after the Battle of Kock. The town was a major center of Home Army, with 4200 members, and German occupation there lasted until July 23, 1944, when the Red Army entered the towns. During the Second Polish Republic (or interwar) period, Biała was growing fast. The town was the seat of the Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów (PWS), which manufactured Polish airplanes. After the Partitions
groups within the western Ukrainian community. The Division's prime organizer and highest ranking Ukrainian officer, Dmytro Paliiv, had been the leader of a small legal political party in the Second Polish Republic. Many of his colleagues had been members of the pre-war moderate, left-leaning democratic UNDO movement (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance) Timothy Snyder. (2004) ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press: pg. 218. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
a promising start, he became despondent and felt for some years "Lost in America" (title of a Singer novel, in Yiddish from 1974 onward, in English 1981). In 1938, he met Alma Wassermann (born Haimann) b.1907-d.1996 , a German-Jewish refugee from Munich whom he married in 1940. After the marriage he returned to prolific writing and to contributing to the ''Forward,'' using, besides "Bashevis," the pen names "Varshavsky" and "D. Segal." See: Both bibliographies (given on this page). They lived for many years in the Belnord on Manhattan's Upper West Side. Belnord," Carter B. Horsley. In 1981, Singer delivered a commencement address at the University at Albany, and was presented with an honorary doctorate. University at Albany's 137th Annual Commencement, May 24, 1981 *1918 – World War I: the Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German (Germany) attack. *1920 – The Polish (Second Polish Republic) Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship (Silesian Voivodeship (1920–1939)) before the Polish-German plebiscite (Upper Silesia plebiscite). *1927 – Massacre of July 15, 1927 (July Revolt of 1927): 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna. The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic (Slavic peoples) Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of approximately 760,000 whereas about 8 million people live within a 100 km radius of its main square (Main Market Square, Kraków). With the emergence of the Second Polish Republic, Kraków restored its role as a major academic and cultural centre with the establishment of new universities such as the AGH University of Science and Technology and the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, including a number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important cultural centre for the Polish Jews (History of the Jews in Poland) with a Zionist (Zionism) youth movement relatively strong among the city's Jewish population. Kraków was also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism), to Chasidic (Hasidic Judaism) and Reform (Reform Judaism) flourishing side by side. left thumb The funeral procession of head of state Marshal of Poland Marshal (File:Pilsudskis funeral in Cracow2.jpg) Józef Piłsudski at the Wawel, 1935. Administrative history of Kashubia The westernmost (Slovincian) parts of Kashubia, located in the medieval Lands of Schlawe and Stolp and Lauenburg and Bütow Land, were integrated into the Duchy of Pomerania in 1317 and 1455, respectively, and remained with its successors (Brandenburgian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1653-1815)) and Prussian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945))) until 1945 (Potsdam Agreement), when the area became Polish (Oder-Neisse line). The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 (Teutonic takeover of Danzig) in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 (Second Peace of Thorn) within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 (Partitions of Poland) within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 (Treaty of Versailes) within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 (Invasion of Poland (1939)) within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 (Potsdam Agreement) within the People's Republic of Poland, and after within the Third Polish Republic. right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandate (File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png)s administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)) by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)), France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland (Second Polish Republic), South Africa (Union of South Africa), the United Kingdom DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
of the war, fighting the Germans, taking part in mining trains and in ambushes around the Narocz Forest of Belarus. "The official attitude of the Soviet partisan movement was that there was no place for Jewish units" acting independently, said Arad. Yitzhak Arad interview for Martyrdom & Resistance, September October 2010. Tishri Cheshvan, 5771 birth_date
(then called Drexel Institute of Technology), with a degree in electrical engineering. He then joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, where he did technical work on UNIVAC models, the first brand of commercial computers in the USA.
officers, he also had a good working relationship with French General Maxime Weygand of the Interallied Mission to Poland. Support for Germany was strong amongst the Masurians during World War I. Clark, p. 608 In 1920, the East Prussian plebiscite was held under the supervision of the League of Nations, with British, French and Italian troops stationed in Masuria, to determine the new border between the Second Polish Republic and German East Prussia. Although a small group of Masurians did vote for Poland, the vast majority (99.32% in Masuria proper) opted to remain in Prussia. Andreas Kossert: "Grenzlandpolitik" und Ostforschung an der Peripherie des Reiches, p. 124 Rocznik statystyki Rzczypospolitej Polskiej Annuaire statistique de la République Polonaise 1 (1920 22), Teil 2, Warszawa 1923, S. 358. However, the contemporary Polish ethnographer Adam Chętnik accused the German authorities of abuses and falsifications during the plebiscite. Związek Kurpiów - Adam Chętnik In the modern era In the Second Polish Republic, 1937, priest Karol Grycz-Śmiałowski recreated what he considered was a revival of the Church of Polish Brethren in Kraków. In the People's Republic of Poland it was registered in 1967 as the Unity of Polish Brethren (''Jednota Braci Polskich''). thumb 250px Iorga in Versailles (commune) Versailles (File:Professeur Jorga, Exposition d'Aviculture 1928, Meurisse.jpg), 1928 photograph A major moment in Iorga's European career took place in 1924, when he convened in Bucharest the first-ever International Congress of Byzantine Studies, attended by some of the leading experts in the field. He also began lecturing at Ramiro Ortiz's Italian Institute in Bucharest. Santoro, p.114-115 Also then, Iorga was appointed Aggregate Professor by the University of Paris, received the honor of having foreign scholars lecturing at the Vălenii de Munte school, and published a number of scientific works and essays, such as: ''Brève histoire des croissades'' ("A Short History of the Crusades"), ''Cărţi reprezentative din viaţa omenirii'' ("Books Significant for Mankind's Existence"), ''România pitorească'' ("Picturesque Romania") and a volume of addresses to the Romanian American community. In 1925, when he was elected a member of the Kraków Academy of Learning (Polish Academy of Learning) in Poland (Second Polish Republic), Iorga gave conferences in various European countries, including Switzerland (where he spoke at a League of Nations assembly on the state of Romania's minorities (Minorities of Romania)). His bibliography for 1925 includes some 50 titles. Iorga also increased his personal fortune, constructing villas in two resort towns: in Sinaia (designer: Toma T. Socolescu) and, later, Mangalia. Nastasă (2007), p.126 More controversial still was his decision to use excess funds from the International Congress to improve his Vălenii printing press. By the Treaty of Versailles, some territories of West Prussia and the Province of Posen that had belonged to the Prussian kingdom Since the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772. and the German Empire were ceded to the Second Polish Republic. East Prussia, minus the Memelland, received some districts (Marienwerder (region)) of former West Prussia and remained within the German Weimar Republic. As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic was granted not only these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia. After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and the eastern part of Brandenburg were annexed by either the Soviet Union or Poland. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
Upper Silesia were given to reconstituted Poland (Second Polish Republic); the West Prussian city of Danzig became the Free City of Danzig. The Polish paper Wprost used both "Drang nach Osten" and "Drang nach Westen" in August 2002 to title stories about German RWE company taking over Polish STOEN and Polish migration into eastern Germany, respectively. Paul Reuber, Anke Strüver, Günter Wolkersdorfer, ''Politische Geographien Europas
families (154,704 persons) out of a planned 40,000 had been settled. The Commission's activities had a countereffect in Poles using "defensive nationalism" and unifying "Polish nationalism, Catholicism and cultural resistance" and triggered Polish countermeasures, climaxing after World War I, when the Second Polish Republic was established, in the expropriation of Commission-owned lands
, Klaipėda was to be placed under the temporary administration of the Allies. While such a union had a historic tradition in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuania categorically refused any such proposals. Worsening Polish–Lithuanian relations led to the Polish–Lithuanian War and dispute over the Vilnius Region. However, the union idea was met favorably in Western Europe. In December 1921, Poland sent Marceli Szarota as a new envoy to the region. Due to his initiative, Poland and Klaipėda signed a trade agreement in April 1922. Čepėnas (1986), p. 764 In addition, Poland attempted to establish its economic presence by buying property, establishing business enterprises, and making connections with the port. Eidintas (1999), p. 92 The extension of the building not only entailed a larger exhibition space but also a depot to store artworks, an unloading platform as well as an office wing with a separate entrance. The largest exhibition hall was named after the Polish painter Jan Matejko. Another room is named after Gabriel Narutowicz, the first president of the Second Polish Republic who was assassinated at Zachęta on December 16 in 1922 by Eligiusz Niewiadomski, a Polish painter and critic. To commemorate the president and Wojciech Gerson, one of the founders of the ''Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts'', two plaques were revealed during the gallery's anniversary celebrations in 2000. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, Kiev was served by two stationary bridges. Both bridges had similar fates. Built at the times of the industrial revolution in the Russian Empire these engineering masterpieces of their time survived World War I and the Russian Civil War. Both were blown up in 1920 by the Polish (Second Polish Republic) troops retreating from Kiev following their unsuccessful armed intervention into Ukraine (Kiev Offensive). The second stationary bridge was built in 1868-1870 with the construction supervision conducted personally by Amand Struve. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.
The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.
Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.